Many of the muscles that move the hand and fingers are reviewed in the Anatomy of the Upper Limb – Muscles of the Arm article.
The other muscles of the hand are divided into 4 groups: the lumbricals, interossei, thenars, and hypothenars.
|Lumbricals (I-II)||Lateral 2 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
|Lateral surfaces of extensor expansions of digits 2–5||Median nerve (T1)||Flex metacarpophalangeal and extend interphalangeal joints of digits 2–5|
|Lumbricals (III-IV)||Medial 2 tendons of FDP (bipennate)||Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1)|
The lumbricals are 4 narrow muscle bellies that have no direct bony anchors. They also stabilize the metacarpophalangeal joints and prevent ulnar deviation.
|Dorsal interossei||Dorsal sides of all metacarpals (bipennate)||Base of proximal phalanges and extensor expansions (digits 2–4, dorsal; digits 2, 4 and 5, palmar)||Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1)||Abduct digits 2–4 away from the axial line|
|Palmar interossei||Palmar sides of metacarpals 2, 4 and 5||Adduct digits 2, 4 and 5 toward the axial line|
The radial artery traverses between the 2 heads of the dorsal interosseous muscle I. The 3 palmar interossei muscles are one-headed and lie between the metacarpal bones.
|Opponens pollicis||Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium||Lateral side of the 1st metacarpal||Recurrent branch of the median nerve (C8)||Oppose thumb|
|Abductor pollicis brevis||Lateral side of proximal phalanx of digit 1||Abducts thumb; supports the opposition|
|Flexor pollicis brevis||Flexes thumb|
|Adductor pollicis||Oblique head: Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals and capitate
Transverse head: anterior surface of the 3rd metacarpal
|Medial side of proximal phalanx of thumb||Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (C8)||Adducts thumb|
|Palmaris brevis||Transverse carpal ligament and palmar aponeurosis||Ulnar palm||Ulnar nerve||Wrinkles the skin of the medial palm|
|Abductor digiti minimi||Pisiform||Medial side of proximal phalanx of the 5th digit||Deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1)||Abducts the 5th digit|
|Flexor digiti minimi brevis||Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum||Flexes proximal phalanx of the 5th digit|
|Opponens digiti minimi||Medial border of the 5th metacarpal||Rotates and draws the 5th metacarpal anteriorly|