Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is due to pathologic reflux that causes symptoms and complications, including erosive esophagitis. Common symptoms are heartburn, early satiety, bloating, and belching. Diagnosis is made clinically and requires endoscopy in adults over 55 who are unresponsive to empiric therapy with acid blockade or those with alarm symptoms. Uncomplicated GERD can be managed with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. Complications include erosive esophagitis, stricture, and Barrett esophagus, which can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Management includes lifestyle and dietary modification, acid-reducing medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Last updated: Apr 14, 2023
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy that leads to symptoms or complications.
Factors leading to increased exposure of esophageal mucosa Esophageal Mucosa Circular innermost layer of the esophagus wall that mediates esophageal peristalsis which pushes ingested food bolus toward the stomach. Esophagus: Anatomy to gastric acid/contents:
The following conditions are differential diagnoses of GERD/reflux esophagitis Esophagitis Esophagitis is the inflammation or irritation of the esophagus. The major types of esophagitis are medication-induced, infectious, eosinophilic, corrosive, and acid reflux. Patients typically present with odynophagia, dysphagia, and retrosternal chest pain. Esophagitis:
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