Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and nosocomial infections are a global health issue and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. MDROs are microorganisms, mainly bacteria, that are resistant/non-susceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial class categories. Included in this group are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs), Gram-negative bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), difficult-to-treat/resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales or CREs (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Klebsiella). Since antibiotic therapy for MDROs is limited, preventive measures such as antibiotic stewardship and infection control are recommended. Nosocomial infections, also called “healthcare-associated” or “hospital-acquired” infections (HAI), are infections transmitted in a hospital or healthcare facility, and which were absent at the time of admission. These include intravascular catheter-related infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs), and surgical site infections. Risk factors for developing such infections include hospitalization, residence in a long-term healthcare facility, frequent use of antibiotics, and underlying comorbidities.
Last updated: Jul 10, 2023
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