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Hands and Fingers

Image : “The front and back of a human right hand” by Evan-Amos. License: CC BY-SA 3.0


diese abbildung zeigt die muskeln die die hand bewegen

Image: Intrinsic muscles of the hand. By philschatz, License: CC BY 4.0

Many of the muscles that move the hand and fingers are reviewed in the Anatomy of the Upper Limb – Muscles of the Arm article.

The other muscles of the hand are divided into 3 groups: intrinsics, thenars, and hypothenars.

Lumbricals

Muscles Origin Insertion Nerve supply Function
Lumbricals (I-II) Lateral 2 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
(FDP) (unipennate)
Lateral surfaces of extensor expansions of digits  2–5 Median nerve (T1) Flex metacarpophalangeal and extend interphalangeal joints of digits 2–5
Lumbricals (III-IV) Medial 2 tendons of FDP (bipennate) Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1)

The lumbricals are 4 narrow muscle bellies that have no direct bony anchors. They also stabilize the metacarpophalangeal joints and prevent ulnar deviation.

Interossei Muscles

Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve supply Function
Dorsal interossei Dorsal sides of all metacarpals (bipennate) Base of proximal phalanges and extensor expansions (digits 2–4, dorsal; digits 2, 4 and 5, palmar) Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1) Abduct digits 2–4 away from the axial line
Palmar interossei Palmar sides of metacarpals 2, 4 and 5 Adduct digits 2, 4 and 5 toward the axial line

The radial artery traverses between the 2 heads of the dorsal interosseous muscle I. The 3 palmar interossei muscles are one-headed and lie between the metacarpal bones.

Thenar Muscles

Muscles Origin Insertion Nerve supply Function
Opponens pollicis Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium Lateral side of the 1st metacarpal Recurrent branch of the median nerve (C8) Oppose thumb
Abductor pollicis brevis Lateral side of proximal phalanx of digit 1 Abducts thumb; supports the opposition
Flexor pollicis brevis Flexes thumb
Adductor pollicis  Oblique head: Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals and capitate
Transverse head: anterior surface of the 3rd metacarpal
Medial side of proximal phalanx of thumb Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (C8) Adducts thumb

Hypothenar Muscles

Muscles Origin Insertion Nerve supply Function
Palmaris brevis Transverse carpal ligament and palmar aponeurosis Ulnar palm Ulnar nerve Wrinkles the skin of the medial palm
Abductor digiti minimi Pisiform Medial side of proximal phalanx of the 5th digit Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1) Abducts the 5th digit
Flexor digiti minimi brevis Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum Flexes proximal phalanx of the 5th digit
Opponens digiti minimi Medial border of the 5th metacarpal Rotates and draws the 5th metacarpal anteriorly
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