Ultrasonography is an imaging technique used in medicine for the imaging of subcutaneous body structures, blood vessels, joints, and internal organs to exclude structural pathologies. This technique is based on the utilization of ultrasound (or high-frequency, inaudible sound waves). In medical imaging, the sound waves have a frequency of 2–18 megahertz (MHz). The equipment utilizes a transducer acting as the emitter and receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors of sound waves, and a central computer processes the electrical signals to generate the image. The general advantages of this type of imaging is its low cost, availability, and safety. Some specialties that rely heavily on ultrasound examination are cardiology, nephrology, general surgery, gastroenterology, emergency medicine, and obstetrics.
Last updated: 6 May, 2022
The main principle behind ultrasound imaging is the transmission and reflection of sound waves through the tissues.
Types of images:
Image definition or sharpness of the image generated can be characterized in terms of:
Doppler ultrasound (or just “Doppler”) is a widely used ultrasound method based on the principle of sound-wave compression Compression Blunt Chest Trauma and dilation relative to the receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors. Doppler ultrasound is most commonly used to visualize blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure.
The interpretation of ultrasound images is done in real time, while the examination is being performed.
By convention, in color Doppler:
Artifacts are artificial objects produced by the equipment’s misinterpretation of sound-wave data coming back from the tissues that do not represent actual structures.
Some examples of artifacts are:
|Pros||Cons CoNS Staphylococcus|
There are no contraindications Contraindications A condition or factor associated with a recipient that makes the use of a drug, procedure, or physical agent improper or inadvisable. Contraindications may be absolute (life threatening) or relative (higher risk of complications in which benefits may outweigh risks). Noninvasive Ventilation for ultrasound imaging.
|Mechanism of acquisition||Ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma||Ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma||Acoustic energy||Ferromagnetic pulses|
|Relative cost||Inexpensive||Expensive||Inexpensive||Very expensive|
|Length of exam||Seconds||< 1 minute||Seconds||Approximately 1 hour|
|Contrast||No||May be needed||May be needed||May be needed|
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