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Glycopeptides

The glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) vancomycin and teicoplanin are inhibitors of bacterial cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and considered the last resort treatment of severe infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease due to gram-positive bacteria gram-positive bacteria Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by gram's method. Bacteriology such as Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Brain Abscess, Enterococcus Enterococcus Enterococcus is a genus of oval-shaped gram-positive cocci that are arranged in pairs or short chains. Distinguishing factors include optochin resistance and the presence of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) and Lancefield D antigen. Enterococcus is part of the normal flora of the human GI tract. Enterococcus spp., and Clostridiodes difficile. Vancomycin is the only GPA GPA A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) against myeloblastin. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis available in the United States. The medication has poor absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption in the GI tract; therefore, oral vancomycin is used for infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease of the intestinal lumen including C. difficile. Intravenous vancomycin is indicated for severe gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease including endocarditis Endocarditis Endocarditis is an inflammatory disease involving the inner lining (endometrium) of the heart, most commonly affecting the cardiac valves. Both infectious and noninfectious etiologies lead to vegetations on the valve leaflets. Patients may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fever and fatigue. Endocarditis, pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia, and bacteremia. Significant adverse effects include anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered antigen. The reaction may include rapidly progressing urticaria, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic shock, and death. Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction, hypersensitivity reactions, red man syndrome (related to rapid infusion), nephrotoxicity, and ototoxicity.

Last updated: 7 Apr, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Chemistry and Pharmacodynamics

Definition

Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are actinomycete-derived, glycosylated, nonribosomal peptides, which target gram-positive bacteria gram-positive bacteria Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by gram’s method. Bacteriology by inhibition of cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):

  • Vancomycin
  • Teicoplanin (not available in the United States)

Chemical structure

Both vancomycin and teicoplanin are heptapeptides, but the carbohydrate groups of each drug differ.

Mechanism of action

  • Glycopeptides are bactericidal Bactericidal Penicillins through inhibition of cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in sensitive bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology:
    • The cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic of the bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology is strengthened by cross-linked peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan Penicillins (PG) structures.
    • GPAs bind BIND Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn to the D-alanyl-D- alanine Alanine A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids terminus of cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic PG precursors → inhibition of PG polymerization and cross-linking, resulting in:
    • GPAs are effective in gram-positive bacteria gram-positive bacteria Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by gram’s method. Bacteriology because PG precursors are exposed on the external surface.
    • Gram-negative bacteria gram-negative bacteria Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by gram’s method. Bacteriology are not sensitive to GPAs: The lipopolysaccharide Lipopolysaccharide Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: lipid a, core polysaccharide, and o-specific chains (o antigens). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal b-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. Klebsiella membrane is not permeable to large biomolecules.
  • Teicoplanin is more potent than vancomycin.
Mechanism of action vancomycin

Mechanism of action:
Vancomycin interferes with the normal incorporation of peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan Penicillins precursors.
The bottom row shows vancomycin resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing:
Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of D-alanyl-D-lactate precursors in the bacterial cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic results in poor binding with vancomycin, which reduces the effectivity of the antibiotic.

Image by Lecturio. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption and distribution

  • Absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption:
    • Oral vancomycin and teicoplanin:
      • Poor oral absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption
      • Effective for intestinal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (e.g., Clostridiodes difficile colitis Colitis Inflammation of the colon section of the large intestine, usually with symptoms such as diarrhea (often with blood and mucus), abdominal pain, and fever. Pseudomembranous Colitis), but not systemic infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease 
    • Vancomycin is mainly administered intravenously.
    • Teicoplanin is administered intravenously and intramuscularly.
  • Distribution:
    • Vancomycin:
      • 30%‒55% of vancomycin is protein bound ( variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables).
      • Penetrates most bodily spaces (seen in bile Bile An emulsifying agent produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum. Its composition includes bile acids and salts; cholesterol; and electrolytes. It aids digestion of fats in the duodenum. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy and pleural, pericardial, synovial, and ascitic fluids)
      • Reaches the cerebrospinal fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the choroid plexus and circulates around the surface of the brain; spinal cord; and in the cerebral ventricles. Ventricular System: Anatomy (CSF) when the meninges Meninges The brain and the spinal cord are enveloped by 3 overlapping layers of connective tissue called the meninges. The layers are, from the most external layer to the most internal layer, the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Between these layers are 3 potential spaces called the epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces. Meninges: Anatomy are inflamed.
      • Half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics is 4–6 hours (in adults).
    • Teicoplanin:
      • 90% protein bound
      • Longer half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics than vancomycin (can be given as a single, daily dose)

Metabolism and excretion

  •  Vancomycin:
    • Poorly metabolized
    • Excreted unchanged in the urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat by the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy
  • Teicoplanin: similar to vancomycin with primarily renal excretion

Indications

Glycopeptide antibiotics have broad activity against gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins bacterial infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease and are often used as the last resort treatment for serious conditions. 

Table: Indications for glycopeptide antibiotics
Drug Indications Clinical Pearls
Vancomycin
  • Clostridiodes difficile infection (oral)
  • Staphylococcal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
    • Bacteremia
    • Bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    • Lower respiratory tract infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease ( pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia)
    • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions and soft tissue Soft Tissue Soft Tissue Abscess infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (SSTIs)
    • Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis/ central nervous system Central nervous system The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Endocarditis Endocarditis Endocarditis is an inflammatory disease involving the inner lining (endometrium) of the heart, most commonly affecting the cardiac valves. Both infectious and noninfectious etiologies lead to vegetations on the valve leaflets. Patients may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fever and fatigue. Endocarditis:
    • Enterococcus Enterococcus Enterococcus is a genus of oval-shaped gram-positive cocci that are arranged in pairs or short chains. Distinguishing factors include optochin resistance and the presence of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) and Lancefield D antigen. Enterococcus is part of the normal flora of the human GI tract. Enterococcus
    • Corynebacteria
    • Staphylococci (including MRSA MRSA A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of methicillin. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired penicillin binding proteins. Staphylococcus)
    • Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus viridans
    • Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus bovis
  • Does not cover gram-negative organisms
  • Intravenous infusion is administered over 60 minutes (rapid infusion → red man syndrome)
  • Vancomycin monitoring:
    • Serum trough levels (within 30 minutes prior to a dose, typically before the 4th dose of a regimen)
    • Renal function (dose adjustment may be needed if function is impaired)
    • CBC (depending on underlying condition or adverse effect)
Teicoplanin Similar spectrum of activity as vancomycin
  • Better tolerated than vancomycin
  • Not available in the United States

Adverse Effects

Vancomycin

  • Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered antigen. The reaction may include rapidly progressing urticaria, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic shock, and death. Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction
  • Delayed hypersensitivity reaction:
  • Red man syndrome: 
    • Flushing, erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion, itching of the face and chest, and sometimes hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension resulting from histamine release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology caused by rapid vancomycin infusion
    • Prevented by slowing infusion time and pretreating with antihistamines Antihistamines Antihistamines are drugs that target histamine receptors, particularly H1 and H2 receptors. H1 antagonists are competitive and reversible inhibitors of H1 receptors. First-generation antihistamines cross the blood-brain barrier and can cause sedation. Antihistamines
    • Not a true allergy Allergy An abnormal adaptive immune response that may or may not involve antigen-specific IgE Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction
  • Vancomycin-induced neutropenia Neutropenia Neutrophils are an important component of the immune system and play a significant role in the eradication of infections. Low numbers of circulating neutrophils, referred to as neutropenia, predispose the body to recurrent infections or sepsis, though patients can also be asymptomatic. Neutropenia
    • Rare but serious adverse reaction 
    • Absolute neutrophil count Absolute neutrophil count The number of neutrophils (as opposed to the percentage of WBCs) circulating per µL of blood . Neutropenia (ANC) < 1,000/µL (associated with prolonged use of vancomycin)
    • Unknown mechanism 
  • Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia:
    • Not dose related
    • Typically seen within 1–2 weeks of initiation
  • Nephrotoxicity:
    • Not dose related
    • Seen in individuals with risk factors:
      • Trough levels ≥ 15 mg/L or high daily doses
      • Longer exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment (> 7 days)
      • Preexisting renal impairment
      • Concurrent administration of another nephrotoxic drug
  • Ototoxicity:
    • Manifests as tinnitus Tinnitus A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of cochlear diseases; vestibulocochlear nerve diseases; intracranial hypertension; craniocerebral trauma; and other conditions. Cranial Nerve Palsies, sensorineural hearing loss Hearing loss Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is any degree of impairment in the ability to apprehend sound as determined by audiometry to be below normal hearing thresholds. Clinical presentation may occur at birth or as a gradual loss of hearing with age, including a short-term or sudden loss at any point. Hearing Loss, dizziness Dizziness An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness. Lateral Medullary Syndrome (Wallenberg Syndrome), or vertigo Vertigo Vertigo is defined as the perceived sensation of rotational motion while remaining still. A very common complaint in primary care and the ER, vertigo is more frequently experienced by women and its prevalence increases with age. Vertigo is classified into peripheral or central based on its etiology. Vertigo
    • Increased risk if administered with another ototoxic agent (e.g., aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics including gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, neomycin, plazomicin, and streptomycin. The class binds the 30S ribosomal subunit to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Unlike other medications with a similar mechanism of action, aminoglycosides are bactericidal. Aminoglycosides)
  • Phlebitis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation, pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, swelling Swelling Inflammation, and erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion of a vein from the injection of drugs or hypertonic Hypertonic Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid. Renal Sodium and Water Regulation solutions

Teicoplanin

  • Generally better tolerated
  • Rarely associated with incidences of red man syndrome, ototoxicity, or nephrotoxicity

Contraindications Contraindications A condition or factor associated with a recipient that makes the use of a drug, procedure, or physical agent improper or inadvisable. Contraindications may be absolute (life threatening) or relative (higher risk of complications in which benefits may outweigh risks). Noninvasive Ventilation

  • In general, hypersensitivity to vancomycin or teicoplanin
  • Precautions for individuals with underlying conditions such as:
    • Renal impairment
    • Hearing disorders
    • Neutropenia Neutropenia Neutrophils are an important component of the immune system and play a significant role in the eradication of infections. Low numbers of circulating neutrophils, referred to as neutropenia, predispose the body to recurrent infections or sepsis, though patients can also be asymptomatic. Neutropenia
    • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia

Mechanism of Resistance

  • Glycopeptide-resistant strains of enterococci (especially Enterococcus Enterococcus Enterococcus is a genus of oval-shaped gram-positive cocci that are arranged in pairs or short chains. Distinguishing factors include optochin resistance and the presence of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) and Lancefield D antigen. Enterococcus is part of the normal flora of the human GI tract. Enterococcus faecium): 
    • The mechanism typically involves binding with the D-alanyl-D- alanine Alanine A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids terminus of PG precursors of the bacterial cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic.
    • Resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing results from the alteration of the D-alanyl-D- alanine Alanine A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids target to D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-alanyl-D- serine Serine A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the l-isomer. It is synthesized from glycine or threonine. It is involved in the biosynthesis of purines; pyrimidines; and other amino acids. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids (results in poor glycopeptide binding)
  • Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease are a major source of nosocomial infection Nosocomial infection Nosocomial infections include intravascular catheter-related infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs), and surgical site infections. Multidrug-resistant Organisms and Nosocomial Infections.

Comparison of Antibiotics

The following antibiotics are agents with activity against gram-positive bacteria gram-positive bacteria Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by gram’s method. Bacteriology. All act on the bacterial cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic through varying mechanisms.

Table: Comparison of antibiotics
Class of antibiotics Mechanism of action Drugs
Lipopeptides Lipopeptides Lipopeptides and lipoglycopeptides are classes of antibiotics that have activity against gram-positive bacteria and that act on the bacterial cell wall. Lipopeptides (daptomycin) disrupt the cell membrane by creating an ion-conducting channel and causing potassium efflux and membrane depolarization. Lipopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides Disruption of the bacterial cell membrane Cell Membrane A cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment. A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane by generating an ion-conducting channel, depolarizing the membrane, and leading to cell death Cell death Injurious stimuli trigger the process of cellular adaptation, whereby cells respond to withstand the harmful changes in their environment. Overwhelmed adaptive mechanisms lead to cell injury. Mild stimuli produce reversible injury. If the stimulus is severe or persistent, injury becomes irreversible. Apoptosis is programmed cell death, a mechanism with both physiologic and pathologic effects. Cell Injury and Death Daptomycin Daptomycin A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits gram-positive bacteria. Lipopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides
Glycopeptides Inhibition of cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by binding to the D-alanyl-D- alanine Alanine A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids terminus of cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan Penicillins (PG) precursors
  • Vancomycin
  • Teicoplanin
Lipoglycopeptides Lipoglycopeptides Lipopeptides and lipoglycopeptides are classes of antibiotics that have activity against gram-positive bacteria and that act on the bacterial cell wall. Lipoglycopeptides have a dual action of inhibiting bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding peptidoglycan precursors and causing cell membrane depolarization. Lipopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides Dual action of inhibition of cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and depolarization Depolarization Membrane Potential of the cell membrane Cell Membrane A cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment. A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane

Comparison of Antibiotic Coverage

Different antibiotics have varying degrees of activity against different bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology. The table below outlines the antibiotics with activity against 3 important classes of bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology: gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins cocci Cocci Bacteriology, gram-negative bacilli Bacilli Shigella, and anaerobes Anaerobes Lincosamides.

Antibiotic sensitivity chart

Antibiotic sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques:
Chart comparing the microbial coverage of different antibiotics for gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins cocci Cocci Bacteriology, gram-negative bacilli Bacilli Shigella, and anaerobes Anaerobes Lincosamides.

Image by Lecturio. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

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  7. MacDougall, C. (2017). Protein synthesis inhibitors and miscellaneous antibacterial agents. In Brunton L.L., et al. (Eds.), Goodman & Gilman’s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 13e. McGraw Hill. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2189&sectionid=172485211
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  10. Vancomycin: Drug information. (2021). UpToDate. Retrieved July 17, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/vancomycin-drug-information

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