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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. M. tuberculosis are acid-fast, slowly growing bacteria that can survive in macrophages, allowing for a latent infection that can remain asymptomatic for decades, posing a challenge to diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. The diagnosis is established with tuberculin skin test, sputum culture, and lung imaging. The mainstay of management is anti-mycobacterial drugs.

Last updated: Oct 10, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease affecting the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy and, sometimes, other organs. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium Mycobacterium Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology.

Epidemiology

  • TB is the deadliest infectious disease in the world, with approximately 1.4 million deaths per year.
  • 30% of the world’s population is infected with TB.
  • 10% of infected people will develop the active form of the disease.
  • In 2019, 10 million people contracted TB.
  • TB is the leading cause of death in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with human immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology ( HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs).
  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 2.7 per 100,000 people in the United States (2019)
  • Regions with the highest incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of TB: 
  • Risk factors:
Prevalence of tuberculosis

Estimated prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of tuberculosis per 100,000 people in 2007, per country

Image: “Estimated prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of tuberculosis” by Eubulides. License: Public Domain

Pathophysiology

Etiologic agent

The M. tuberculosis complex is a group of species that can cause TB in humans or other animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic.

Key species:

  • M. tuberculosis
  • M. bovis
  • M. africanum
  • M. microti
  • M. canetti

Characteristics:

  • Acid fast:
    • Property conferred by mycolic acid
    • Do not destain by acid alcohol after being stained with aniline dyes
  • Gram stain Gram stain Klebsiella:
    • Usually cannot penetrate MTBC waxy cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic
    • Most commonly produce no stain or variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables results
  • Slow growing
  • Obligate aerobes Obligate aerobes Bacteriology
Acid fast stain of mycobacterium tuberculosis

Acid-fast stain Acid-Fast Stain Meningitis in Children of M. tuberculosis

Image: “ Mycobacterium Mycobacterium Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology” by CDC/Dr. George P. Kubica. License: Public Domain

Virulence Virulence The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its virulence factors. Proteus factors:

  • Cell envelope Envelope Bilayer lipid membrane acquired by viral particles during viral morphogenesis. Although the lipids of the viral envelope are host derived, various virus-encoded integral membrane proteins, i.e. Viral envelope proteins are incorporated there. Virology:
    • Major constituent: mycolic acid
    • Mycolic acid is attached to glycolipids Glycolipids Lipid attached to carbohydrate, outward-facing. The Cell: Cell Membrane.
    • Glycolipids Glycolipids Lipid attached to carbohydrate, outward-facing. The Cell: Cell Membrane are responsible for “cord formation” on microscopy (grossly corresponds to granuloma formation).
  • Catalase-peroxidase: resists host cell oxidative response
  • Sulfatides Sulfatides Mycobacterium and trehalose dimycolate Trehalose dimycolate Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other species of Mycobacterium. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals. Mycobacterium: triggers Triggers Hereditary Angioedema (C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency) toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation
  • Lipoarabinomannan ( LAM LAM Tuberous Sclerosis): induces cytokines Cytokines Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner. Adaptive Immune Response

Transmission:

  • Exclusively airborne
  • From patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with active TB

Pathogenesis

  • 1st step is inhalation of aerosol droplets Droplets Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox.
  • Droplets Droplets Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox are deposited in the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy.
  • 3 possible outcomes:
    • Clearance of bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology
    • Primary active disease
    • Latent infection (clinical disease may occur many years later)

Primary active disease:

  • Proliferation of bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology within alveolar macrophages Macrophages The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood monocytes. Main types are peritoneal macrophages; alveolar macrophages; histiocytes; kupffer cells of the liver; and osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or langhans giant cells. Innate Immunity: Phagocytes and Antigen Presentation
  • Cytokines Cytokines Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner. Adaptive Immune Response produced by macrophages Macrophages The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood monocytes. Main types are peritoneal macrophages; alveolar macrophages; histiocytes; kupffer cells of the liver; and osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or langhans giant cells. Innate Immunity: Phagocytes and Antigen Presentation attract other phagocytic cells.
  • A tubercle (granulomatous structure) forms.
  • Tubercle expands into lung parenchyma → Ghon’s complex
  • Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology then can spread to draining lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs nodes → lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
  • Ghon’s complex + lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy/calcification → Ranke complex
  • If spread is not controlled by the immune cells, bacteremia Bacteremia The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion. Glycopeptides with seeding Seeding The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis of other organs may occur → miliary TB
  • When bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology erode into airways (caseating granulomas Granulomas A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents. Sarcoidosis), the patient becomes contagious.
  • Infection may progress to a chronic stage with episodes of healing and subsequent scarring Scarring Inflammation of the lesions.
  • Spontaneous eradication is rare.

Latent infection:

  • Lifetime risk of reactivation Reactivation Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 is 5%–10%.
  • Immunosuppression is a definite factor in reactivation Reactivation Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2.
  • Risk factors:
    • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs
    • Kidney disease
    • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors
    • Lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Advanced age
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases

Clinical Presentation

Tuberculosis clinical presentation

Schematic diagram depicting the various clinical presentations of tuberculosis along with the characteristic pathologic mechanisms of each presentation

Image by Lecturio. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Primary TB

  • Symptomatic primary disease develops in only about 10% of infected people.
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever:
    • Most common symptom
    • Mostly low grade, but may be up to 39°C (102.2°F)
    • Lasts up to 10 weeks, but on average 14–21 days
  • Pleuritic chest pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways (may or may not be associated with effusion)
  • Retrosternal/interscapular pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways (due to bronchial lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy)
  • Cough
  • Fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia
  • Arthralgia Arthralgia Pain in the joint. Rheumatic Fever
  • Pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis

Reactivation Reactivation Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 TB

  • Apical segments of upper lobes and superior segments of lower lobes are most commonly involved, likely because of:
    • Increased oxygen tension
    • Poor lymphatic drainage
  • Onset of symptoms is gradual; may go undiagnosed for 2–3 years
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
      • Low grade first, worsening with more advanced disease
      • Classically diurnal: peaks in the afternoon, afebrile at night and in the early morning
    • Night sweats
    • Cough:
      • Mild first, gradually worsening
      • Initially only in the mornings
      • Becomes more productive (greenish-yellow sputum) as disease progresses
      • Nocturnal cough and hemoptysis Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood originating in the lower respiratory tract. Hemoptysis is a consequence of another disease process and can be classified as either life threatening or non-life threatening. Hemoptysis can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to both drowning (reduced gas exchange as the lungs fill with blood) and hemorrhagic shock. Hemoptysis: advanced disease
    • Pneumothorax Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a life-threatening condition in which air collects in the pleural space, causing partial or full collapse of the lung. A pneumothorax can be traumatic or spontaneous. Patients present with a sudden onset of sharp chest pain, dyspnea, and diminished breath sounds on exam. Pneumothorax or effusions may present with dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea (rare).
    • Anorexia Anorexia The lack or loss of appetite accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder anorexia nervosa. Anorexia Nervosa, wasting, malaise Malaise Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus
    • Ulcers of mouth, tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy, larynx Larynx The larynx, also commonly called the voice box, is a cylindrical space located in the neck at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae. The major structures forming the framework of the larynx are the thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and epiglottis. The larynx serves to produce sound (phonation), conducts air to the trachea, and prevents large molecules from reaching the lungs. Larynx: Anatomy, and esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy: due to infected expectorated secretions

Extrapulmonary and miliary TB

  • Can develop in the course of primary or reactivation Reactivation Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 disease
  • In up to 15%–20% of active cases
  • Most common in children and immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals
  • Extrapulmonary manifestations (can affect any organ system): 
    • Tuberculous pleurisy Pleurisy Pleuritis, also known as pleurisy, is an inflammation of the visceral and parietal layers of the pleural membranes of the lungs. The condition can be primary or secondary and results in sudden, sharp, and intense chest pain on inhalation and exhalation. Pleuritis 
    • Adrenal gland insufficiency
    • Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis
    • Spondylitis tuberculosa (Pott’s disease, TB infection of > 1 vertebra)
    • Constrictive pericarditis Pericarditis Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium, often with fluid accumulation. It can be caused by infection (often viral), myocardial infarction, drugs, malignancies, metabolic disorders, autoimmune disorders, or trauma. Acute, subacute, and chronic forms exist. Pericarditis
    • Lupus vulgaris (reddish-brown nodules that usually appear on the face around the nose Nose The nose is the human body’s primary organ of smell and functions as part of the upper respiratory system. The nose may be best known for inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide, but it also contributes to other important functions, such as tasting. The anatomy of the nose can be divided into the external nose and the nasal cavity. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Anatomy, eyelids Eyelids Each of the upper and lower folds of skin which cover the eye when closed. Blepharitis, lips Lips The lips are the soft and movable most external parts of the oral cavity. The blood supply of the lips originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy, cheeks Cheeks The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth. Melasma, ears, and neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess)
    • Scrofula (cervical lymphadenitis Lymphadenitis Inflammation of the lymph nodes. Peritonsillar Abscess)
    • Sterile Sterile Basic Procedures pyuria Pyuria The presence of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without bacteriuria can be caused by tuberculosis, stones, or cancer. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Miliary TB:
    • Massive spread of infection through blood and lymphatics
    • Small granulomatous lesions through multiple organs

Diagnosis

History

  • Travel to endemic areas
  • Exposure to individuals with known or suspected active infection
  • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs or other immune deficiencies
  • Working in healthcare
  • Living in a homeless shelter or correctional institution

Physical exam

  • Findings are often non-specific.
  • Pulmonary:
    • Dullness to percussion Percussion Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained. Pulmonary Examination (effusions)
    • Crackles on auscultation
    • Distant hollow breath sounds
  • Extrapulmonary (depends on organ involvement):
    • Cervical lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
    • Hepatomegaly/ splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly
    • Ascites Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that occurs due to an osmotic and/or hydrostatic pressure imbalance secondary to portal hypertension (cirrhosis, heart failure) or non-portal hypertension (hypoalbuminemia, malignancy, infection). Ascites, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice
    • Meningismus Meningismus Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, altered mental status Altered Mental Status Sepsis in Children
    • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions changes (lupus vulgaris)

Imaging

  • Chest X-ray Chest X-ray X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs. Pulmonary Function Tests:
    • Can be normal in primary TB
    • Hilar lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
    • Ghon’s complex: enlarged hilar lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs nodes + local shadowing
    • Assmann’s focus: infraclavicular infiltration
    • Pleural effusions
    • Reactivation Reactivation Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 TB: 
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan:
    • More sensitive than plain X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests
    • Used if chest X-ray Chest X-ray X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs. Pulmonary Function Tests is non-specific or alternative diagnosis is considered

Laboratory identification Identification Defense Mechanisms

  • Sputum:
    • 3 specimens, at least 1 in the early morning
    • Acid-fast bacillus Bacillus Bacillus are aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli. Two pathogenic species are Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) and B. cereus. Bacillus ( AFB AFB Mycobacterium) smear
    • Mycobacterial culture
    • Nucleic acid amplification Nucleic acid amplification Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template. Septic Arthritis (NAA) test
  • Blood or urine mycobacterial culture: in HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs or immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
  • Tuberculin Tuberculin A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (tuberculin test) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions test (TST; purified protein derivative (PPD) or Mantoux test): 
    • Intradermal injection of tuberculin Tuberculin A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (tuberculin test) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination
    • Can detect active or latent infection
    • Measure induration Induration Dermatologic Examination area in 48–72 hours; positive if: 
      • > 5 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs, immunosuppression, or recent contact with TB
      • > 10 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship from high-risk countries, IV drug users, medical and lab workers
      • > 15 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with no known risk factors for TB
  • lnterferon-y release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology assay (IGRA): no distinction between active and inactive TB

Management

Pharmacologic management

  • The mainstay of treatment is anti-mycobacterial drugs.
  • Usually 2 treatment phases: intensive and stabilization
  • Directly observed therapy (DOT) is preferred:
    • Medications are administered to patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
    • Administration by healthcare providers ensures compliance Compliance Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (lung compliance) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure. Veins: Histology and correct administration.

Summary of anti-tuberculosis regimens

Table: Tuberculosis treatment regimens
Initial phase Initial Phase Sepsis in Children Stabilization phase
Active TB
  • Isolation for 4–6 weeks
  • 2 months of RIPE:
    • Rifampin (RIF)
    • Isoniazid (INH)
    • Pyrazinamide ( PZA PZA A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent. Antimycobacterial Drugs)
    • Ethambutol (EMB)
  • 4 months of:
    • INH
    • RIF
  • Monitoring of sputum for 2 years
Latent TB Treatment options:

Prevention

  • TST screening Screening Preoperative Care for individuals at high risk
  • Isolation of individuals with active pulmonary infection
  • BCG BCG An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity. Cancer Immunotherapy (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination:
    • A nonvirulent form of M. bovis used as a live vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination to provide active immunity against severe forms of TB
    • Not recommended as a universal vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination in countries with low TB burden
    • May be considered for some individuals at high risk of exposure: infants and adolescents < 16 years of age in a high-incidence country
    • 70%–80% effective against most severe forms of TB (miliary TB, tuberculous meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis)
    • Reduced effect against respiratory TB
    • No proof of effectiveness in adults > 35
    • Contraindicated in positive tuberculin Tuberculin A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (tuberculin test) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction reactions, AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS, or immunosuppression
    • Vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination administration will result in a positive TST.

Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

  • Treatment with anti-mycobacterial drugs is 85% successful worldwide.
  • 15% mortality rate Mortality rate Calculated as the ratio of the total number of people who die due to all causes over a specific time period to the total number of people in the selected population. Measures of Health Status worldwide
  • 2.5%–5% rate of treatment failure or relapse Relapse Relapsing Fever in the United States

Differential Diagnosis

  • Chronic bronchitis Chronic bronchitis A subcategory of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis. Rhinovirus: a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by progressive, largely irreversible airflow obstruction. The condition usually presents in middle-aged or elderly persons with a history of cigarette smoking. Signs and symptoms include prolonged expiration, wheezing, diminished breath sounds, progressive dyspnea, and chronic cough. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) ( COPD COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by progressive, largely irreversible airflow obstruction. The condition usually presents in middle-aged or elderly persons with a history of cigarette smoking. Signs and symptoms include prolonged expiration, wheezing, diminished breath sounds, progressive dyspnea, and chronic cough. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)) involving inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation and swelling Swelling Inflammation of the airways, leading to productive cough for > 3 months in a year for > 2 consecutive years. Diagnosis is established by history, physical exam, and pulmonary function tests. Treatment involves bronchodilators Bronchodilators Asthma Drugs and steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors.
  • Atypical pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia: a form of pulmonary infection that typically has a slow onset and progression and presents with a non-productive, dry cough Dry Cough Strongyloidiasis and extrapulmonary symptoms such as fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia, malaise Malaise Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, and headaches. Diagnosis is made from history, physical exam, and chest imaging. Atypical pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics.
  • M. avium complex (MAC) infection: an AIDS-defining condition. Mycobacterium avium Mycobacterium avium A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the m. avium complex, which infects primarily humans. Mycobacterium complex is an opportunistic infection caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria Mycobacteria Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium species that typically affects immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship. Manifests with fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, night sweats, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea. Treatment includes antibiotics ( macrolides Macrolides Macrolides and ketolides are antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and blocking transpeptidation. These antibiotics have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity but are best known for their coverage of atypical microorganisms. Macrolides and Ketolides and ethambutol Ethambutol An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle Bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. Antimycobacterial Drugs).
  • Lung mycoses Mycoses Diseases caused by fungi. Mycology: fungal diseases usually due to opportunistic pathogens that infect patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with immune deficiencies; includes candidiasis Candidiasis Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis, cryptococcosis Cryptococcosis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic, fungal infection caused by the Cryptococcus species. The principal pathogens in humans are C. neoformans (primary) and C. gattii. The majority of affected patients are immunocompromised. Patients with AIDS, chronic steroid use, and organ transplant are particularly affected. Cryptococcosis is an AIDS-defining illness and typically associated with CD4 count < 100 cells/μL. Cryptococcus/Cryptococcosis, and aspergillosis Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species, which are common spore-forming molds found in our environment. As Aspergillus species are opportunistic, they cause disease primarily in patients who are immunocompromised. The organs that are most commonly involved are the lungs and sinuses. Aspergillus/Aspergillosis. Symptoms may include cough, hemoptysis Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood originating in the lower respiratory tract. Hemoptysis is a consequence of another disease process and can be classified as either life threatening or non-life threatening. Hemoptysis can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to both drowning (reduced gas exchange as the lungs fill with blood) and hemorrhagic shock. Hemoptysis, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, fevers, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, and fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia. Diagnosis is made by imaging and histologic examination. Treatment involves systemic antifungal Antifungal Azoles medications.
  • Bronchial carcinoma: a type of lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer is the malignant transformation of lung tissue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases are associated with long-term smoking. The disease is generally classified histologically as either small cell lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest discomfort. Lung Cancer that arises within the main airways. Frequently presents with cough, hemoptysis Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood originating in the lower respiratory tract. Hemoptysis is a consequence of another disease process and can be classified as either life threatening or non-life threatening. Hemoptysis can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to both drowning (reduced gas exchange as the lungs fill with blood) and hemorrhagic shock. Hemoptysis, and constitutional symptoms Constitutional Symptoms Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis. Diagnosis is established by imaging and biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Treatment depends on the stage and includes surgical resection, adjuvant Adjuvant Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (freund’s adjuvant, bcg, corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity. Vaccination radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, and chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma.
  • Granulomatous diseases Granulomatous diseases A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the cybb gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by cyba, ncf1, ncf2, or ncf4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction:
    • Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis: a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas Noncaseating granulomas Crohn’s Disease, typically in the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy and, less commonly, in the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy, eyes, and skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions. Pulmonary sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis presents with cough, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, chest pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and constitutional symptoms Constitutional Symptoms Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis. Definitive diagnosis is established by histology. Some cases are self-limited, while others are treated with steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors and immunosuppressive drugs Immunosuppressive drugs Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-cells or by inhibiting the activation of helper cells. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of interleukins and other cytokines are emerging. Organ Transplantation
    • Pneumoconiosis Pneumoconiosis Pneumoconiosis is an occupational disease that results from the inhalation and deposition of mineral dusts and other inorganic particles in the lung. It can be categorized according to the type of causative particle involved or by the type of response provoked. Pneumoconiosis: an occupational disease that consists of a group of restrictive interstitial lung diseases Interstitial Lung Diseases Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the inflammation and fibrosis of lung parenchyma, especially the pulmonary connective tissue in the alveolar walls. It may be idiopathic (e.g., idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) or secondary to connective tissue diseases, medications, malignancies, occupational exposure, or allergens. Interstitial Lung Diseases caused by inhalation of toxic dust. Presents with cough and progressive dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea. Diagnosed by imaging and histology. Management is largely supportive.
    • Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, immunocompromised individuals generally develop acute pulmonary infection, chronic infection, or even disseminated disease. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis: an infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma Histoplasma Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. The fungus exists as a mold at low temperatures and as yeast at high temperatures. H. capsulatum is the most common endemic fungal infection in the US and is most prevalent in the midwestern and central states along the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis capsulatum. Presents with symptoms of pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia. Can also cause diffuse systemic infection in immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals. Diagnosis is established histologically. Treatment involves antifungal Antifungal Azoles medications.

References

  1. Fordham von Reyn C. (2020). Vaccines for prevention of tuberculosis. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/vaccines-for-prevention-of-tuberculosis
  2. Pozniak A. (2019). Clinical manifestations and complications of pulmonary tuberculosis. Retrieved January 13, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-complications-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
  3. Riley L.W. (2019). Tuberculosis: Natural history, microbiology, and pathogenesis. Retrieved January 13, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/tuberculosis-natural-history-microbiology-and-pathogenesis
  4. Sterling, T. (2020). Treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-uninfected adults. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-drug-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hiv-uninfected-adults
  5. Tuberculosis (TB). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 13, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/tb/default.htm

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