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Diarrheagenic E. coli

Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are a diverse group of E. coli that are classified into 5 major pathotypes which can cause intestinal infection and diarrhea. Transmission is often through the fecal–oral route via the consumption of contaminated food or water. Pathogenesis varies based on the strain, but it can include toxin production, invasion of the mucosal surface, and adhesion Adhesion The process whereby platelets adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., collagen; basement membrane; microfibrils; or other 'foreign' surfaces. Coagulation Studies with alteration of enterocyte structure. Noninvasive disease tends to present with watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, while invasive infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease cause bloody diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea. The diagnosis can be established with PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Management generally consists of supportive therapy (fluids and electrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes are mineral salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions, which can be either be positively (cations) or negatively (anions) charged. Electrolytes are distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments in different concentrations. Electrolytes are essential for various basic life-sustaining functions. Electrolytes). Antibiotics are reserved for severe or persistent infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease and are contraindicated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli because of the risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the kidney, such as renal cortical necrosis. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenia; and acute renal failure. Hypocoagulable Conditions.

Last updated: Oct 31, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Microbiology

  • Escherichia coli Escherichia coli The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a key component of the human gut microbiota. Most strains of E. coli are avirulent, but occasionally they escape the GI tract, infecting the urinary tract and other sites. Less common strains of E. coli are able to cause disease within the GI tract, most commonly presenting as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Escherichia coli is a gram-negative bacillus Bacillus Bacillus are aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli. Two pathogenic species are Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) and B. cereus. Bacillus bacterium.
  • Family: Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacteriaceae A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock. Cephalosporins
  • Characteristics: 
    • Ferments lactose
    • Facultatively anaerobic
    • Oxidase-negative
    • Catalase-positive
  • Most strains are harmless and: 
Scanning electron microscope image of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli

Scanning electron microscope image of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Escherichia coli The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a key component of the human gut microbiota. Most strains of E. coli are avirulent, but occasionally they escape the GI tract, infecting the urinary tract and other sites. Less common strains of E. coli are able to cause disease within the GI tract, most commonly presenting as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Escherichia coli

Image: “Under an extremely high magnification of 44, 818X, twice that of PHIL 10574 and 10575, this scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image revealed some of the morphologic details displayed by a single Gram-negative, rod-shaped, Escherichia coli Escherichia coli The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a key component of the human gut microbiota. Most strains of E. coli are avirulent, but occasionally they escape the GI tract, infecting the urinary tract and other sites. Less common strains of E. coli are able to cause disease within the GI tract, most commonly presenting as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Escherichia coli bacterium.” by Janice Haney Carr. License: Public Domain

Pathogenic strains of E. coli

The following strains of E. coli are diarrheagenic: 

  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
  • Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)
  • Enteroaggregative E. coli ( EAEC EAEC Escherichia coli)
  • Enteroinvasive E. coli ( EIEC EIEC Escherichia coli)
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)/Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)

Transmission

  • Fecal–oral route
  • Contaminated meat or produce (E. coli  serotype O157:H7 and other STEC have a bovine reservoir Reservoir Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (disease vectors) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks. Humans may serve both as disease reservoirs and carriers. Escherichia coli)
  • Contaminated water
Table: Comparison of E. coli strains
Pathogen Invasive? Toxin? Type of diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
ETEC No
  • LT
  • ST
  • Noninflammatory
  • Watery
EPEC No No
  • Mild inflammatory
  • Watery
EAEC EAEC Escherichia coli No
  • Some have ST.
  • Alpha-hemolysin
  • Mild inflammatory
  • Watery
EIEC EIEC Escherichia coli Yes
  • Enterotoxins
  • Cytotoxins Cytotoxins Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from cytostatic agents in degree of effect. Some of them are used as cytotoxic antibiotics. The mechanism of action of many of these are as alkylating agents or mitosis modulators. Helicobacter
  • Inflammatory
  • Bloody
EHEC Yes Shiga toxin
  • Inflammatory
  • Bloody
LT: heat-labile enterotoxin Heat-labile enterotoxin Escherichia coli
ST: heat-stable enterotoxin Heat-stable enterotoxin Escherichia coli
ETEC: Enterotoxigenic E. coli
EPEC: Enteropathogenic E. coli
EAEC EAEC Escherichia coli: Enteroaggregative E. coli
EIEC EIEC Escherichia coli: Enteroinvasive E. coli
EHEC: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

Epidemiology

  • Most common cause of traveler’s diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • > 200 million cases/year

Pathophysiology

Enterotoxigenic E. coli is a noninvasive pathogen. It uses fimbrial adhesins to bind BIND Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn enterocytes in the small intestine Small intestine The small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract, extending from the pyloric orifice of the stomach to the ileocecal junction. The small intestine is the major organ responsible for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is divided into 3 segments: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Small Intestine: Anatomy and produces the following enterotoxins:

  • Heat-stable enterotoxin Heat-stable enterotoxin Escherichia coli (ST): 
    • Activates guanylate cyclase → ↑ intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Guanosine cyclic 3. Second Messengers ( cGMP cGMP Guanosine cyclic 3. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
    • Chloride Chloride Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion. Electrolytes secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies and ↓ NaCl absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption → water efflux into the intestinal lumen → watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Heat-labile enterotoxin Heat-labile enterotoxin Escherichia coli (LT): 
    • Activates adenylate cyclase → ↑ intracellular cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors 
    • Chloride Chloride Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion. Electrolytes secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies and ↓ NaCl absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption → water efflux into the intestinal lumen → watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Similar to cholera toxin Cholera toxin An enterotoxin from Vibrio cholerae. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (h) or a subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (l) or B subunits. The catalytic a subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments a1 and a2. The a1 fragment is a mono(adp-ribose) transferase. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the a1 fragment. The a1 catalyzed transfer of adp-ribose to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric g proteins activates the production of cyclic amp. Increased levels of cyclic amp are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells. Vibrio (less severe)
Etec pathogenesis

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Escherichia coli The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a key component of the human gut microbiota. Most strains of E. coli are avirulent, but occasionally they escape the GI tract, infecting the urinary tract and other sites. Less common strains of E. coli are able to cause disease within the GI tract, most commonly presenting as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogenesis:
ETEC attaches to enterocytes via colonization Colonization Bacteriology factor antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination (CFA; fimbrial adhesin). The heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea causes cyclic guanosine monophosphate Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Guanosine cyclic 3. Second Messengers ( cGMP cGMP Guanosine cyclic 3. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors) accumulation in cells and secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies of fluid and electrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes are mineral salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions, which can be either be positively (cations) or negatively (anions) charged. Electrolytes are distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments in different concentrations. Electrolytes are essential for various basic life-sustaining functions. Electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. The heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea acts like cholera toxin Cholera toxin An enterotoxin from Vibrio cholerae. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (h) or a subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (l) or B subunits. The catalytic a subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments a1 and a2. The a1 fragment is a mono(adp-ribose) transferase. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the a1 fragment. The a1 catalyzed transfer of adp-ribose to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric g proteins activates the production of cyclic amp. Increased levels of cyclic amp are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells. Vibrio, which increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate Adenosine monophosphate Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2′-, 3′-, or 5′-position. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism ( cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors) by activating adenylyl cyclase (AC). The general effect is water and chloride Chloride Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion. Electrolytes hypersecretion and inhibited sodium reabsorption Sodium reabsorption Tubular System. Noninvasive enterotoxins remain within the intestinal lumen and do not invade the epithelial cells.
GC: guanylyl cyclase Guanylyl cyclase A mammalian enzyme composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits. Each subunit consists of four domains; N-terminal HNOX domain, PAS-like domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. All four domains are homologous proteins with a similar conformation of functional domains. Soluble guanylate cyclase catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP from GTP, and is a key enzyme of the nitric oxide signaling pathway involved in the regulation of a variety of biological and physiological processes in mammals. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure
LTA: A subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin Heat-labile enterotoxin Escherichia coli

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical presentation

  • Time course:
    • Incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period: 1–3 days
    • Symptom duration: 1–5 days
  • Clinical characteristics:
    • Acute secretory diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea:
      • Watery
      •  Occasionally severe
    • Abdominal cramping Abdominal cramping Norovirus
    • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics ( vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia is less common)

Diagnosis

This disease is self-limited; therefore, a diagnostic workup is not usually needed. However, ETEC can be diagnosed by identifying LT or ST genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure on PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for individuals with severe disease.

Management

  • Supportive therapy:
    • Rehydration Rehydration Dengue Virus and electrolyte replenishment
    • Antimotility agents (e.g., loperamide Loperamide One of the long-acting synthetic antidiarrheals; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally. Antidiarrheal Drugs)
  • Antibiotics are generally not required for most cases because of the disease’s self-limited nature.

Enteropathogenic E. coli

Epidemiology

  • A common cause of diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea in infants or young children (< 2 years of age)
  • Most common in resource-limited areas

Pathophysiology

  • Bundle-forming pilus: necessary for attaching to intestinal cells
  • Intimin Intimin Escherichia coli adhesin:
    • Outer membrane protein
    • Also used in adherence to enterocytes
  • Attachment → cell deformation 
  • Results in:
    • Effacement of microvilli
    • ↑ Tight junction permeability
    • Altered water and electrolyte secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies and absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption
Epec pathogenesis

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Escherichia coli The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a key component of the human gut microbiota. Most strains of E. coli are avirulent, but occasionally they escape the GI tract, infecting the urinary tract and other sites. Less common strains of E. coli are able to cause disease within the GI tract, most commonly presenting as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Escherichia coli (EPEC) pathogenesis:
EPEC uses intimin Intimin Escherichia coli adhesion Adhesion The process whereby platelets adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., collagen; basement membrane; microfibrils; or other ‘foreign’ surfaces. Coagulation Studies molecules to adhere to the intestinal cells. Binding causes cell deformation ( brush border Brush border Tubular System degeneration and loss of microvilli). The characteristic effect of attachment and effacement is thought to be the primary cause of diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea.

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical presentation

  • Watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea 
  • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics and vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
  • Low-grade fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Malnutrition Malnutrition Malnutrition is a clinical state caused by an imbalance or deficiency of calories and/or micronutrients and macronutrients. The 2 main manifestations of acute severe malnutrition are marasmus (total caloric insufficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition with characteristic edema). Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries is a potential complication of persistent diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea.

Diagnosis

Enteropathogenic E. coli can be diagnosed by identifying specific genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure using PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Management

  • Supportive therapy
  • Most individuals do not require antibiotic therapy.

Enteroaggregative E. coli

Epidemiology

Enteroaggregative E. coli is most commonly associated with persistent diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea in:

  • Children
  • Immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals (e.g., those with HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs/ AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS)

Pathophysiology

  • Aggregative adherence fimbriae Fimbriae Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins. Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of ‘pili’. Escherichia coli ( AAF AAF Escherichia coli) help bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology adhere to intestinal mucosa Intestinal Mucosa Lining of the intestines, consisting of an inner epithelium, a middle lamina propria, and an outer muscularis mucosae. In the small intestine, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (enterocytes) with microvilli. Small Intestine: Anatomy.
  • Aggregation Aggregation The attachment of platelets to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., thrombin; collagen) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a thrombus. Coagulation Studies of bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology → forms a biofilm Biofilm Encrustations formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance matrix that is secreted by the microbes. They occur on body surfaces such as teeth (dental deposits); inanimate objects, and bodies of water. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with dentifrices; disinfectants; anti-infective agents; and anti-fouling agents. Staphylococcus
  • Toxins produced:
    • Alpha-hemolysin
    • Some possess ST, similar to ETEC

Clinical presentation

  • Acute and chronic watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
  • Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of EAEC EAEC Escherichia coli can be made by identifying specific genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure using PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Management

  • Supportive therapy
  • Antibiotic therapy (e.g., fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones are a group of broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotics inhibiting bacterial DNA replication. Fluoroquinolones cover gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical organisms, as well as some gram-positive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Fluoroquinolones) may be indicated for persistent disease.

Enteroinvasive E. coli

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology is closely related to Shigella Shigella Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, non-lactose-fermenting facultative intracellular bacilli. Infection spreads most commonly via person-to-person contact or through contaminated food and water. Humans are the only known reservoir. Shigella.
  • Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology penetrate through the epithelial wall of the intestine.
  • Intracellular multiplication → spread into adjacent epithelial cells
  • Additionally, produce:
    • Enterotoxins
    • Cytotoxins Cytotoxins Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from cytostatic agents in degree of effect. Some of them are used as cytotoxic antibiotics. The mechanism of action of many of these are as alkylating agents or mitosis modulators. Helicobacter  
  • Inflammatory response → necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage (can produce ulceration Ulceration Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers) → dysentery Dysentery Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious diarrhea of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing toxins, biological derived from bacteria or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery feces then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with abdominal pain; fever; and dehydration. Gastroenteritis

Clinical presentation

Enteroinvasive E. coli presents very similarly to shigellosis Shigellosis Shigella and can be severe.

  • Watery and/or bloody diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea (with or without mucus)
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Malaise Malaise Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus
  • Abdominal cramps Cramps Ion Channel Myopathy
  • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics and vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of EIEC EIEC Escherichia coli can be made by identifying specific genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure using PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Management

  • Supportive therapy 
  • Antimotility agents are contraindicated.
  • Antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones are a group of broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotics inhibiting bacterial DNA replication. Fluoroquinolones cover gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical organisms, as well as some gram-positive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Fluoroquinolones, macrolides Macrolides Macrolides and ketolides are antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and blocking transpeptidation. These antibiotics have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity but are best known for their coverage of atypical microorganisms. Macrolides and Ketolides) may be used in severe cases.

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

Pathophysiology

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli results in clinical manifestations through the production of shiga toxin: 

  • Localized effect: inhibits enterocyte protein synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) → enterocyte death → inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation
  • Systemic effect: vascular endothelial injury in glomeruli → microthrombi and renal dysfunction ( hemolytic uremic syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the kidney, such as renal cortical necrosis. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenia; and acute renal failure. Hypocoagulable Conditions ( HUS HUS Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical phenomenon most commonly seen in children that consists of a classic triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a major cause of acute kidney injury in children and is most commonly associated with a prodrome of diarrheal illness caused by shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome))

Clinical presentation

  • Incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period: 2–10 days
  • Hemorrhagic colitis Colitis Inflammation of the colon section of the large intestine, usually with symptoms such as diarrhea (often with blood and mucus), abdominal pain, and fever. Pseudomembranous Colitis:
    • Bloody diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways and cramping
  • Serotype O157:H7 is commonly associated with HUS HUS Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical phenomenon most commonly seen in children that consists of a classic triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a major cause of acute kidney injury in children and is most commonly associated with a prodrome of diarrheal illness caused by shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome:
    • Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types
    • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia
    • Acute renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of EHEC is made by identifying:

  • Shiga toxin via enzyme immunoassay Enzyme immunoassay HIV Infection and AIDS
  • The gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics that encodes shiga toxin using PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Management

  • Supportive therapy
  • Antimotility agents are contraindicated.
  • Antibiotics are contraindicated because of ↑ risk of HUS HUS Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical phenomenon most commonly seen in children that consists of a classic triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a major cause of acute kidney injury in children and is most commonly associated with a prodrome of diarrheal illness caused by shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Differential Diagnosis

  • Viral gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines, commonly caused by infections from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Transmission may be foodborne, fecal-oral, or through animal contact. Common clinical features include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Gastroenteritis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy and intestines, caused by a variety of viruses Viruses Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells. Virology. Common clinical features include abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, and dehydration Dehydration The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism. Volume Depletion and Dehydration. The majority of cases of gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines, commonly caused by infections from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Transmission may be foodborne, fecal-oral, or through animal contact. Common clinical features include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Gastroenteritis are self-limited; therefore, the diagnosis is generally clinical and the only required treatment is supportive therapy.
  • Shigellosis Shigellosis Shigella: caused by Shigella Shigella Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, non-lactose-fermenting facultative intracellular bacilli. Infection spreads most commonly via person-to-person contact or through contaminated food and water. Humans are the only known reservoir. Shigella species. S. dysenteriae S. dysenteriae A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium. Shigella produces shiga toxin. Individuals may experience fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, abdominal cramping Abdominal cramping Norovirus, and inflammatory diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea (with mucus, pus, and blood). Hemolytic uremic syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the kidney, such as renal cortical necrosis. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenia; and acute renal failure. Hypocoagulable Conditions is a potential complication. The diagnosis is confirmed with a stool culture. Management includes supportive therapy and antibiotics (for moderate to severe disease).
  • Giardiasis Giardiasis An infection of the small intestine caused by the flagellated protozoan giardia. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact. Giardia/Giardiasis: caused by Giardia lamblia Giardia lamblia A species of parasitic eukaryotes that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis. Giardia/Giardiasis, a flagellated protozoan that can infect the intestinal tract. The hallmark symptom of giardiasis Giardiasis An infection of the small intestine caused by the flagellated protozoan giardia. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact. Giardia/Giardiasis is foul-smelling diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea ( steatorrhea Steatorrhea A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty diarrhea, a result of abnormal digestion and/or intestinal absorption of fats. Diarrhea). Individuals who develop chronic infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease may suffer from weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, failure to thrive Failure to Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT), or faltering growth, describes suboptimal weight gain and growth in children. The majority of cases are due to inadequate caloric intake; however, genetic, infectious, and oncological etiologies are also common. Failure to Thrive, and vitamin deficiencies as a result of malabsorption Malabsorption General term for a group of malnutrition syndromes caused by failure of normal intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption and Maldigestion. The diagnosis is made through detection of Giardia Giardia A genus of flagellate intestinal eukaryotes parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape. Nitroimidazoles organisms, antigens, or DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure in the stool. Management includes supportive treatment and antimicrobial therapy.
  • Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis: infection caused by Clostridioides difficile. This species is commonly found in the normal gut microbiome Microbiome Commensal organisms living in and on the body Innate Immunity: Barriers, Complement, and Cytokines, but pathogenesis occurs when there is an overabundance of C. difficile. Common symptoms include foul-smelling, nonbloody diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics with vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia. Diagnosis is made with stool PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or enzyme assays. Treatment generally consists of discontinuing the offending antibiotic and administering oral fidaxomicin or vancomycin Vancomycin Antibacterial obtained from streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to ristocetin that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear. Glycopeptides.
  • Colonic ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage: hypoperfusion to areas of the colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy (often in regions without redundant sources of arterial blood). This hypoperfusion can be due to thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus, embolism, or hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension. The acute phase Acute phase Short Bowel Syndrome of colonic ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage is characterized by a classic triad of severe abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, and diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea that may be bloody. Individuals may have a history of cardiovascular disease. Diagnosis is generally made with laboratory studies and CTA CTA A non-invasive method that uses a ct scanner for capturing images of blood vessels and tissues. A contrast material is injected, which helps produce detailed images that aid in diagnosing vascular diseases. Pulmonary Function Tests. Treatment includes fluid replacement, antibiotics, systemic anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs, and often surgery.
  • Diverticulitis Diverticulitis Inflammation of a diverticulum or diverticula. Diverticular Disease: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of diverticula (small outpouching regions of the colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy) often due to obstruction with fecal matter. Diverticulitis Diverticulitis Inflammation of a diverticulum or diverticula. Diverticular Disease presents with abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways (most frequently in the LLQ), nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics, and diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea that may be bloody. The definitive diagnosis is usually made with a CT scan. Treatment involves bowel rest, IV fluids IV fluids Intravenous fluids are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids. Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Intravenous Fluids, and antibiotics.

References

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  2. Holtz, L. R., Tarr, P. I. (2021). Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: microbiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and prevention. UpToDate. Retrieved October 3, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-microbiology-pathogenesis-epidemiology-and-prevention
  3. Mueller, M., Tainter, C. R. (2021). Escherichia coli. StatPearls. Retrieved October 3, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564298/
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  9. Wong, C. S., Jelacic, S., Habeeb, R. L., et al. (2000). The risk of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. N Engl J Med 342:1930–1936. Retrieved October 3, 2021, from reference.medscape.com/medline/abstract/10874060

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