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Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions in the anal canal composed of dilated vascular tissue, smooth muscle, and connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology. They do not cause issues unless they are enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship often present with rectal bleeding of bright red blood, or they may have pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, perianal pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), or a palpable mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast. Risk factors include family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance, low-fiber diet, and constipation Constipation Constipation is common and may be due to a variety of causes. Constipation is generally defined as bowel movement frequency < 3 times per week. Patients who are constipated often strain to pass hard stools. The condition is classified as primary (also known as idiopathic or functional constipation) or secondary, and as acute or chronic. Constipation. The two main types of hemorrhoids are external, usually with perianal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and internal, which are usually painless. The main diagnostic tools are history, physical exam, and endoscopic procedures if indicated for further investigation. If symptoms are acute, excision can be performed for external hemorrhoids. Otherwise, conservative management is recommended. Surgical methods are reserved for more severe hemorrhoids or those unresponsive to primary treatment.

Last updated: 1 Mar, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Hemorrhoids are normal swollen vascular structures in the anorectal canal.

  • Vascular cushions that assist with stool passage: 
    • Originate from channel of arteriovenous connective tissues
    • Composed of vascular tissue, smooth muscle, and connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology
  • Venous cushions with rich vascular supply 
  • Drain into superior and inferior hemorrhoidal veins Veins Veins are tubular collections of cells, which transport deoxygenated blood and waste from the capillary beds back to the heart. Veins are classified into 3 types: small veins/venules, medium veins, and large veins. Each type contains 3 primary layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. Veins: Histology

Epidemiology

  • Worldwide estimated prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 4.4%
  • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency increases with age: peak at 45–65 years old
  • Hemorrhoids affect Affect The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves. Psychiatric Assessment up to 10 million patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship in the United States annually.
  • No known sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria predilection 
  • Present more frequently in:
    • People of higher socioeconomic backgrounds 
    • Those living in rural areas 
    • Caucasian race

Etiology

  • Decreased venous return with increased pressure engorging hemorrhoids: 
  • Portal hypertension Portal hypertension Portal hypertension is increased pressure in the portal venous system. This increased pressure can lead to splanchnic vasodilation, collateral blood flow through portosystemic anastomoses, and increased hydrostatic pressure. There are a number of etiologies, including cirrhosis, right-sided congestive heart failure, schistosomiasis, portal vein thrombosis, hepatitis, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Portal Hypertension with anorectal varices: usually in the midrectum, where portal system and inferior/middle rectal veins Veins Veins are tubular collections of cells, which transport deoxygenated blood and waste from the capillary beds back to the heart. Veins are classified into 3 types: small veins/venules, medium veins, and large veins. Each type contains 3 primary layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. Veins: Histology meet
  • Other risk factors:
    • Chronic diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Constipation Constipation Constipation is common and may be due to a variety of causes. Constipation is generally defined as bowel movement frequency < 3 times per week. Patients who are constipated often strain to pass hard stools. The condition is classified as primary (also known as idiopathic or functional constipation) or secondary, and as acute or chronic. Constipation 
    • Colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity
    • Spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy injury
    • Rectal surgery
    • Episiotomy Episiotomy An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations. Complications during Childbirth
    • Anal intercourse
External and internal hemorrhoids

Depiction of internal hemorrhoids above the dentate line Dentate line Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy and external hemorrhoid, likely causing pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, below the dentate line Dentate line Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy

Image: “Anus with hemorrhoids” by Bruce Blaus. License: CC BY 3.0

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

  • Hemorrhoids become symptomatic when enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed.
  • Hemorrhoidal veins Veins Veins are tubular collections of cells, which transport deoxygenated blood and waste from the capillary beds back to the heart. Veins are classified into 3 types: small veins/venules, medium veins, and large veins. Each type contains 3 primary layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. Veins: Histology are located in the submucosal layer in the lower rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy.

External hemorrhoids

  • Below the dentate (pectinate) line
  • Arise from the inferior hemorrhoidal plexus
  • Covered by modified squamous epithelium Epithelium The epithelium is a complex of specialized cellular organizations arranged into sheets and lining cavities and covering the surfaces of the body. The cells exhibit polarity, having an apical and a basal pole. Structures important for the epithelial integrity and function involve the basement membrane, the semipermeable sheet on which the cells rest, and interdigitations, as well as cellular junctions. Surface Epithelium: Histology with somatic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors 
  • Innervated by pudendal nerve Pudendal nerve A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (s2 to s4) and innervates the perineum, the external genitalia, the external anal sphincter and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris. Gluteal Region: Anatomy and sacral plexus Sacral plexus Pelvis: Anatomy
  • Acute thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus pathogenesis: 
    • Extreme pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways caused by skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions distention and edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
    • Caused by straining, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, or constipation Constipation Constipation is common and may be due to a variety of causes. Constipation is generally defined as bowel movement frequency < 3 times per week. Patients who are constipated often strain to pass hard stools. The condition is classified as primary (also known as idiopathic or functional constipation) or secondary, and as acute or chronic. Constipation 
    • Can persist as excess skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions tags after healing
    • Usually last 7–14 days

Internal hemorrhoids

  • Above the dentate line Dentate line Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy
  • Unclear pathogenesis; possible theories include:
    • Deterioration of connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology anchoring hemorrhoids 
    • Hypertrophy Hypertrophy General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to cell enlargement and accumulation of fluids and secretions, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia). Cellular Adaptation or increased internal anal sphincter Internal anal sphincter Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy tone 
    • Abnormal arteriovenous distention within hemorrhoidal cushions
    • Abnormal dilation of internal hemorrhoidal venous plexus
  • Not supplied by somatic sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology nerves; usually painless
Anal canal anatomy

Anatomy of the anal canal:
The image shows the pectinate (dentate) line, which marks the area separating the origination of external (below the dentate line Dentate line Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy ) and internal (above the dentate line Dentate line Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy) hemorrhoids.

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical Presentation

External hemorrhoids

  • Acutely painful rectal bleeding with associated bowel movement 
  • Perianal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways:
    • Likely from acute thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus 
    • Prolapsed or strangulated hemorrhoids 
  • Painful mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast at the rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy or feeling of fullness 
  • May also have painful, irritated skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions tags (redundant fibrotic skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions) near the rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy

Internal hemorrhoids

  • Usually painless, with bright red blood from rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy associated with bowel movement 
  • Can be associated with mucous discharge and itching of perianal skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions 
  • May have associated fecal incontinence Fecal incontinence Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus. Pediatric Constipation and leakage 
  • Wetness or fullness sensation at the perianal area for prolapsed internal hemorrhoid

Diagnosis

Physical examination

  • Best patient position: left lateral decubitus, knees to chest
  • On visual inspection Inspection Dermatologic Examination, check for:
    • Fissures, dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions tags, thromboses
    • Intact sensation (anoderm folds and wink)
    • Signs of infection or abscesses
    • Prolapse: bluish and tender mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast around the anus
  • On digital rectal exam, check for:
    • Ulcers, masses, tenderness
    • Discharge (e.g., mucus), blood
    • Rectal tone
    • Internal hemorrhoids (palpable when thrombosed)
  • Internal hemorrhoid grading Grading Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of cell differentiation in neoplasms as increasing anaplasia correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis
    • Grade I: prominent hemorrhoidal vessels without prolapse 
    • Grade II: prolapse with Valsalva maneuver Valsalva maneuver Forced expiratory effort against a closed glottis. Rectal Prolapse with spontaneous reduction
    • Grade III: prolapse with Valsalva maneuver Valsalva maneuver Forced expiratory effort against a closed glottis. Rectal Prolapse with manual reduction
    • Grade IV: chronically prolapsed with ineffective manual reduction

Laboratory studies and procedures

  • Order CBC if anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types or iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements deficiency is suspected.
  • Procedures: 
    • Anoscopy Anoscopy Anal Fissure when no hemorrhoid detected on physical exam:
      • Rapid bedside procedure for direct visualization 
      • Evaluate the anal canal and distal rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy.
      • Internal hemorrhoids will appear as bulging purple-blue veins Veins Veins are tubular collections of cells, which transport deoxygenated blood and waste from the capillary beds back to the heart. Veins are classified into 3 types: small veins/venules, medium veins, and large veins. Each type contains 3 primary layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. Veins: Histology.
      • Thrombosed external hemorrhoids will be acutely tender and have a purple hue.
    • Flexible sigmoidoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure. Colorectal Cancer Screening or colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening based on risk factors for rectal bleeding:
      • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship > 40 years old with risk factors for colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer 
      • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship > 50 years old without a colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening within the past 10 years 
      • Unusual rectal bleeding unlikely to be from hemorrhoids

Management

Treatment approach

  • Treat only symptomatic patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
  • Counsel dietary modifications such as avoiding fatty foods.
  • Distinguish between external and internal hemorrhoids:
    • Visceral innervation of internal hemorrhoids → less pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
    • Somatic innervation of external hemorrhoids → sensitive to pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, thus generally would require surgery with anesthesia Anesthesia A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures. Anesthesiology: History and Basic Concepts if initial management fails
  • Evaluate for emergency or nonemergency care:
    • Emergency care:
      • Excise acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid.
      • Instill local anesthetic and create elliptical excision of thrombosed hemorrhoid.
      • If 72 hours or more after onset of symptoms → conservative management
    • Conservative management (for grade I internal and nonthrombosed external hemorrhoids):
      • Warm baths to relax anal sphincter
      • Improve toilet habits with no prolonged sitting.
      • Ice for acute thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
      • Increase dietary fiber and fluid intake.
      • Stool softeners such as docusate Docusate Laxatives sodium Sodium A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. Hyponatremia
      • Topical analgesics such as lidocaine Lidocaine A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmic agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of procaine but its duration of action is shorter than that of bupivacaine or prilocaine. Local Anesthetics 
      • Topical corticosteroids Corticosteroids Chorioretinitis 
      • Topical nifedipine Nifedipine A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure. Class 4 Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Calcium Channel Blockers) and nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin A volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for tocolysis and explosives. Nitrates to relieve anal sphincter spasms Spasms An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve skeletal muscle or smooth muscle. Ion Channel Myopathy

Nonsurgical procedures

The following procedures are for grades I and II internal hemorrhoids that do not respond to conservative management.

Contraindications Contraindications A condition or factor associated with a recipient that makes the use of a drug, procedure, or physical agent improper or inadvisable. Contraindications may be absolute (life threatening) or relative (higher risk of complications in which benefits may outweigh risks). Noninvasive Ventilation:

  • Coagulopathy
  • Portal hypertension Portal hypertension Portal hypertension is increased pressure in the portal venous system. This increased pressure can lead to splanchnic vasodilation, collateral blood flow through portosystemic anastomoses, and increased hydrostatic pressure. There are a number of etiologies, including cirrhosis, right-sided congestive heart failure, schistosomiasis, portal vein thrombosis, hepatitis, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Portal Hypertension
  • AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS and other immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome disorders
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care and immediate postpartum period Postpartum period In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (parturition). Postpartum Complications
  • Large fissure Fissure A crack or split that extends into the dermis Generalized and Localized Rashes or infection
  • Tumor Tumor Inflammation
  • Prolapse of rectal wall

Surgical treatment

Hemorrhoidectomy:

  • Open approach or minimally invasive laser approach
  • Indicated if other treatments have failed
  • Symptomatic grade III and IV hemorrhoids or severe external hemorrhoids
  • Presence of other local conditions

Other options:

  • Stapled hemorrhoid surgery:
    • For large internal hemorrhoids that are prolapsed 
    • Requires specialized device
  • Doppler-guided transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization:
    • For grade II prolapsing hemorrhoids 
    • Device identifies and subsequently ligates the blood supply.

Related videos

Differential Diagnosis

  • Anal fissure Anal fissure An anal fissure is a painful superficial tear of the epithelial lining (anoderm) of the anal canal. Anal fissures most often occur secondary to local trauma or irritation from constipation, diarrhea, anal intercourse, or perineal lacerations during childbirth. Anal Fissure: a superficial tear in the anoderm, associated with constipation Constipation Constipation is common and may be due to a variety of causes. Constipation is generally defined as bowel movement frequency < 3 times per week. Patients who are constipated often strain to pass hard stools. The condition is classified as primary (also known as idiopathic or functional constipation) or secondary, and as acute or chronic. Constipation, trauma, or IBD: Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with rectal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways with bowel movements, passage of bright-red blood, and some spasm. Diagnosis is via physical exam and history. Treatment is usually conservative, with increasing fluids and fiber intake, warm sitz baths, and stool softeners. Topical nifedipine Nifedipine A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure. Class 4 Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Calcium Channel Blockers) helps with anal spasms Spasms An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve skeletal muscle or smooth muscle. Ion Channel Myopathy, and local anesthetics Anesthetics Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general anesthesia, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site. Anesthesiology: History and Basic Concepts provide pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways control. 
  • Acute proctitis Proctitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum, the distal end of the large intestine. Chronic Granulomatous Disease: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the rectal mucosa, can be caused by antibiotics, STDs, and autoimmune GI diseases: Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship can present with anal and rectal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, mucus discharge, rectal bleeding, and tenesmus. Diagnosis is via history, physical exam, and workup of etiology such as infectious Infectious Febrile Infant or radiation-induced inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation. Treatment is aimed at symptom control as well as treating the inciting factor. If infection-related, metronidazole Metronidazole A nitroimidazole used to treat amebiasis; vaginitis; trichomonas infections; giardiasis; anaerobic bacteria; and treponemal infections. Pyogenic Liver Abscess is most commonly used. 
  • Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer: oncologic process of the colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy and/or rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy, with patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship usually presenting with painless bleeding from the rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy with a bowel movement: Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer may manifest with weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, a rectal mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast, abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, and/or anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types. Diagnosis is via clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor, physical exam, colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening, and cross-sectional CT imaging. Treatment is multimodal, with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma based on disease staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis.

References

  1. Bleday, R. (2019). Home and office treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids. UpToDate. Retrieved February 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/home-and-office-treatment-of-symptomatic-hemorrhoids
  2. Bleday, R. (2020). Hemorrhoids: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved February 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hemorrhoids-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
  3. Perry, K. (2019). Hemorrhoids. Medscape. Retrieved February 21, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/775407-overview

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