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Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a diverse group of hematologic malignancies that are clonal proliferative disorders of mature or progenitor B cells, T cells, or natural killer (NK) cells. Most pediatric cases are aggressive and high-grade (but curable); in adults, low-grade subtypes are more common. Like Hodgkin lymphoma, which has distinct pathologic features and treatments, NHL often presents with constitutional signs of fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Clinical features include lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, but some individuals present with extranodal involvement and abnormal lab findings. B-cell NHLs include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include adult T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides. Diagnosis is made by lymph node biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, or both. Management is with chemotherapy or targeted drugs. Radiation therapy is used in adults but not in children, and stem cell transplantation is used for patients with aggressive disease.

Last updated: Jul 28, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a diverse group of hematologic malignancies that are clonal proliferative disorders of mature or progenitor B cells B cells Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions, T cells T cells Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic) and helper T-lymphocytes (t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. T cells: Types and Functions, or natural killer (NK) cells.

Epidemiology

  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency in the United States: > 70,000 cases annually (6th most common cancer in the United States)
  • Accounts for 4% of all cancers:
    • The most common type of hematopoietic cancer
    • Increasing incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency; some related to:
      • Viral infection (e.g., Epstein-Barr virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology, Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus campylobacter, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus Helicobacter. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. Helicobacter infection, human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology, human herpes virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology 8, hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology)
      • Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome
    • NHLs are significantly more common than Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma.
  • Occurs in both children and adults:
    • In children:
      • Tumors are usually extranodal and often leukemic.
      • Subtypes are high grade and aggressive, but 5-year survival rates are > 85%.
      • Most common subtypes are Burkitt lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum and lymphoblastic leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • In adults:
      • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency increases with age; median, 67 years
      • Most common subtypes in adults: follicular, diffuse large B cell, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/ small lymphocytic lymphoma Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ( CLL CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/ SLL SLL Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)
      • CLL CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/ SLL SLL Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia is much less common in Japan and other Asian countries than in the West.
  • Seen in individuals of all races and socioeconomic status
  • Types: 
    • Approximately 85% of NHLs are of B-cell origin in the Western World.
    • Most others are derived from T cells T cells Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic) and helper T-lymphocytes (t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. T cells: Types and Functions.
    • T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum is most common in southwest Japan.
    • Burkitt lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum occurs most frequently in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • NK-cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum is rare.

Etiology

  • Exact etiology and/or pathogenesis unknown for most types
  • Viral infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease are strongly associated with some NHLs:
    • EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus:
      • Strongly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (in Central Africa and New Guinea)
      • > 90% of endemic tumors carry the EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus genome Genome The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of chromosomes in a human. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs. Basic Terms of Genetics.
      • Not the direct cause of lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum, but it is a polyclonal B-cell mitogen, increasing the risk of malignant mutations, including the (8;14) translocation
    • Human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology (HTLV-1):
      • This is the definite cause of adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (ATLL)
      • The molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology are not completely understood.
    • Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology: lymphomagenesis is mostly indirect, via chronic stimulation of the immune system Immune system The body’s defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components. Primary Lymphatic Organs cryoglobulinemia Cryoglobulinemia A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of cryoglobulins in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas. Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis → lymphoproliferative disorder/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum.
    • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs:
      • By indirect mechanisms:
        • Marked proliferation of B cells B cells Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions infected with oncogenic herpesviruses which are not neutralized because of extreme T- cell depletion
        • Germinal center B-cell hyperplasia Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from hypertrophy, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells. Cellular Adaptation in early HIV infection HIV infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Retroviridae family, is the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The human immunodeficiency virus is a sexually transmitted or blood-borne infection that attacks CD4+ T lymphocyte cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to eventual immunodeficiency. HIV Infection and AIDS, increasing the risk of acquiring lymphoma-initiating mutations because of the normal high error Error Refers to any act of commission (doing something wrong) or omission (failing to do something right) that exposes patients to potentially hazardous situations. Disclosure of Information rates of class switching and somatic hypermutation Somatic hypermutation A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development. B cells: Types and Functions in the immunoglobulin genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure; translocations of oncogenes Oncogenes Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to neoplastic cell transformation. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of cell proliferation such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of ‘v-‘ before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by retroviruses; the prefix ‘c-‘ before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (proto-oncogenes) of a v-oncogene. Carcinogenesis into Ig Ig X-linked Agammaglobulinemia gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics loci can occur.
      • Lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum in an HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs+ patient is an AIDS-defining condition.
    • HHV-8:
      • Usually occurs in HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs+ patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
      • Lymphomagenesis occurs indirectly:
        • As a result of an interaction between HHV-8 infection and a dysregulated immunological system
        • This causes proliferation of B cells B cells Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions which can shift from a polyclonal state to a monoclonal/neoplastic disorder
      • Primary effusion lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (PEL) is the most common lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum, but also diffuse large B-cell lymphoma B-cell lymphoma A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more b-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes. Selective IgA Deficiency can be produced.
  • Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus campylobacter, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus Helicobacter. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. Helicobacter gastritis Gastritis Gastritis refers to inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Gastritis may occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or slowly over time (chronic gastritis). Gastritis may be asymptomatic or with symptoms, including burning abdominal pain (which either worsens or improves with eating), dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting. Gastritis: marginal zone Marginal zone MALT Lymphoma lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum of the MALT MALT Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy type (mucosa-associated lymphoid tumor Tumor Inflammation ( MALToma MALToma Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (also called MALToma, MALT lymphoma, and pseudolymphoma) is a group of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that have historically been grouped together because they appear to arise from postgerminal center marginal zone B cells and share a similar immunophenotype. MALT Lymphoma)) 
  • Chronic inflammatory conditions or autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides. Selective IgA Deficiency:
    • Hashimoto thyroiditis Thyroiditis Thyroiditis is a catchall term used to describe a variety of conditions that have inflammation of the thyroid gland in common. It includes pathologies that cause an acute illness with severe thyroid pain (e.g., subacute thyroiditis and infectious thyroiditis) as well as conditions in which there is no clinically evident inflammation and the manifestations primarily reflect thyroid dysfunction or a goiter (e.g., painless thyroiditis and fibrous Riedel’s thyroiditis). Thyroiditis: marginal zone Marginal zone MALT Lymphoma lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Sjögren syndrome Sjögren Syndrome Rheumatoid Arthritis: marginal zone Marginal zone MALT Lymphoma lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Celiac sprue
    • Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a symmetric, inflammatory polyarthritis and chronic, progressive, autoimmune disorder. Presentation occurs most commonly in middle-aged women with joint swelling, pain, and morning stiffness (often in the hands). Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome:
    • Ataxia-telangiectasia Ataxia-telangiectasia Ataxia-telangiectasia, also known as Louis-Bar syndrome, is a neurocutaneous syndrome, which involves multiple systems but mainly affects the neurological system. Ataxia-telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the ATM gene (ATM serine/threonine kinase or the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene). Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
    • Common variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome disease
    • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs (by indirect action) → diffuse large B-cell lymphoma B-cell lymphoma A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more b-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes. Selective IgA Deficiency, Burkitt lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment. Anterior Cord Syndrome immunosuppression
  • Chemical and drug exposures:
    • Prior chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma or radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma therapy
    • Phenytoin Phenytoin An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs. First-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs
    • Dioxin (phenoxy herbicides)
  • Genetic factors: Some single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with ↑ risk of NHL.

Classification

  • Subtypes are classified by:
    • Cell of origin
    • Morphology
    • Immunophenotype
    • Genetic and molecular profiles
    • Clinical features
  • Classified into 5 broad categories by the WHO:
    • Precursor B-cell neoplasms Neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. Benign Bone Tumors: precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL) are hematologic malignancies characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, the most common forms of cancer affecting children, show the presence of increased lymphoblasts. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (B-ALL))
    • Peripheral B-cell neoplasms Neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. Benign Bone Tumors:
    • Precursor T-cell neoplasms Neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. Benign Bone Tumors: precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL) are hematologic malignancies characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, the most common forms of cancer affecting children, show the presence of increased lymphoblasts. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Peripheral T-cell and NK-cell neoplasms Neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. Benign Bone Tumors :
      • T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia
      • Mycosis Mycosis Fungi belong to the eukaryote domain and, like plants, have cell walls and vacuoles, exhibit cytoplasmic streaming, and are immobile. Mycosis is an infection caused by fungi. Mycology fungoides/Sézary syndrome
      • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma Peripheral T-cell lymphoma A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express t-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma, this group’s unique features warrant separate treatment. Autosomal Dominant Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome, unspecified
      • Adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
      • Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
      • NK-cell leukemia
    • Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma (all subtypes)
  • Lymphomas can also be classified in other ways:
    • Nodal (⅔) or extranodal (⅓)
    • Aggressive (60%) or indolent (40%)

Pathophysiology

The pathogenesis of NHL involves multiple genetic lesions that affect Affect The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves. Psychiatric Assessment proto-oncogenes Proto-Oncogenes Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc. Cancer Immunotherapy and tumor Tumor Inflammation suppressor genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure. Abnormal cells also appear to escape Escape With constant immune mechanisms holding unstable tumor cells in equilibrium, tumor-cell variants may emerge. These cancer cells may express fewer antigens on their surfaces or lose their MHC class I expression.Variants may also protect themselves from T-cell attack via expression of IC molecules on their surfaces, like normal cells.Creation of an immunosuppressive state in the microenvironment is another way to grow without immunologic interference. Cancer Immunotherapy immune surveillance Surveillance Developmental Milestones and Normal Growth.

Pathogenesis

  • Genetic translocations put a proto-oncogene next to a gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics that is active in lymphocytes Lymphocytes Lymphocytes are heterogeneous WBCs involved in immune response. Lymphocytes develop from the bone marrow, starting from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progressing to common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). B and T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells arise from the lineage. Lymphocytes: Histology, resulting in the overexpression of transcription factors Transcription Factors Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process. Stages of Transcription:
  • Either precursor or mature cells may be involved.
  • Stage of lymphocyte differentiation at which oncogenic event occurs → disease presentation and outcome

Mechanisms that contribute to non-Hodgkin lymphomas

  • Chromosomal translocations (e.g., t(11:14) in mantle cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum))
  • Unbalanced chromosomal alterations: (e.g., CLL CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excess production of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. When the involvement is primarily nodal, the condition is called small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The disease usually presents in older adults, with a median age of 70 years. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/ SLL SLL Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)
    • Recognized by genomic sequencing
    • Associated with tumor Tumor Inflammation progression and adverse outcomes
  • Somatic mutations: 
    • Some are clonal: present in all cells of the lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (suggesting early involvement in pathogenic events)
    • Many are “drivers”: found in only a subset of lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum cells (suggesting acquisition later in the pathogenesis)
  • Epigenetic modifications: mutations affecting genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure that regulate histone modifications
  • Genome Genome The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of chromosomes in a human. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs. Basic Terms of Genetics damage: aberrant rearrangement and/or DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure repair
  • Oncogenic viruses Viruses Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells. Virology: introduce foreign genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure into their target cells

Differences in mechanism from solid tumors

  • The NHL genome Genome The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of chromosomes in a human. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs. Basic Terms of Genetics is relatively stable (unlike random genomic instability seen with solid tumors).
  • Microsatellite instability Microsatellite instability The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA mismatch repair. Colorectal Cancer (due to defects in DNA mismatch repair DNA Mismatch Repair A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Exonucleases recognize the base pair mismatch and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. DNA Repair Mechanisms genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure) is infrequent as compared with solid tumors.

Clinical Presentation

Most lymphomas present with painless lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy with variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables peripheral blood, bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis, GI, skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions, or CNS involvement.

Aggressive “high-grade” lymphomas

  • Rapidly growing mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast (painless)
  • Constitutional “B” symptoms:
    • Low-grade fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
    • Night sweats Night sweats Tuberculosis
    • Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery
  • Fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia
  • Enlarged mediastinal and retroperitoneal Retroperitoneal Peritoneum: Anatomy nodes can produce pressure on:
    • Superior vena cava Superior vena cava The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy → facial swelling Swelling Inflammation and dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea
    • Biliary tree Biliary tree The bile ducts and the gallbladder. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy compression Compression Blunt Chest Trauma jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice
    • Compression Compression Blunt Chest Trauma of ureters Ureters One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the kidney pelvis to the urinary bladder. Urinary Tract: Anatomy hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis is dilation of the renal collecting system as a result of the obstruction of urine outflow. Hydronephrosis can be unilateral or bilateral. Nephrolithiasis is the most common cause of hydronephrosis in young adults, while prostatic hyperplasia and neoplasm are seen in older patients. Hydronephrosis
    • Bowel obstruction Bowel obstruction Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of intestinal contents toward the anal canal. Ascaris/Ascariasis
  • Pleural effusions
  • May have leukemic manifestations (involvement of bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis or peripheral blood)
  • Infrequent mediastinal involvement

Indolent “low-grade” lymphomas

  • Insidious onset
  • Painless peripheral lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy 
  • Hepatomegaly or splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly
  • Cytopenias Cytopenias IPEX Syndrome:
    • Anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types (33%)
    • Neutropenia Neutropenia Neutrophils are an important component of the immune system and play a significant role in the eradication of infections. Low numbers of circulating neutrophils, referred to as neutropenia, predispose the body to recurrent infections or sepsis, though patients can also be asymptomatic. Neutropenia
    • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum

  • Diffuse erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion
  • Discrete papules, plaques, and nodules
Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis Mycosis Fungi belong to the eukaryote domain and, like plants, have cell walls and vacuoles, exhibit cytoplasmic streaming, and are immobile. Mycosis is an infection caused by fungi. Mycology fungoides in a 40-year-old man with a generalized rash Generalized Rash Generalized and Localized Rashes

Image: “ Mycosis Mycosis Fungi belong to the eukaryote domain and, like plants, have cell walls and vacuoles, exhibit cytoplasmic streaming, and are immobile. Mycosis is an infection caused by fungi. Mycology fungoides in a 40-year-old man manifested as generalized atrophic patches Patches Vitiligo” by F1000Research. License: CC BY 4.0

Diagnosis and Staging

Adequate diagnosis requires histologic examination, immunophenotyping, genotyping Genotyping Methods used to determine individuals’ specific alleles or snps (single nucleotide polymorphisms). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and consideration of the clinical features. Staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis is similar to that for Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Diagnosis

  • History including B symptoms and past or present history of:
    • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs risk factors
    • Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, which belongs to the Orthohepadnavirus genus and the Hepadnaviridae family. Most individuals with acute HBV infection are asymptomatic or have mild, self-limiting symptoms. Chronic infection can be asymptomatic or create hepatic inflammation, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B Virus or C
  • Physical exam and imaging as above
  • Excisional lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma if palpable nodes are present:
    • Immunohistochemistry Immunohistochemistry Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents. Myeloperoxidase Deficiency defines the distribution of T and B cells B cells Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions.
    • Cytogenetic and mutational analysis:
      • t(14;18) seen with follicular lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
      • MYD88 mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations in lymphoblastic lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
  • Initial laboratory workup
    • CBC with WBC differential and platelet count
    • Tests for hypogammaglobulinemia Hypogammaglobulinemia Selective IgA Deficiency
      • Approximately 15% of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship at diagnosis
      • Increases the risk of bacterial infection
      • May require IV immune globulin replacement
    • Other labs:
      • Electrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes are mineral salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions, which can be either be positively (cations) or negatively (anions) charged. Electrolytes are distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments in different concentrations. Electrolytes are essential for various basic life-sustaining functions. Electrolytes
      • Renal function: BUN/creatinine
      • Liver function tests Liver function tests Liver function tests, also known as hepatic function panels, are one of the most commonly performed screening blood tests. Such tests are also used to detect, evaluate, and monitor acute and chronic liver diseases. Liver Function Tests
      • LDH LDH Osteosarcoma
      • Uric acid Uric acid An oxidation product, via xanthine oxidase, of oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals urate oxidase further oxidizes it to allantoin. Nephrolithiasis level
      • Testing for HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs, hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, which belongs to the Orthohepadnavirus genus and the Hepadnaviridae family. Most individuals with acute HBV infection are asymptomatic or have mild, self-limiting symptoms. Chronic infection can be asymptomatic or create hepatic inflammation, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B Virus, and hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus, if indicated
  • Bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma
  • Endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/gastroscopy if biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma needed in suspected GI involvement
  • Lumbar puncture Lumbar Puncture Febrile Infant if:
    • CNS symptoms
    • Positive bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis
    • Aggressive lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (large-cell, lymphoblastic, or Burkitt lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum types)
  • Thoracocentesis Thoracocentesis Aspiration of fluid or air from the thoracic cavity. It is coupled sometimes with the administration of drugs into the pleural cavity. Thoracic Surgery or paracentesis Paracentesis A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument. Portal Hypertension if pleural effusion Pleural Effusion Pleural effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid between the layers of the parietal and visceral pleura. Common causes of this condition include infection, malignancy, autoimmune disorders, or volume overload. Clinical manifestations include chest pain, cough, and dyspnea. Pleural Effusion or ascites Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that occurs due to an osmotic and/or hydrostatic pressure imbalance secondary to portal hypertension (cirrhosis, heart failure) or non-portal hypertension (hypoalbuminemia, malignancy, infection). Ascites
  • Imaging:
    • Chest radiography
    • CT of abdomen, pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles. The pelvic girdle, composed of 2 “hip” bones and the sacrum, is a ring-like bony structure of the axial skeleton that links the vertebral column with the lower extremities. Pelvis: Anatomy, chest:
      • Not only for staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis; also used for guided biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma if needed 
      • Also used for assessment of response to therapy
    • PET PET An imaging technique that combines a positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner and a ct X ray scanner. This establishes a precise anatomic localization in the same session. Nuclear Imaging if large-cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • MRI of brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification and spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy if neurologic symptoms are present

Staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis of NHL

Table: Stages
Stage I Involvement of a single lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node group or single extralymphatic organ
Stage II Involvement of ≥ 2 lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node groups on the same side of the diaphragm Diaphragm The diaphragm is a large, dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The diaphragm consists of muscle fibers and a large central tendon, which is divided into right and left parts. As the primary muscle of inspiration, the diaphragm contributes 75% of the total inspiratory muscle force. Diaphragm: Anatomy
Stage III Involvement of lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs nodes, spleen Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, superior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach at the level of the 9th-11th ribs just below the diaphragm. The spleen is highly vascular and acts as an important blood filter, cleansing the blood of pathogens and damaged erythrocytes. Spleen: Anatomy or both, on both sides of the diaphragm Diaphragm The diaphragm is a large, dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The diaphragm consists of muscle fibers and a large central tendon, which is divided into right and left parts. As the primary muscle of inspiration, the diaphragm contributes 75% of the total inspiratory muscle force. Diaphragm: Anatomy
Stage IV Diffuse or disseminated involvement of ≥ 1 extralymphatic organs ( liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy, bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis, lung) with or without lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node involvement
  • A subscript “E” is used if limited extranodal extension Extension Examination of the Upper Limbs is found. 
  • A subscript “X” designates bulky disease:
    • No cutoff for treatment purposes
    • Follicular lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum bulky disease is 6 cm.
    • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma B-cell lymphoma A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more b-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes. Selective IgA Deficiency bulky disease is 6–10 cm
  • Unlike Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma, B symptoms are not incorporated into NHL staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis.
Hodgkin disease staging

Staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis of NHL (same as that for Hodgkin disease Hodgkin Disease A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate hodgkin’s and reed-sternberg cells are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen. Hodgkin Lymphoma)

Image by Lecturio.

Management and Prognosis

Treatment is based on many factors, including histologic subtype, stage, and comorbidities Comorbidities The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus. CD19 is highly expressed in nearly all B-cell malignancies, making it an attractive receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors for novel targeted therapies.

Management

  • Stage I (localized disease):
  • For advanced disease (stage II, III, IV, or B symptoms), therapy often consists of:
    • Radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma therapy:
      • May be used to limit Limit A value (e.g., pressure or time) that should not be exceeded and which is specified by the operator to protect the lung Invasive Mechanical Ventilation the number of cycles of chemoimmunotherapy
      • Localized treatment for residual sites of bulk disease
    • Immunotherapy:
      • Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapies may delay the need for myelosuppressive chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma.
      • Monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells. Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus targeting CD20: rituximab Rituximab A murine-derived monoclonal antibody and antineoplastic agent that binds specifically to the cd20 antigen and is used in the treatment of leukemia; lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. Immunosuppressants, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab
    • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma: R-CHOP ) Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) plus Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine Vincristine An antitumor alkaloid isolated from vinca rosea. Microtubule and Topoisomerase Inhibitors (Oncovin), and Prednisone
    • Targeted drugs:
      • BTK (Bruton tyrosine Tyrosine A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor of epinephrine; thyroid hormones; and melanin. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids kinase) inhibitors for follicular, mantle cell, and marginal zone Marginal zone MALT Lymphoma NHL: ibrutinib Ibrutinib Targeted and Other Nontraditional Antineoplastic Therapy, acalabrutinib Acalabrutinib Targeted and Other Nontraditional Antineoplastic Therapy, and zanubrutinib
      • CD19-targeted immunotherapies (e.g., blinatumomab)
      • Bispecific antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions against CD19 and CD3 CD3 Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor. The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor. T cells: Types and Functions are in early trials.
      • Chimeric antigen receptor Chimeric antigen receptor Synthetic cellular receptors that reprogram T-lymphocytes to selectively bind antigens. Cancer Immunotherapy (CAR)–modified T cells T cells Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic) and helper T-lymphocytes (t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. T cells: Types and Functions: autologous T cells T cells Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic) and helper T-lymphocytes (t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. T cells: Types and Functions that have been genetically engineered to recognize a tumor Tumor Inflammation antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination (e.g., CD19)—potential cure for refractory DLBCL
    • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Transfer of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow or blood between individuals within the same species (homologous transplantation) or transfer within the same individual (autologous transplantation). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms. Organ Transplantation is used for:
  • Follicular lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum:
    • Treated only if the disorder is causing problems
    • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma with bendamustine Bendamustine A nitrogen mustard compound that functions as an alkylating antineoplastic agent and is used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Alkylating Agents and Platinum plus rituximab Rituximab A murine-derived monoclonal antibody and antineoplastic agent that binds specifically to the cd20 antigen and is used in the treatment of leukemia; lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. Immunosuppressants (efficacy equal to that of R-CHOP, but less toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation)

Prognosis

High-grade NHLs are aggressive but have a better prognosis, whereas low-grade NHLs progress slowly but are difficult to cure.

International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors are associated with a worse prognosis:

  • Age > 60 years
  • Presence of B symptoms
  • Stage III or IV disease
  • Elevated serum LDH LDH Osteosarcoma
  • Functional status
  • > 1 extranodal site
  • Advanced versus localized disease

Overall 5-year survival for NHLs as a group:

  • 72% for Caucasians Caucasians Esophageal Cancer and 63% for African Americans
  • Much wider range of survival than for Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma (which has a 5-year survival rate of 85%–90%) because of the heterogeneity in NHLs
  • In DLBCL, prognosis depends on the cell of origin; worse if MYC or BCL gene rearrangements Gene rearrangements The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development. Humoral Adaptive Immunity are present 
  • In follicular lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum, the disease is responsive but almost always recurs after chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma and/or radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma therapy
    • Most survive 15–20 years
    • 3% transform to DLBCL every year

Complications

  • Some chemotherapies can cause cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy refers to a group of myocardial diseases associated with structural changes of the heart muscles (myocardium) and impaired systolic and/or diastolic function in the absence of other heart disorders (coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease). Cardiomyopathy: Overview and Types or arrhythmias
  • Myelodysplasia in the 1st 10 years after treatment
  • Acute leukemia due to bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis effects of chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma agents
  • ↑ Risk of secondary cancers with prior radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma to the chest

Comparison of Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

Table: Comparison of non-Hodgkin lymphomas
Origin Type Risk factors and genetics Genetics Genetics is the study of genes and their functions and behaviors. Basic Terms of Genetics Epidemiology Pathology and clinical features
B cell (85%–90%) DLBCL Arises sporadically or from the transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology of low-grade lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (e.g., follicular lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum)
  • Most common high-grade lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
  • Age: late adulthood
  • Heterogeneous group with different genotypes, prognoses, and responses to therapy
  • 5-year survival: approximately 65%
Follicular lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum t(14;18) → overexpression of BCL2 ( gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics that regulates apoptosis Apoptosis A regulated cell death mechanism characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, at regularly spaced, internucleosomal sites, I.e., DNA fragmentation. It is genetically-programmed and serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth. Ischemic Cell Damage)
  • Most common low-grade lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
  • Age: often in middle age or older
  • Painless lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
  • Complications: some progress to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma B-cell lymphoma A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more b-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes. Selective IgA Deficiency
Burkitt lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
  • Associated with EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus
  • t(8;14) → overexpression of c-MYC
  • Also associated with HIV infection HIV infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Retroviridae family, is the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The human immunodeficiency virus is a sexually transmitted or blood-borne infection that attacks CD4+ T lymphocyte cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to eventual immunodeficiency. HIV Infection and AIDS
  • Age: adolescents or young adults
  • In Africa: children in regions where malaria Malaria Malaria is an infectious parasitic disease affecting humans and other animals. Most commonly transmitted via the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito infected with microorganisms of the Plasmodium genus. Patients present with fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and diaphoresis. Plasmodium/Malaria and EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus are endemic
  • Starry-sky appearance in histology (many tingible body macrophages Macrophages The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood monocytes. Main types are peritoneal macrophages; alveolar macrophages; histiocytes; kupffer cells of the liver; and osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or langhans giant cells. Innate Immunity: Phagocytes and Antigen Presentation)
  • Highly aggressive
Mantle cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum t(11;14) → overexpression of cyclin D1
  • Age: late adulthood
  • Men > women
  • Painless lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
  • Highly aggressive, often presents in late-stage disease
MZL
  • Associated with chronic inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation due to autoimmunity Autoimmunity Autoimmunity is a pathologic immune response toward self-antigens, resulting from a combination of factors: immunologic, genetic, and environmental. The immune system is equipped with self-tolerance, allowing immune cells such as T cells and B cells to recognize self-antigens and to not mount a reaction against them. Defects in this mechanism, along with environmental triggers (such as infections) and genetic susceptibility factors (most notable of which are the HLA genes) can lead to autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunity or infection
  • t(11;18) cytogenetic abnormality in 50% of cases
  • Splenic type: associated with hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus
  • Extranodal type (MALTomas): stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy most common ( H. pylori H. pylori A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus campylobacter, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus Helicobacter. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. Helicobacter gastritis Gastritis Gastritis refers to inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Gastritis may occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or slowly over time (chronic gastritis). Gastritis may be asymptomatic or with symptoms, including burning abdominal pain (which either worsens or improves with eating), dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting. Gastritis)
  • Other sites of chronic inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation ( skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions, thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body. The thyroid gland is a highly vascular, brownish-red gland located in the visceral compartment of the anterior region of the neck. Thyroid Gland: Anatomy, salivary glands Salivary glands The salivary glands are exocrine glands positioned in and around the oral cavity. These glands are responsible for secreting saliva into the mouth, which aids in digestion. There are 3 major paired salivary glands: the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands. Salivary Glands: Anatomy, small bowel Small bowel The small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract, extending from the pyloric orifice of the stomach to the ileocecal junction. The small intestine is the major organ responsible for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is divided into 3 segments: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Small Intestine: Anatomy)
  • Nodal type: rare form
Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum (Waldenström macroglobulinemia) MYD88 gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations in most cases
  • Age: adults
  • Occurs in lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs nodes and bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis
  • Production of an IgM IgM A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (immunoglobulin mu-chains). Igm can fix complement. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions paraprotein is characteristic
  • Can cause hyperviscosity Hyperviscosity Hypercoagulable States syndrome and stroke
T cell (10%–15%) Adult T-cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum Associated with retrovirus HTLV-1
  • Age: adults
  • Geographic locations: Japan, West Africa, Caribbean
  • Cutaneous lesions
  • Lytic bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types lesions
  • Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia (serum calcium > 10.5 mg/dL) can result from various conditions, the majority of which are due to hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Other causes include disorders leading to vitamin D elevation, granulomatous diseases, and the use of certain pharmacological agents. Symptoms vary depending on calcium levels and the onset of hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia
Mycosis Mycosis Fungi belong to the eukaryote domain and, like plants, have cell walls and vacuoles, exhibit cytoplasmic streaming, and are immobile. Mycosis is an infection caused by fungi. Mycology fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum)
  • Unclear cause
  • Many genetic abnormalities found
  • Age: adults
  • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions patches Patches Vitiligo/plaques
  • Atypical CD4+ cells with cerebriform nuclei in histology
  • Complications: progression to T-cell leukemia
DLBCL: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma B-cell lymphoma A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more b-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes. Selective IgA Deficiency
EBV EBV Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the herpesviridae family. This highly prevalent virus is mostly transmitted through contact with oropharyngeal secretions from an infected individual. The virus can infect epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, where it can undergo lytic replication or latency. Epstein-Barr Virus: Epstein-Barr virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
HTLV-1: human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
MZL: marginal zone Marginal zone MALT Lymphoma lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
MALT MALT Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy: mucosa-associated lymphoid tumor Tumor Inflammation

Differential Diagnosis

  • Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes originating in the lymph nodes. The pathognomonic histologic finding of HL is a Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell (giant multinucleated B cells with eosinophilic inclusions). The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, fever, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Hodgkin Lymphoma: malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax of B lymphocytes B lymphocytes Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions originating in lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs nodes. The disease presents most commonly with lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy ( neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess most commonly involved), night sweats Night sweats Tuberculosis, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, and at times, hepatosplenomegaly Hepatosplenomegaly Cytomegalovirus. Diagnostic testing includes lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node histologic analysis showing Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells Reed-Sternberg cells Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical hodgkin disease. Hodgkin Lymphoma, blood tests, CT, and PET PET An imaging technique that combines a positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner and a ct X ray scanner. This establishes a precise anatomic localization in the same session. Nuclear Imaging. Management is with chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma and radiotherapy.
  • Multiple myeloma Multiple myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma ( MM MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma): malignant condition of plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products cells (activated B lymphocytes B lymphocytes Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. B cells: Types and Functions) primarily seen in older adults. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products cells followed by osteoclastic activity results in bone resorption Bone resorption Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity. Bones: Remodeling and Healing, bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, pathologic fractures, and metabolic disturbances. Diagnosis is established by plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products electrophoresis Electrophoresis An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current. Blotting Techniques and bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Treatments are available that slow disease progression, but there is no cure for MM MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma, and the median survival is about 3 years.
  • Nonmalignant lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy: lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs node enlargement (> 1 cm) that is benign Benign Fibroadenoma and self-limited. Etiologies include infection, autoimmune disorders, and iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment. Anterior Cord Syndrome causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Diagnosis relies on a thorough medical history, physical examination, and possible biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Management is directed at the underlying infection, malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax, or other cause.

References

  1. Freedman, A.S., Friedberg, J.W., Aster, J.C. (2020). Clinical presentation and initial evaluation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. UpToDate. Retrieved November 9, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-presentation-and-initial-evaluation-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
  2. Jacobson, C.A., Longo, D.L. (2018). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In: Jameson, J.L., et al. (Ed.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 20th ed., vol. 1, pp. 769–803. McGraw-Hill Education.
  3. Brown, J.R., Freedman, A.S. (2021). Overview of the pathobiology of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. UpToDate. Retrieved November 9, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-pathobiology-of-the-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
  4. de Leval, L., Jaffe, E.S. (2020). Lymphoma classification. Cancer J 26:176–185. https://doi.org/10.1097/PPO.0000000000000451
  5. Freedman, A.S., Friedberg, J.W. (2020). Pretreatment evaluation, staging, and response assessment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. UpToDate. Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pretreatment-evaluation-staging-and-response-assessment-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
  6. Watkins, M.P., Bartlett, N.L. (2018). CD19-targeted immunotherapies for treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 27:601–611. https://doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2018.1492549
  7. Shanbhag, S., Ambinder, R.F. (2018). Hodgkin lymphoma: a review and update on recent progress. CA Cancer J Clin 68:116–132. Doi: 10.3322/caac.21438
  8. Liu, Weiping, Jiangmei Liu, Yuqin Song, Xinying Zeng, Xiaopei Wang, Lan Mi, Cai Cai, et al. “Burden of Lymphoma in China, 2006–2016: An Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.” Journal of Hematology & Oncology 12 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13045-019-0785-7
  9. Linch, D.C., Gonzalez, B., Wang, L., Campo, E. (2021). General Consideration of Lymphomas, and Pathology of Lymphomas, in Williams Hematology (Kaushansky, K.,Lichtman, M.A., Prchal, J.T., et al., [Eds.]. pp. 1654-1682.

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