Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. Risk factors for infection include conditions or agents that may lead to an immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis state, disruption of the normal flora, and/or disturbance of the mucosal barrier. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess Abscess Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, pericarditis Pericarditis Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium, often with fluid accumulation. It can be caused by infection (often viral), myocardial infarction, drugs, malignancies, metabolic disorders, autoimmune disorders, or trauma. Acute, subacute, and chronic forms exist. Pericarditis, and meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis). The diagnosis is made by identifying Candida on KOH preparation KOH preparation Primary Skin Lesions, cultures, or tissue biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Treatment depends on the extent and site of infection, and includes topical or systemic antifungal Antifungal Azoles medications
Last updated: Sep 19, 2022
The most clinically relevant Candida species include:
Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora, particularly:
Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection.
General risk factors for candidiasis:
Additional risk factors for invasive disease:
This infection, commonly known as “thrush,” may present with:
Esophageal candidiasis is an AIDS-defining illness that occurs in individuals with a CD4 count < 100 cells/µL.
Invasive Candida infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease can have a variety of presentations, including (but not limited to):
Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of Candida organisms can be made with:
Localized mucocutaneous infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
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