Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells Plasma cells Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-lymphocytes. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. Humoral Adaptive Immunity that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding specific antigens. Antibodies undergo processes that improve antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination affinity and provide appropriate defense by class switching. The various Ig Ig X-linked Agammaglobulinemia classes are IgG IgG The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of igg, for example, igg1, igg2a, and igg2b. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. General functions include opsonization, neutralization of infectivity of the pathogens, cytotoxicity, and complement activation Complement Activation The sequential activation of serum complement proteins to create the complement membrane attack complex. Factors initiating complement activation include antigen-antibody complexes, microbial antigens, or cell surface polysaccharides. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Specific classes have unique defensive mechanisms.
Last updated: Dec 19, 2022
Antibodies that are created have important properties (diversity and specificity) that are essential in the immune response.
Unique mechanisms creating antibody diversity Antibody Diversity The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of antibodies. It enables the immune system to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of antigens it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the germ line theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the somatic mutation theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the gene rearrangement theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of immunoglobulin variable region gene segments during the differentiation of the antibody-producing cells. B cells: Types and Functions include:
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