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Lymphadenopathy

Lymphadenopathy is lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign Benign Fibroadenoma and self-limited in most patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship. Etiologies include malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment. Anterior Cord Syndrome causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Diagnosis relies on a thorough medical history and physical examination, which usually identify the underlying cause. When the cause is unknown, a biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma may be necessary. Management is directed at the underlying infection, malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax, or other cause.

Last updated: 30 Mar, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Lymphadenopathy is lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node enlargement of usually > 1 cm. It is considered localized if the enlargement is limited to lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy of 1 anatomic region and generalized when ≥ 2 regions are involved.

Etiology

Most often, lymphadenopathy is a reaction to a local infection. Less frequently, it may be due to a malignant process or chronic, systemic disease. The following conditions include lymphadenopathy in their clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor:

  • Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant:
    • Viral infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
      • EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus 
      • CMV 
      • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs 
      • Childhood diseases: varicella, measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus, mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps, rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus
      • HSV HSV Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae. Herpes simplex virus commonly causes recurrent infections involving the skin and mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2-1 and HSV HSV Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae. Herpes simplex virus commonly causes recurrent infections involving the skin and mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2-2
      • Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a nonenveloped virus of the Picornaviridae family with single-stranded RNA. HAV causes an acute, highly contagious hepatitis with unspecific prodromal symptoms such as fever and malaise followed by jaundice and elevated liver transaminases. Hepatitis A Virus, B, and C
    • Bacterial infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
      • Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Brain Abscess 
      • Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes
      • Treponema pallidum Treponema pallidum The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws. Treponema (causes syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis)
      • Mycobacterium Mycobacterium Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment or risk factors
      • M. avium-intracellulare in immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
      • M. marinum in fishermen
    • Fungal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
      • Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. When Coccidioides spores are inhaled, they transform into spherules that result in infection. Coccidioidomycosis is also a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can cause severe disease in the immunocompromised. Coccidioides/Coccidioidomycosis in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with recent travel to endemic areas
      • Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Transmission is through inhalation, and exposure to soils containing bird or bat droppings increases the risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, immunocompromised individuals generally develop acute pulmonary infection, chronic infection, or even disseminated disease. Histoplasma/Histoplasmosis
      • Cryptococcosis Cryptococcosis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic, fungal infection caused by the Cryptococcus species. The principal pathogens in humans are C. neoformans (primary) and C. gattii. The majority of affected patients are immunocompromised. Patients with AIDS, chronic steroid use, and organ transplant are particularly affected. Cryptococcosis is an AIDS-defining illness and typically associated with CD4 count < 100 cells/μL. Cryptococcus/Cryptococcosis
      • Sporotrichosis in gardeners
    • Parasitic infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
      • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Felines are the definitive host, but transmission to humans can occur through contact with cat feces or the consumption of contaminated foods. The clinical presentation and complications depend on the host’s immune status. Toxoplasma/Toxoplasmosis
      • Chagas disease Chagas disease Infection with the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi, a form of trypanosomiasis endemic in central and south america. It is named after the brazilian physician carlos chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of parasympathetic ganglia; chagas cardiomyopathy; and dysfunction of the esophagus or colon. Trypanosoma cruzi/Chagas disease 
      • Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis Leishmania species are obligate intracellular parasites that are transmitted by an infected sandfly. The mildest form is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), characterized by painless skin ulcers. The mucocutaneous type involves more tissue destruction, causing deformities. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form, presents with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fever. Leishmania/Leishmaniasis
  • Malignancies:
    • Primary hematologic:
      • ALL
      • Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum ( HL HL Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a hodgkin/reed-sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma)
      • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (NHL)
    • Metastatic cancers:
      • Breast cancer Breast cancer Breast cancer is a disease characterized by malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the breast. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Breast Cancer
      • Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer is the malignant transformation of lung tissue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases are associated with long-term smoking. The disease is generally classified histologically as either small cell lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest discomfort. Lung Cancer
      • Thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body. The thyroid gland is a highly vascular, brownish-red gland located in the visceral compartment of the anterior region of the neck. Thyroid Gland: Anatomy cancer 
  • Autoimmune disorders: 
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ( SLE SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
    • Juvenile idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis arthritis Arthritis Acute or chronic inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis ( JIA JIA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by inflammation of 1 or more joints and is the most common pediatric rheumatic disease. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis)
  • Endocrinopathy Endocrinopathy IPEX Syndrome: primary adrenal insufficiency Primary adrenal insufficiency An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the adrenal cortex, resulting in insufficient production of aldosterone and hydrocortisone. Clinical symptoms include anorexia; nausea; weight loss; muscle weakness; and hyperpigmentation of the skin due to increase in circulating levels of acth precursor hormone which stimulates melanocytes. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison’s Disease ( Addison’s disease Addison’s Disease Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is the inadequate production of adrenocortical hormones: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens. Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease, is caused by autoimmune disease, infections, and malignancy, among others. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison’s Disease)
  • Iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment. Anterior Cord Syndrome causes: medications
    • Anticonvulsants: 
      • Carbamazepine Carbamazepine A dibenzazepine that acts as a sodium channel blocker. It is used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. It may also be used in the management of bipolar disorder, and has analgesic properties. First-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs
      • Phenytoin Phenytoin An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs. First-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs 
      • Lamotrigine Lamotrigine A phenyltriazine compound, sodium and calcium channel blocker that is used for the treatment of seizures and bipolar disorder. Second-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs
    • Antibiotics: 
      • Penicillin Penicillin Rheumatic Fever 
      • Cephalosporins Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are a group of bactericidal beta-lactam antibiotics (similar to penicillins) that exert their effects by preventing bacteria from producing their cell walls, ultimately leading to cell death. Cephalosporins are categorized by generation and all drug names begin with “cef-” or “ceph-.” Cephalosporins 
      • Pyrimethamine Pyrimethamine One of the folic acid antagonists that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis. Antimalarial Drugs
    • Others:
      • Sulfonamides Sulfonamides A group of compounds that contain the structure so2nh2. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim
      • Sulindac Sulindac A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active nsaid analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
      • Allopurinol Allopurinol A xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms. Gout Drugs
  • Inborn errors of metabolism: 
    • Niemann-Pick disease Niemann-Pick disease Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a rare, inherited, lysosomal storage disorder. The disease is classified on the basis of the genetic mutation. Type A and type B result from mutations in the SMPD-1 gene, resulting in acid sphingomyelinase enzyme deficiency. Type C results from NPC1 or NPC2 gene mutations, which are needed for intracellular transport of lipids. Niemann-Pick Disease
    • Gaucher disease Gaucher disease Gaucher Disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase enzyme activity, resulting in accumulation of glucocerebroside in cells and certain organs. The disease is categorized into 3 types with variable clinical presentation. Gaucher Disease
    • Fabry disease Fabry disease Fabry disease (FD), also known as Anderson-Fabry disease, is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder and the 2nd most common of the lysosomal storage disorders. Fabry disease is caused by a deficiency in the alpha-galactosidase enzyme (alpha-Gal A), resulting in the accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in lysosomes. Fabry Disease 

Mnemonic

To recall the various causes of lymphadenopathy, remember MIAMI:

  • Malignancy
  • Infection 
  • Autoimmune 
  • Inborn errors of Metabolism
  • Iatrogenic 

Pathophysiology

The immune and lymphatic systems are highly interrelated. Lymphocytes Lymphocytes Lymphocytes are heterogeneous WBCs involved in immune response. Lymphocytes develop from the bone marrow, starting from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progressing to common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). B and T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells arise from the lineage. Lymphocytes: Histology are transported via the lymphatic vessels Lymphatic Vessels Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of lymph and lymphocytes. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy to lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy. Humans have about 500–600 lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy throughout the body. Lymphadenopathy, or swelling Swelling Inflammation of lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy, may occur in response to infection, malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax, or chronic disease.

Distribution of lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy

Pathogenic mechanisms

Cells, plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products, and foreign particles in the interstitial space become lymphatic fluid upon entering the lymphatic vessels Lymphatic Vessels Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of lymph and lymphocytes. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy. Within the lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy, this fluid is filtered of excess fluid and abnormal cells (e.g., infected, malignant, damaged, presenting antigens). This triggers Triggers Hereditary Angioedema (C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency) an immune response that involves cellular proliferation, causing the nodes to enlarge (reactive lymphadenopathy).

Lymphadenopathy results from 1 of the pathologic processes:

  • Immune cell proliferation (infection)
  • Malignant proliferation:
  • Accumulation of metabolites

Clinical Presentation

The signs and symptoms associated with lymphadenopathy will depend on the cause and the type (localized versus generalized).

Localized lymphadenopathy

  • Anterior cervical lymphadenopathy caused by viral or bacterial infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    • Streptococcal pharyngitis Streptococcal Pharyngitis Rheumatic Fever
    • Mononucleosis Mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as “the kissing disease,” is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Its common name is derived from its main method of transmission: the spread of infected saliva via kissing. Clinical manifestations of IM include fever, tonsillar pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. Mononucleosis
    • Otitis media
    • Sinusitis Sinusitis Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses. The condition usually occurs concurrently with inflammation of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis), a condition known as rhinosinusitis. Acute sinusitis is due to an upper respiratory infection caused by a viral, bacterial, or fungal agent. Sinusitis
    • Facial cellulitis Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common infection caused by bacteria that affects the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the skin. It is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The skin infection presents as an erythematous and edematous area with warmth and tenderness. Cellulitis
    • Dental infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Anterior cervical lymphadenopathy caused by noninfectious Noninfectious Febrile Infant conditions:
  • Posterior cervical:
    • Infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease such as EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus in mononucleosis Mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as “the kissing disease,” is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Its common name is derived from its main method of transmission: the spread of infected saliva via kissing. Clinical manifestations of IM include fever, tonsillar pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. Mononucleosis, tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis, lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Scalp dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis Psoriasis Psoriasis is a common T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unknown, but is thought to be due to genetic inheritance and environmental triggers. There are 4 major subtypes, with the most common form being chronic plaque psoriasis. Psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
    • Malignancies such as lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is caused by malignant proliferation of atypical keratinocytes. This condition is the 2nd most common skin malignancy and usually affects sun-exposed areas of fair-skinned patients. The cancer presents as a firm, erythematous, keratotic plaque or papule. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
  • Supraclavicular:
    • Right supraclavicular adenopathy is associated with cancer in the mediastinum Mediastinum The mediastinum is the thoracic area between the 2 pleural cavities. The mediastinum contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous systems including the heart and esophagus, and major thoracic vessels. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy, lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy, or esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy.
    • Left supraclavicular adenopathy (Virchow’s node): associated with abdominal or pelvic malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax from the stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy, gallbladder Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, located directly beneath the liver, that sits on top of the superior part of the duodenum. The primary functions of the gallbladder include concentrating and storing up to 50 mL of bile. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy, pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy, kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy, testicles Testicles The testicles, also known as the testes or the male gonads, are a pair of egg-shaped glands suspended within the scrotum. The testicles have multiple layers: an outer tunica vaginalis, an intermediate tunica albuginea, and an innermost tunica vasculosa. The testicles are composed of testicular lobules and seminiferous tubules. Testicles: Anatomy, ovaries Ovaries Ovaries are the paired gonads of the female reproductive system that contain haploid gametes known as oocytes. The ovaries are located intraperitoneally in the pelvis, just posterior to the broad ligament, and are connected to the pelvic sidewall and to the uterus by ligaments. These organs function to secrete hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and to produce the female germ cells (oocytes). Ovaries: Anatomy, lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum, or prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate, Seminal, and Bulbourethral Glands: Anatomy
  • Axillary:
    • Infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease such as cat scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis. This organism can also be a cause of cat-scratch disease in immunocompetent patients. Bartonella
    • Breast cancer Breast cancer Breast cancer is a disease characterized by malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the breast. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Breast Cancer
  • Epitrochlear: Palpable epitrochlear nodes are always pathologic.
    • Infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease of the forearm Forearm The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. The term “forearm” is used in anatomy to distinguish this area from the arm, a term that is commonly used to describe the entire upper limb. The forearm consists of 2 long bones (the radius and the ulna), the interosseous membrane, and multiple arteries, nerves, and muscles. Forearm: Anatomy or hand Hand The hand constitutes the distal part of the upper limb and provides the fine, precise movements needed in activities of daily living. It consists of 5 metacarpal bones and 14 phalanges, as well as numerous muscles innervated by the median and ulnar nerves. Hand: Anatomy
    • Lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis
    • Tularemia
    • Secondary syphilis Secondary Syphilis Syphilis
  • Inguinal: often seen in healthy people, as chronic trauma and infection are common in the lower extremities
    • Not always considered pathologic
    • Can be due to pelvic or genitourinary malignancies
    • Sexually transmitted infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease such as chancroid Chancroid Chancroid is a highly transmissible STD caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. The disease presents with painful ulcer(s) on the genital tract (termed chancroid or “soft chancre”). Up to 50% of patients will develop painful inguinal lymphadenopathy. Chancroid, syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis, lymphogranuloma venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. But is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum, which is caused by calymmatobacterium granulomatis. Chlamydial Infections, or genital herpes Genital Herpes Genital herpes infections are common sexually transmitted infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or 2. Primary infection often presents with systemic, prodromal symptoms followed by clusters of painful, fluid-filled vesicles on an erythematous base, dysuria, and painful lymphadenopathy. Labial and Genital Herpes

Generalized lymphadenopathy

  • Primary HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs disease: nontender cervical and axillary nodes develop in the majority of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship during the 2nd week of acute symptomatic HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs infection due to the emergence of an immune response.
  • Mycobacterium Mycobacterium Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis
  • Autoimmune disease: SLE SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis
  • Malignancies:
    • Hodgkin disease Hodgkin Disease A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate hodgkin’s and reed-sternberg cells are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen. Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • NHL
    • ALL or CLL CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
    • Plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products cell disorders 
    • POEMS syndrome (Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal protein, Skin changes)
    • Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (also called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum)
  • Rare systemic diseases

Diagnosis and Management

Diagnosis

History:

  • Onset: rapid onset versus slow-growing
  • Symptoms: painful versus painless
  • Location: 1 area or multiple areas
  • Associated symptoms:
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
    • Night sweats Night sweats Tuberculosis
    • Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery
    • Fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia
    • Cough
    • Rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Genital symptoms
  • Medical history:
    • Sexual history
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
    • Recent travel
    • Animal contact (e.g., cats, rabbits)
    • IV drug use
    • Recent tick bites
    • Autoimmune disease
    • Previous malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
  • Risk factors for malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax include:
    • Age > 40 years
    • Supraclavicular location of the nodes
    • Presence of systemic symptoms such as:
      • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
      • Night sweats Night sweats Tuberculosis
      • Unexplained weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery

Physical examination:

Laboratory testing:

Ordered based on the patient’s relevant history and physical exam findings to confirm the suspected diagnosis:

  • Rapid streptococcal testing or culture
  • EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus serology Serology The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro. Yellow Fever Virus 
  • CMV serology Serology The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro. Yellow Fever Virus
  • STI STI Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that spread either by vaginal intercourse, anal sex, or oral sex. Symptoms and signs may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, dysuria, skin lesions (e.g., warts, ulcers) on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. Some infections can lead to infertility and chronic debilitating disease. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) testing
  • CBC and peripheral blood smear Peripheral Blood Smear Anemia: Overview and Types
  • ANA
  • QuantiFERON- TB TB Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis Gold (blood test for TB TB Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis)
  • Liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy and renal function tests
  • Serum tumor Tumor Inflammation markers in selected cases with high suspicion
  • HIV testing HIV testing Diagnosis of HIV infections by assaying bodily fluids or tissues for the presence of HIV antibodies; HIV antigens; or the viral RNA of HIV. HIV Infection and AIDS

Imaging:

The type of test ordered is guided by history, physical exam, and risk factors.

  • Ultrasonography
  • Chest X-ray Chest X-ray X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs. Pulmonary Function Tests
  • CT or MRI

Lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma:

  • If no clear diagnosis is made with the testing listed above.

Management

  • Treatment of the underlying cause of lymphadenopathy is the basis of management.
  • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with localized lymphadenopathy can be observed for 3–4 weeks if there is nothing else in the history, physical examination, and laboratory screening Screening Preoperative Care to suggest malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
  • Biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma is appropriate if an abnormal node has not resolved after 4 weeks.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum ( HL HL Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a hodgkin/reed-sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma): malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax of B lymphocytes B lymphocytes Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions originating in lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy. Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum most commonly presents with lymphadenopathy in the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, as well as night sweats Night sweats Tuberculosis, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, and possible splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Diagnostic testing includes lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node histologic analysis showing Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg ( HRS HRS Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a potentially reversible cause of acute kidney injury that develops secondary to liver disease. The main cause of hrs is hypovolemia, often as a result of forced diuresis or drainage of ascites. This leads to renal vasoconstriction resulting in hypoperfusion of the kidneys. Hepatorenal Syndrome) cells (giant multinucleated B cells B cells Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions with eosinophilic inclusions). Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum is managed with chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma and radiotherapy. 
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (NHL): diverse group of malignancies of B-cell, T-cell, and natural killer (NK)–cell origin. ⅔ of NHLs involve lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy, and the remainder are extranodal. Like HL HL Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a hodgkin/reed-sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma, which is distinct because of its clear pathologic features and treatments, NHL uniquely presents with constitutional signs. Management is primarily with chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma
  • CLL CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: hematologic malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes B lymphocytes Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions in the peripheral blood. CLL CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia is identical to 1 of the NHLs and is called small lymphocytic lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum ( SLL SLL Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia) when its involvement is primarily nodal. The disease usually presents in older adults, and symptom progression is slow. The B cells B cells Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions in these patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are functionally incompetent lymphocytes Lymphocytes Lymphocytes are heterogeneous WBCs involved in immune response. Lymphocytes develop from the bone marrow, starting from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progressing to common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). B and T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells arise from the lineage. Lymphocytes: Histology and thus may result in recurrent infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Acute leukemias: hematologic malignancies that start in the bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types marrow with malignant transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology and uncontrolled proliferation of WBC precursors. ALL may present with painless lymphadenopathy, while palpable lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy are rare in AML AML Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of myeloid precursor cells. Seen predominantly in older adults, AML includes an accumulation of myeloblasts and a replacement of normal marrow by malignant cells, which leads to impaired hematopoiesis. Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Other symptoms include fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia, pallor, bleeding, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, and infection related to anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types, thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia, and lack of functional WBCs seen in acute leukemia. Diagnosis is made with peripheral blood smear Peripheral Blood Smear Anemia: Overview and Types and bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types marrow biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma
  • Kawasaki disease Kawasaki disease An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities. Kawasaki Disease: though an uncommon illness, Kawasaki disease Kawasaki disease An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities. Kawasaki Disease is the most frequent cause of childhood vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. This syndrome is associated with fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and a variety of other symptoms, including conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis is a common inflammation of the bulbar and/or palpebral conjunctiva. It can be classified into infectious (mostly viral) and noninfectious conjunctivitis, which includes allergic causes. Patients commonly present with red eyes, increased tearing, burning, foreign body sensation, and photophobia. Conjunctivitis, mucositis Mucositis Stomatitis is a general term referring to inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, which may include sores. Stomatitis can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, allergic reactions, or exposure to irritants. The typical presentation may be either solitary or a group of painful oral lesions. Stomatitis, rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and coronary artery Coronary Artery Truncus Arteriosus aneurysm Aneurysm An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area of a blood vessel that causes an abnormal widening of its diameter > 1.5 times the size of the native vessel. Aneurysms occur more often in arteries than in veins and are at risk of dissection and rupture, which can be life-threatening. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.
  • Amyloidosis Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a disease caused by abnormal extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of various misfolded low-molecular-weight protein subunits. These proteins are frequently byproducts of other pathological processes (e.g., multiple myeloma). Amyloidosis: pathogenic accumulation and deposition of amyloid throughout the body. Amyloid can be deposited in lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy and is a rare cause of lymphadenopathy in the absence of amyloid infiltration of other organs. Diagnosis relies on lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma.

References

  1. Ferrer, R.L. (2019). Evaluation of peripheral lymphadenopathy in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-peripheral-lymphadenopathy-in-adults
  2. McClain, K.L. (2020). Peripheral lymphadenopathy in children: evaluation and diagnostic approach. UpToDate. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peripheral-lymphadenopathy-in-children-evaluation-and-diagnostic-approach

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