Achieve Mastery of Medical Concepts

Study for medical school and boards with Lecturio

Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis is the inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye, including the choroid Choroid The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the retina and sclera. Eye: Anatomy and the retina Retina The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. The outermost layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent. Eye: Anatomy. The condition is usually caused by infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, the most common of which is toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host's immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis. Some of these infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease can affect Affect The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves. Psychiatric Assessment the fetus in utero and present as congenital abnormalities Congenital Abnormalities Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero. Omphalocele. Systemic diseases such as sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis are also associated with this condition. Painless blurry vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam, floaters, and scotomas are typical clinical features. With systemic and congenital disorders, extraocular manifestations are observed. Diagnosis is by funduscopy and slit-lamp examination Slit-Lamp Examination Blepharitis, with use of laboratory tests and imaging dictated by the risk factors, medical history, and treatment monitoring. Treatment is directed toward eliminating the infection with antibiotics or antivirals and reducing inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation with glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs. Glucocorticoids or immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants are a class of drugs widely used in the management of autoimmune conditions and organ transplant rejection. The general effect is dampening of the immune response. Immunosuppressants.

Last updated: Jan 8, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

  • Also called retinochoroiditis
  • Inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the choroid Choroid The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the retina and sclera. Eye: Anatomy, a part of the posterior uvea Uvea The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the choroid; ciliary body; and iris, which are continuous with each other. Eye: Anatomy, and the retina Retina The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. The outermost layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent. Eye: Anatomy
  • A type of posterior uveitis Posterior Uveitis Diseases of the Uvea

Anatomy

  • Choroid Choroid The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the retina and sclera. Eye: Anatomy:
    • Vascular structure that provides support and nutrition to the retina Retina The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. The outermost layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent. Eye: Anatomy
    • Continuous anteriorly with the ciliary body Ciliary body A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the retina. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion. Eye: Anatomy
  • Retina Retina The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. The outermost layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent. Eye: Anatomy:
Eye anatomy

Anatomy of the human eye

Image by Lecturio.

Epidemiology and Etiology

Epidemiology

  • Among the types of uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea, posterior uveitis Posterior Uveitis Diseases of the Uvea is the least common form.
  • Chorioretinitis: often from infectious Infectious Febrile Infant etiology
  • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis: most common cause of chorioretinitis worldwide

Etiology

  • Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant causes:
    • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma Toxoplasma Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis gondii
    • Syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis ( Treponema Treponema Treponema is a gram-negative, microaerophilic spirochete. Owing to its very thin structure, it is not easily seen on Gram stain, but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy. This spirochete contains endoflagella, which allow for a characteristic corkscrew movement. Treponema pallidum)
    • Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis ( TB TB Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis) ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis
    • Herpes simplex Herpes Simplex A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. Congenital TORCH Infections virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
    • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
    • Rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
    • Varicella virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
    • Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus CMV is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Herpesviridae family. CMV infections can be transmitted in bodily fluids, such as blood, saliva, urine, semen, and breast milk. The initial infection is usually asymptomatic in the immunocompetent host, or it can present with symptoms of mononucleosis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) 
    • Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, immunocompromised individuals generally develop acute pulmonary infection, chronic infection, or even disseminated disease. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis ( Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis)
    • Candidiasis Candidiasis Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis ( Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis albicans)
    • Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. When Coccidioides spores are inhaled, they transform into spherules that result in infection. Coccidioidomycosis is also a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can cause severe disease in the immunocompromised. Coccidioides/Coccidioidomycosis ( Coccidioides Coccidioides Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. When Coccidioides spores are inhaled, they transform into spherules that result in infection. Coccidioidomycosis is also a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can cause severe disease in the immunocompromised. Coccidioides/Coccidioidomycosis)
    • Toxocariasis Toxocariasis Toxocariasis is caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis and T. cati. These species frequently infect dogs and cats and are most commonly transmitted to humans via accidental ingestion of eggs through the fecal-oral route. Toxocara are not able to complete their life cycle in humans, but they do migrate to organs (including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, and eyes), where they cause inflammation and tissue damage. Toxocariasis ( Toxocara Toxocara A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs. Toxocariasis canis, Toxocara cati Toxocara Cati Toxocariasis)
  • Non-infectious causes:
    • Autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides. Selective IgA Deficiency:
      • Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis
      • Behcet’s disease
      • Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
      • Polyarteritis nodosa Polyarteritis nodosa A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized arteries, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called churg-strauss syndrome. Vasculitides
      • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) against myeloblastin. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis 
    • No systemic association:
      • Birdshot choroidopathy
      • Multifocal Multifocal Retinoblastoma choroiditis Choroiditis Inflammation of the choroid. Diseases of the Uvea and panuveitis Panuveitis Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved. Diseases of the Uvea
      • Serpiginous choroidopathy
      • Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS)

Related videos

Clinical Presentation

  • Usually painless, but pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways occurs with panuveitis Panuveitis Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved. Diseases of the Uvea
  • Floaters 
  • Flashes of light (photopsia)
  • Vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam impairment or loss
  • Scotomas (blind spots)
  • In neonates: usually asymptomatic at birth with manifestations observed later
  • Extraocular symptoms are dependent on the associated disease.

Infectious Chorioretinitis

Congenital toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis

  • Only 10%30% of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship have manifestations at birth and in early infancy.
  • Fetuses infected in early pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care are more likely to show signs of infection.
  • In utero findings: intracranial calcifications/densities and hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, intracranial. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (most common findings)
  • Classic triad: 
    1. Intracranial calcifications
    2. Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, intracranial. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    3. Chorioretinitis: a common late manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis
  • Symptoms: often painless blurred vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam, scotoma Scotoma A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of eye diseases (e.g., retinal diseases and glaucoma); optic nerve diseases, and other conditions. Cranial Nerve Palsies, photophobia Photophobia Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. Migraine Headache

Acquired toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis

Active infection

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
    • Can occur in all age groups
    • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship from South and Central America (predominantly genotype Genotype The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the alleles present at each genetic locus. Basic Terms of Genetics I, which causes severe disease)
  • Symptoms: unilateral visual loss or floaters

Reactivated infection

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
    • Those who acquired infection in utero or postnatally
    • Onset at > 40 years of age: increased risk of recurrence
  • Symptoms: bilateral visual loss or floaters with an inflammatory chorioretinal lesion

Congenital CMV retinitis CMV retinitis Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. Retinal Detachment

  • 90% asymptomatic at birth
  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
    • Newborns of mothers with known or suspected CMV infection
    • Immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis newborns ( severe combined immunodeficiency Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), also called “bubble boy disease,” is a rare genetic disorder in which the development of functional B and T cells is disturbed due to several genetic mutations that result in reduced or absent immune function. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) disorder)
  • In utero findings: growth restriction, periventricular calcifications, ventriculomegaly Ventriculomegaly Hydrocephalus in Children, microcephaly Microcephaly A congenital abnormality in which the cerebrum is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (desk reference for neuroscience, 2nd ed. ). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
  • Chorioretinitis: most common ocular finding
  • Symptoms: visual impairment, strabismus Strabismus Strabismus is the misalignment of the eyes while fixating the gaze on an object. Strabismus can be idiopathic, but it may also be caused by cerebral palsy, uncorrected refractive errors, and extraocular muscle or cranial nerve dysfunction. Strabismus
  • Extraocular symptoms: petechiae Petechiae Primary Skin Lesions, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly Hepatosplenomegaly Cytomegalovirus, hearing loss Hearing loss Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is any degree of impairment in the ability to apprehend sound as determined by audiometry to be below normal hearing thresholds. Clinical presentation may occur at birth or as a gradual loss of hearing with age, including a short-term or sudden loss at any point. Hearing Loss, microcephaly Microcephaly A congenital abnormality in which the cerebrum is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (desk reference for neuroscience, 2nd ed. ). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, and ventricular calcifications

Acquired CMV retinitis CMV retinitis Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. Retinal Detachment

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
    • Severely immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship: AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS with CD4 count < 50 cells/microL
  • Symptoms: 
    • Typically unilateral
    • Blurry or loss of central vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam 
    • Scotoma Scotoma A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of eye diseases (e.g., retinal diseases and glaucoma); optic nerve diseases, and other conditions. Cranial Nerve Palsies 
    • Floaters, photopsia: symptomatic predictors of CMV retinitis CMV retinitis Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. Retinal Detachment in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS
  • Associated with necrotizing retinitis, retinal vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and optic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
    • Those living in endemic countries
    • Immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis state
  • Results from hematogenous Hematogenous Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases spread
  • Frequently presents as posterior uveitis Posterior Uveitis Diseases of the Uvea with disseminated choroiditis Choroiditis Inflammation of the choroid. Diseases of the Uvea
  • Symptoms: 
    • Diminished visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam when the macula Macula An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. Eye: Anatomy is affected 
    • Unilateral or bilateral

Toxocariasis Toxocariasis Toxocariasis is caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis and T. cati. These species frequently infect dogs and cats and are most commonly transmitted to humans via accidental ingestion of eggs through the fecal-oral route. Toxocara are not able to complete their life cycle in humans, but they do migrate to organs (including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, and eyes), where they cause inflammation and tissue damage. Toxocariasis

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship: young patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with pets
  • Symptoms: Unilateral reduced vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam, photophobia Photophobia Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. Migraine Headache, floaters
  • Signs: leukocoria Leukocoria Cataracts in Children, ocular injection

Syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship: history of sexually transmitted diseases
  • Commonly manifests as iritis Iritis Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris. Leprosy or iridocyclitis Iridocyclitis Acute or chronic inflammation of the iris and ciliary body characterized by exudates into the anterior chamber, discoloration of the iris, and constricted, sluggish pupil. Symptoms include radiating pain, photophobia, lacrimation, and interference with vision. Relapsing Fever but also causes chorioretinitis
  • In HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs, placoid lesions develop: placoid chorioretinitis
  • Symptoms: blurry vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam, floaters, light sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques

Ocular histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, immunocompromised individuals generally develop acute pulmonary infection, chronic infection, or even disseminated disease. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis syndrome

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship: in regions endemic for Histoplasma Histoplasma Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. The fungus exists as a mold at low temperatures and as yeast at high temperatures. H. capsulatum is the most common endemic fungal infection in the US and is most prevalent in the midwestern and central states along the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis 
  • Often asymptomatic until choroidal neovascularization Choroidal Neovascularization A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the choroid. Macular Degeneration ( CNV CNV A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the choroid. Macular Degeneration) occurs
  • Symptoms: central vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss, metamorphopsia Metamorphopsia Macular Degeneration (distorted straight lines), scotomas

Non-infectious Chorioretinitis

Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis

  • High-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship: African American women
  • Pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms
  • Affects posterior uvea Uvea The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the choroid; ciliary body; and iris, which are continuous with each other. Eye: Anatomy in ⅓ of cases
  • Symptoms: blurry vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam, floaters, photophobia Photophobia Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. Migraine Headache; pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways if with anterior uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea

Behcet’s disease

  • Characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, polyarthritis Polyarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Symptoms: 
    • Often bilateral, episodic
    • Can present as panuveitis Panuveitis Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved. Diseases of the Uvea ( redness Redness Inflammation, tearing, pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, photophobia Photophobia Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. Migraine Headache, blurry vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam)
    • Severe visual loss from retinal vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and optic neuritis Optic neuritis Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis). Cranial Nerve Palsies

Birdshot retinochoroidopathy

MEWDS

  • Rare but affects healthy young women
  • Symptoms: 

Diagnosis

Prenatal diagnosis

  • Screening Screening Preoperative Care includes syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis
  • Sonogram can detect fetal changes that are suggestive of CMV and toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis

Laboratory tests and imaging

Guided by:

  • High level of suspicion in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with known or suspected perinatal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Presenting manifestations at birth and subsequent symptoms
  • Medical history
  • Predisposing high-risk factors (e.g., sexual behavior, pet PET An imaging technique that combines a positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner and a ct X ray scanner. This establishes a precise anatomic localization in the same session. Nuclear Imaging ownership, residence in or travel to endemic areas)

Dilated fundus Fundus The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch. Stomach: Anatomy examination and slit-lamp biomicroscopy

  • Choroiditis Choroiditis Inflammation of the choroid. Diseases of the Uvea: yellow patches Patches Vitiligo, regular Regular Insulin borders
  • Retinitis: whitish patch Patch Nonpalpable lesion > 1 cm in diameter Generalized and Localized Rashes with ill-defined borders
  • Vitreous inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation ( leukocytes Leukocytes White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (basophils; eosinophils; and neutrophils) as well as non-granular leukocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White Myeloid Cells: Histology in the vitreous humor Humor Defense Mechanisms)
  • Vitreous opacities

Ophthalmologic findings in infectious Infectious Febrile Infant chorioretinitis

Infection Ophthalmologic findings
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis
  • Inactive stage: atrophic chorioretinal scars
  • Active stage Active Stage Benign Bone Tumors:
    • Focal necrotizing retinitis
    • White focal retinitis with vitreous inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation (“headlight in the fog”)
Congenital toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis Punched-out or excavated macular lesion
CMV retinitis CMV retinitis Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. Retinal Detachment
  • Yellow-white, fluffy granular retinal lesions, hemorrhages’ “pizza pie” appearance
  • Congenital: optic atrophy Atrophy Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes. Cellular Adaptation, retinal scars, chorioretinitis
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis
  • Disseminated choroiditis Choroiditis Inflammation of the choroid. Diseases of the Uvea
  • Single or multiple, discrete yellow lesions (choroidal tubercles) seen in the posterior pole
Toxocariasis Toxocariasis Toxocariasis is caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis and T. cati. These species frequently infect dogs and cats and are most commonly transmitted to humans via accidental ingestion of eggs through the fecal-oral route. Toxocara are not able to complete their life cycle in humans, but they do migrate to organs (including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, and eyes), where they cause inflammation and tissue damage. Toxocariasis Whitish granuloma in periphery or posterior pole (from larval localization)
Syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis Great imitator: presents as chorioretinitis, papilledema Papilledema Swelling of the optic disk, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause optic atrophy and visual loss. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension, optic neuritis Optic neuritis Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis). Cranial Nerve Palsies, placoid lesions
Ocular histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, immunocompromised individuals generally develop acute pulmonary infection, chronic infection, or even disseminated disease. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis syndrome Discrete chorioretinal oval-round lesions (“punched-out” histo spots)

Ophthalmologic findings in non-infectious chorioretinitis

Disease/condition Ophthalmologic findings
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis
  • Chorioretinal granulomas Granulomas A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents. Sarcoidosis, periretinal exudates (“candle wax drippings”)
  • Placoid lesions
Behcet’s disease
Birdshot retinochoroidopathy Birdshot lesions: cream-colored choroidal lesions radiating from optic disc Optic disc The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve. Eye: Anatomy
White dot syndrome
  • White lesions in outer retina Retina The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. The outermost layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent. Eye: Anatomy
  • Foveal granularity

Management

Goals

  • Preserve visual function.
  • Suppress host inflammatory response.
  • Eliminate infection (for infectious Infectious Febrile Infant causes).

Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant chorioretinitis

  • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis:
    • Inactive disease: no treatment if asymptomatic
    • Active disease: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pyrimethamine Pyrimethamine One of the folic acid antagonists that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis. Antimalarial Drugs + sulfadiazine Sulfadiazine One of the short-acting sulfonamides used in combination with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim + leucovorin
    • < 14 weeks’ pregnant with active disease: spiramycin
    • > 14 weeks’ pregnant with active disease: pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine
    • Infants with confirmed diagnosis: pyrimethamine Pyrimethamine One of the folic acid antagonists that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis. Antimalarial Drugs + sulfadiazine Sulfadiazine One of the short-acting sulfonamides used in combination with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim + leucovorin
  • CMV retinitis CMV retinitis Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. Retinal Detachment: severity determines medication and route
    • Ganciclovir Ganciclovir An acyclovir analog that is a potent inhibitor of the herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from aids-associated cytomegalovirus infections. Antivirals for Herpes Virus
    • Valganciclovir
    • Foscarnet Foscarnet An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV. Antivirals for Herpes Virus
    • Cidofovir Cidofovir An acyclic nucleoside phosphonate that acts as a competitive inhibitor of viral DNA polymerases. It is used in the treatment of retinitis caused by cytomegalovirus infections and may also be useful for treating herpesvirus infections. Antivirals for Herpes Virus
  • Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis: antitubercular therapy
    • Isoniazid Isoniazid Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis. Antimycobacterial Drugs
    • Rifampicin
    • Pyrazinamide Pyrazinamide A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent. Antimycobacterial Drugs
    • Ethambutol Ethambutol An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle Bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. Antimycobacterial Drugs
  • Toxocariasis Toxocariasis Toxocariasis is caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis and T. cati. These species frequently infect dogs and cats and are most commonly transmitted to humans via accidental ingestion of eggs through the fecal-oral route. Toxocara are not able to complete their life cycle in humans, but they do migrate to organs (including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, and eyes), where they cause inflammation and tissue damage. Toxocariasis: prednisone Prednisone A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the liver. Immunosuppressants and albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs (for sight-threatening inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation)
  • Syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis: IV penicillin G Penicillin G A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on gamma-aminobutyric acid mediated synaptic transmission. Penicillins 24 million units/day for 1014 days (similar to neurosyphilis Neurosyphilis Infections of the central nervous system caused by treponema pallidum which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as brain infarction. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; tabes dorsalis; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic optic atrophy; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive dementia; dysarthria; tremor; myoclonus; seizures; and argyll-robertson pupils. Syphilis)
  • Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, immunocompromised individuals generally develop acute pulmonary infection, chronic infection, or even disseminated disease. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis
    • Observation and monitoring for CNV CNV A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the choroid. Macular Degeneration
    • Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for CNV CNV A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the choroid. Macular Degeneration

Non-infectious chorioretinitis

Non-infectious chorioretinitis is treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants are a class of drugs widely used in the management of autoimmune conditions and organ transplant rejection. The general effect is dampening of the immune response. Immunosuppressants.

Non-resolving chorioretinitis

For non-resolving chorioretinitis, rule out malignancies (masquerade syndromes).

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnoses of chorioretinitis include the following conditions:

  • Vitreoretinal lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum: most common intraocular lymphoproliferative disorder. The disorder is one of the masquerade syndromes that presents a diagnostic dilemma. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship have gradual visual impairment with floaters. Gold standard of diagnosis is cytopathologic examination of ocular fluid or chorioretinal biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma.
  • Choroidal melanoma Melanoma Melanoma is a malignant tumor arising from melanocytes, the melanin-producing cells of the epidermis. These tumors are most common in fair-skinned individuals with a history of excessive sun exposure and sunburns. Melanoma: a malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax that presents with uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea (masquerade syndrome). Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship can be asymptomatic or can present with floaters, visual field Visual Field The Visual Pathway and Related Disorders defects, and flashes. Diagnosis is by funduscopic examination showing pigmented dome-shaped tumor Tumor Inflammation. Fine needle biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma is performed for molecular prognostic testing.
  • Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma is a rare tumor but the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. It is believed that the condition arises from a neuronal progenitor cell. Retinoblastoma can be heritable or non-heritable. Retinoblastoma: the most common intraocular malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax in childhood, usually diagnosed before the age of 5. Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma is a rare tumor but the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. It is believed that the condition arises from a neuronal progenitor cell. Retinoblastoma can be heritable or non-heritable. Retinoblastoma frequently presents as abnormal white reflection from the retina Retina The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. The outermost layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent. Eye: Anatomy, called leukocoria Leukocoria Cataracts in Children. Other features include red-eye, strabismus Strabismus Strabismus is the misalignment of the eyes while fixating the gaze on an object. Strabismus can be idiopathic, but it may also be caused by cerebral palsy, uncorrected refractive errors, and extraocular muscle or cranial nerve dysfunction. Strabismus, and nystagmus Nystagmus Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. Albinism. Ophthalmoscopic examination reveals a retinal mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast. Additional imaging studies, including ocular ultrasound, can be used for diagnosis.

References

  1. Duplechain, A., Conrady,C., Patel, B. (2020). Uveitis. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK540993
  2. Garweg, J., Petersen, E., Durand, M., Mitty, J. (2020) Toxoplasmosis: Ocular disease.UpToDate. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/toxoplasmosis-ocular-disease
  3. Geetha, R., Tripathy, K. (2020). Chorioretinitis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551705/
  4. Harbour, J., Shih, H., Atkins, M, Berman, R. (2018). Initial management of uveal and conjunctival melanomas. UpToDate. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/initial-management-of-uveal-and-conjunctival-melanomas
  5. Jacobson,M., Bartlett, J., Mitty, J. (2020) Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of AIDS-related cytomegalovirus. UpToDate. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-aids-related-cytomegalovirus-retinitis
  6. Petersen, E.m Mandelbrot, L.,Simpson, L.,Weller, P., Barss, V., Mitty, J. (2020). Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/toxoplasmosis-and-pregnancy
  7. Rathinam, S., Bernardo, J., Gardiner, M., Baron, E. (2019). Tuberculosis and the eye. UpToDate. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/tuberculosis-and-the-eye?search=tuberculosis
  8. Roque, M., Steele, R., Schleiss, M, Windle, M. (2016). Chorioretinitis. Medscape. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/962761-overview
  9. Sudharshan, S., Ganesh, S., Biswas, J. (2010) Current approach in the diagnosis and management of posterior uveitis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841371/

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Study on the Go

Lecturio Medical complements your studies with evidence-based learning strategies, video lectures, quiz questions, and more – all combined in one easy-to-use resource.

Learn even more with Lecturio:

Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.

User Reviews

¡Hola!

Esta página está disponible en Español.

Details