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Types of Mutations

Genetic mutations Genetic Mutations Carcinogenesis are errors in DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Chromosomal mutations occur when an abnormal number of chromosomes Chromosomes In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. DNA Types and Structure is inherited. Point mutations occur when a nucleotide is swapped for another nucleotide and can be missense, nonsense, or silent mutations. Frameshift mutations occur when a nucleotide is added or deleted, and expansion mutations occur when a given trinucleotide sequence is repeated along the chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics. Genetic mutations Genetic Mutations Carcinogenesis are the basis for most inherited diseases. Common disorders caused by DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure mutations include sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of genetic disorders in which an abnormal Hb molecule (HbS) transforms RBCs into sickle-shaped cells, resulting in chronic anemia, vasoocclusive episodes, pain, and organ damage. Sickle Cell Disease, Huntington disease Huntington disease Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and poor prognosis. It is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). The most common clinical presentation in adulthood is a movement disorder known as chorea: abrupt, involuntary movements of the face, trunk, and limbs. Huntington Disease, and Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by genetic mutations in the hexosaminidase A (HEXA) gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Classic symptoms in infants include rapid degeneration of cognitive and neuromuscular abilities, progressive blindness, and a macular cherry-red spot on physical examination. Tay-Sachs Disease.

Last updated: 29 Nov, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Chromosomal Numerical Abnormalities

Chromosomal numerical abnormalities occur when there is a gain or loss of an entire chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics.

  • Also referred to as aneuploidy
  • Involves all genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure on the given chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics
  • Many human cancers are associated with chromosomal mutations.
  • Typically occurs during mitosis Mitosis A type of cell nucleus division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of chromosomes of the somatic cells of the species. Cell Cycle or meiosis Meiosis The creation of eukaryotic gametes involves a DNA replication phase followed by 2 cellular division stages: meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I separates homologous chromosomes into separate cells (1n, 2c), while meiosis II separates sister chromatids into gametes (1n, 1c). Meiosis due to aberrant cell division Cell Division A type of cell nucleus division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of chromosomes of the somatic cells of the species. Cell Cycle

Monosomy is a loss of 1 chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics (pair becomes 1 chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics):

  • Turner syndrome Turner syndrome Turner syndrome is a genetic condition affecting women, in which 1 X chromosome is partly or completely missing. The classic result is the karyotype 45,XO with a female phenotype. Turner syndrome is associated with decreased sex hormone levels and is the most common cause of primary amenorrhea. Turner Syndrome is an example of monosomy:
    • Loss of 1 sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics
    • Affected individuals present with a short and webbed neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, low-set ears Low-set ears DiGeorge Syndrome, and short stature.
  • Cri du chat syndrome is another example of monosomy:
    • Deletion of the short arm Arm The arm, or “upper arm” in common usage, is the region of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the elbow joint and connects inferiorly to the forearm through the cubital fossa. It is divided into 2 fascial compartments (anterior and posterior). Arm: Anatomy of chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics 5
    • Affected individuals present with laryngeal abnormalities.

Trisomy is a gain of 1 chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics (pair becomes 3 chromosomes Chromosomes In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. DNA Types and Structure):

  • Patau syndrome Patau syndrome Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, is a genetic syndrome caused by the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 13. As the 3rd most common trisomy, Patau syndrome has an incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births. Most cases of Patau syndrome are diagnosed prenatally by maternal screening and ultrasound. More than half of the pregnancies result in spontaneous abortions. Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13) ( trisomy 13 Trisomy 13 Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, is a genetic syndrome caused by the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 13. As the 3rd most common trisomy, Patau syndrome has an incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births. Most cases of Patau syndrome are diagnosed prenatally by maternal screening and ultrasound. More than half of the pregnancies result in spontaneous abortions. Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)):
    • Caused by meiotic nondisjunction Nondisjunction The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitosis or meiosis with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none. Basic Terms of Genetics
    • Causes microcephaly Microcephaly A congenital abnormality in which the cerebrum is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (desk reference for neuroscience, 2nd ed. ). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, holoprosencephaly Holoprosencephaly Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe intellectual disability; cleft lip; cleft palate; seizures; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencephaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of intellectual disability. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild intellectual disability to normal. Holoprosencephaly is associated with chromosome abnormalities. Development of the Nervous System and Face, polydactyly Polydactyly A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits. Physical Examination of the Newborn, and congenital Congenital Chorioretinitis heart defects
  • Down syndrome Down syndrome Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common chromosomal aberration and the most frequent genetic cause of developmental delay. Both boys and girls are affected and have characteristic craniofacial and musculoskeletal features, as well as multiple medical anomalies involving the cardiac, gastrointestinal, ocular, and auditory systems. Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) ( trisomy 21 Trisomy 21 Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common chromosomal aberration and the most frequent genetic cause of developmental delay. Both boys and girls are affected and have characteristic craniofacial and musculoskeletal features, as well as multiple medical anomalies involving the cardiac, gastrointestinal, ocular, and auditory systems. Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)):
    • Caused by meiotic nondisjunction Nondisjunction The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitosis or meiosis with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none. Basic Terms of Genetics
    • Presents early in life as intellectual disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment, physical growth delays, and characteristic facies (flat head, abnormal outer ears, slanted eyes)

Point Mutations

General

A point mutation is a mutation that affects only 1 nucleotide in a DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure sequence. The nucleotide change can lead to the following outcomes:

  • Silent mutation
  • Missense mutation
  • Nonsense mutation

Silent mutation

  • A change in the sequence of nucleotide bases Bases Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. Acid-Base Balance that does not change the produced amino acid Amino acid Amino acids (AAs) are composed of a central carbon atom attached to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain (R group). Basics of Amino Acids
  • Does not change the overall cellular function
  • Silent mutations can lead to genetic diversity within a population and may be considered beneficial for a species.
  • Silent mutations have been used in a research Research Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. Conflict of Interest setting for vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination development and cloning.
Silent mutation

Silent mutation:
A silent mutation is a single nucleotide substitution that results in the translation Translation Translation is the process of synthesizing a protein from a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript. This process is divided into three primary stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Translation is catalyzed by structures known as ribosomes, which are large complexes of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Stages and Regulation of Translation of the same amino acid Amino acid Amino acids (AAs) are composed of a central carbon atom attached to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain (R group). Basics of Amino Acids. Thus, protein function is not affected.
Met MET Preoperative Care: methionine
Pro: proline Proline A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
Thr: threonine
Arg: arginine Arginine An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the l-form. Urea Cycle

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Missense mutation

  • Occurs when a change in a single base pair causes the substitution of a different amino acid Amino acid Amino acids (AAs) are composed of a central carbon atom attached to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain (R group). Basics of Amino Acids in the resulting protein
  • May alter protein folding Protein folding Processes involved in the formation of tertiary protein structure. Proteins and Peptides and affect Affect The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves. Psychiatric Assessment protein function
  • An example of a disease caused by a missense mutation is sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of genetic disorders in which an abnormal Hb molecule (HbS) transforms RBCs into sickle-shaped cells, resulting in chronic anemia, vasoocclusive episodes, pain, and organ damage. Sickle Cell Disease:
    • Mutation within the beta chain of hemoglobin
    • 20th nucleotide has a GAG-to-GTG mutation.
    • Glutamic acid is replaced with valine.
Missense mutation

Missense mutation:
Missense mutations result when a change of a single base pair causes the substitution of a different amino acid Amino acid Amino acids (AAs) are composed of a central carbon atom attached to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain (R group). Basics of Amino Acids in the resulting protein. Amino acid substitution may have no effect or may render the protein nonfunctional.
Met MET Preoperative Care: methionine
Pro: proline Proline A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
Thr: threonine
His: histidine

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Nonsense mutation

  • A mutation in which a codon Codon A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal. Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons. Basic Terms of Genetics that corresponds to 1 of the 20 amino acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance specified by the genetic code is changed to a chain-termination codon Codon A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal. Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons. Basic Terms of Genetics, resulting in truncation of the protein chain
  • Cystic Cystic Fibrocystic Change fibrosis Fibrosis Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury. Bronchiolitis Obliterans:
    • Caused by a nonsense mutation of the CFTR gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics
    • Results in thick mucus that leads to breathing difficulties and recurrent infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Nonsense mutation

Nonsense mutation:
A sense codon Codon A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal. Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons. Basic Terms of Genetics that corresponds to 1 of the 20 amino acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance specified by the genetic code is changed to a stop codon Codon A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal. Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons. Basic Terms of Genetics.
Met MET Preoperative Care: methionine
Pro: proline Proline A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids

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Frameshift Mutations

  • Results from nucleotide base insertion or deletion, changing the reading frame for the process of translation Translation Translation is the process of synthesizing a protein from a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript. This process is divided into three primary stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Translation is catalyzed by structures known as ribosomes, which are large complexes of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Stages and Regulation of Translation
  • The number of nucleotides Nucleotides The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleic Acids inserted or deleted must not be divisible by 3, as the reading frame would not be altered and only 1 more or less nucleotide would be coded.
  • Results in the alteration of all amino acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance produced downstream from the mutation
  • Errors that occur upstream lead to a more severe mutation.
  • Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by genetic mutations in the hexosaminidase A (HEXA) gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Classic symptoms in infants include rapid degeneration of cognitive and neuromuscular abilities, progressive blindness, and a macular cherry-red spot on physical examination. Tay-Sachs Disease is an example of a disorder caused by a frameshift mutation.
Frameshift mutation

Frameshift mutation:
Frameshift mutations can be due to the addition or insertion of nucleotides Nucleotides The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleic Acids that changes the length of the gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics, thus affecting protein synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
His: histidine

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Related videos

Expansion Mutations

  • Also called trinucleotide repeat expansions
  • Typically caused by slippage during DNA replication DNA replication The entire DNA of a cell is replicated during the S (synthesis) phase of the cell cycle. The principle of replication is based on complementary nucleotide base pairing: adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine (or uracil in RNA) and guanine forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine. DNA Replication or DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure repair
  • As a general rule, the larger the expansion, the more likely the expansion will cause a disease.
  • Trinucleotide repeat expansion is the DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure mutation responsible for causing any type of disorder categorized as a trinucleotide repeat disorder.
  • Examples of trinucleotide repeat expansions:
    • Huntington disease Huntington disease Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and poor prognosis. It is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). The most common clinical presentation in adulthood is a movement disorder known as chorea: abrupt, involuntary movements of the face, trunk, and limbs. Huntington Disease:
      • Inherited neurodegenerative disease
      • Caused by the expansion of cytosine Cytosine A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids guanine Guanine Nucleic Acids (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics
      • Typically, symptoms develop in the 4th–6th decades of life.
      • Physical capabilities degenerate and affected individuals develop dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders.
      • Larger expansions mean Mean Mean is the sum of all measurements in a data set divided by the number of measurements in that data set. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion affected individuals have a more severe and earlier disease onset.
    • Fragile X syndrome Fragile X syndrome Fragile X syndrome (FXS), also known as Martin-Bell syndrome, is a genetic condition with X-linked inheritance. Both boys and girls may be affected, but the severity is much worse in boys. Characteristic features include a long face, prominent forehead and chin, large ears, flat feet, and large testes post-puberty for boys. Fragile X Syndrome:
    • Friedreich ataxia Ataxia Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or peripheral nerve diseases. Motor ataxia may be associated with cerebellar diseases; cerebral cortex diseases; thalamic diseases; basal ganglia diseases; injury to the red nucleus; and other conditions. Ataxia-telangiectasia:
      • Caused by guanine Guanine Nucleic Acids adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids (GAA) repeats
      • Presents in late childhood with ataxia Ataxia Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or peripheral nerve diseases. Motor ataxia may be associated with cerebellar diseases; cerebral cortex diseases; thalamic diseases; basal ganglia diseases; injury to the red nucleus; and other conditions. Ataxia-telangiectasia, neurological symptoms, and dysarthria Dysarthria Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from cranial nerve diseases; neuromuscular diseases; cerebellar diseases; basal ganglia diseases; brain stem diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts. The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. Wilson’s Disease
Trinucleotide repeat expansion

Trinucleotide repeat expansion (repeat expansion mutation) in relation to point mutations and insertion mutations
Met MET Preoperative Care: methionine
Pro: proline Proline A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
Thr: threonine
His: histidine
Ser: serine Serine A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the l-isomer. It is synthesized from glycine or threonine. It is involved in the biosynthesis of purines; pyrimidines; and other amino acids. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
Gln: glutamine Glutamine A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. It is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important energy source for many cells. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
Leu: leucine

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Clinical Relevance

  • Huntington disease Huntington disease Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and poor prognosis. It is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). The most common clinical presentation in adulthood is a movement disorder known as chorea: abrupt, involuntary movements of the face, trunk, and limbs. Huntington Disease: a neurodegenerative condition with an autosomal dominant inheritance Autosomal dominant inheritance Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance. Affected individuals typically develop symptoms in their 30s, 40s, or 50s. The classic presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor is involuntary movements, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual problems. Huntington disease Huntington disease Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and poor prognosis. It is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). The most common clinical presentation in adulthood is a movement disorder known as chorea: abrupt, involuntary movements of the face, trunk, and limbs. Huntington Disease is caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion of the CAG triplet in the huntingtin gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics. There is no cure for this disorder and management is aimed at improving the quality Quality Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps. Quality Measurement and Improvement of life.
  • Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by genetic mutations in the hexosaminidase A (HEXA) gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Classic symptoms in infants include rapid degeneration of cognitive and neuromuscular abilities, progressive blindness, and a macular cherry-red spot on physical examination. Tay-Sachs Disease: a neurodegenerative condition inherited in an autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal recessive diseases are only expressed when 2 copies of the recessive allele are inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance fashion. Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by genetic mutations in the hexosaminidase A (HEXA) gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Classic symptoms in infants include rapid degeneration of cognitive and neuromuscular abilities, progressive blindness, and a macular cherry-red spot on physical examination. Tay-Sachs Disease is caused by a mutation in hexosaminidase-A, leading to an accumulation of GM2 gangliosides. There is great variation in disease presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor and individuals may present anytime from early life into adulthood. The typical clinical features are motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology weakness, cognitive changes, and hypersensitivity to stimuli. On physical examination, affected individuals are found to have a cherry-red spot on the macula Macula An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. Eye: Anatomy. Management is supportive as there is no cure for this disease.
  • Sickle cell disease: the most common genetic disease in the US. Sickle cell disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance Autosomal recessive inheritance Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance. Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation in the beta hemoglobin gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics with valine replacing glutamic acid Glutamic acid A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the l-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Urea Cycle. Affected individuals may be asymptomatic or require frequent hospitalization Hospitalization The confinement of a patient in a hospital. Delirium for disease complications. Sickle cell disease complications include vaso-occlusive crises, acute chest syndrome, frequent infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs as a result of intraluminal obstruction of the main pulmonary artery or its branches. The causative factors include thrombi, air, amniotic fluid, and fat. In PE, gas exchange is impaired due to the decreased return of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Pulmonary Embolism. While there is no cure, disease complications are treated and prevented as possible.

References

  1. Ajitkumar, A., De Jesus, O. (2021). Huntington Disease. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559166/
  2. Ramani, P.K., Parayil Sankaran, B. (2021). Tay-Sachs Disease. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564432/
  3. Sedrak A., Kondamudi, N.P. (2021). Sickle Cell Disease. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482384/
  4. Queremel Milani, D.A., Tadi, P. (2021). Genetics, Chromosome Abnormalities. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557691/
  5. Ramakrishnan, S., Gupta, V. (2021). Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559254/

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