Ascaris/Ascariasis

Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes. The infection, ascariasis, is most often caused by A. lumbricoides. Transmission occurs primarily via ingestion of water or food contaminated with Ascaris eggs. Most patients with ascariasis are asymptomatic. If symptomatic, characteristics typically follow 2 phases, which correlate with the migration of the parasite through the body. The early phase may include cough, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, and wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing. The late phase typically includes abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea, and intermittent diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea. Heavy infections can cause intestinal obstruction and growth impairment in children. A diagnosis is made by recovering a full-grown parasite from the patient’s stool or by finding eggs in the patient’s stool during a microscopic examination. Management includes anthelmintic therapy with albendazole, mebendazole, or pyrantel pamoate.

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Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Table of Contents

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General Characteristics and Epidemiology

General features of Ascaris

Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes (roundworms).

Adults: 

  • Features:
    • Striated cuticle
    • 3 small lips Lips The lips are the soft and movable most external parts of the oral cavity. The blood supply of the lips originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Oral Cavity: Lips and Tongue
    • Apical mouth
    • Lifespan: 1–2 years
  • Males: 
    • Diameter: 2–4 mm
    • Length: 15–30 cm long
    • Ventrally-incurvated end
  • Females: 
    • Diameter: 3–6 mm
    • Length: 20–50 cm 
    • Straighter end
    • Can lay up to 200,000 eggs per day

Eggs: 

  • Oval
  • Thick, lumpy outer shell
  • Unfertilized eggs are not infective.

Clinically relevant species

Ascariasis is caused by: 

  • A. lumbricoides (most common)
  • A. suum

Epidemiology

Ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans.

  • Approximately 1 billion people are infected worldwide.
  • Majority of cases occur in:
    • Asia
    • Africa
    • South America
    • Rural > urban
    • Tropical, wet climates
  • Children > adults

Pathogenesis

Reservoirs

A. lumbricoides:

  • Humans
  • Eggs in soil

A. suum:

  • Pigs
  • Humans

Transmission

  • Fecal–oral route (A. lumbricoides and A. suum)
  • Ingesting uncooked pig or chicken liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver (A. suum)

Life cycle

  • Embryonated eggs are ingested through contaminated food or water.
  • Larvae hatch → penetrate the intestinal mucosa
  • Larvae are carried through the portal system → systemic circulation Systemic circulation Circulation is the movement of blood throughout the body through one continuous circuit of blood vessels. Different organs have unique functions and, therefore, have different requirements, circulatory patterns, and regulatory mechanisms. Systemic and Special Circulations → pulmonary circulation → lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs 
  • Larvae mature over 1–2 weeks in alveoli.
  • Migration up the trachea Trachea The trachea is a tubular structure that forms part of the lower respiratory tract. The trachea is continuous superiorly with the larynx and inferiorly becomes the bronchial tree within the lungs. The trachea consists of a support frame of semicircular, or C-shaped, rings made out of hyaline cartilage and reinforced by collagenous connective tissue. Trachea → coughed up and swallowed into the GI tract
  • Within the intestines, larvae mature into adult worms → females lay eggs
  • Eggs are excreted in feces → embryonate in the soil → cycle continues
Ascaris-lifecycle diagram

Diagram summarizing the life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides

Image by Lecturio. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Pathophysiology

Effect of larvae migration in the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs → Löffler syndrome:

  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Eosinophilic pneumonitis 

Effect of adult worms in the GI tract:

  • Competition for nutrients and impaired absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption malnutrition Malnutrition Malnutrition is a clinical state caused by an imbalance or deficiency of calories and/or micronutrients and macronutrients. The 2 main manifestations of acute severe malnutrition are marasmus (total caloric insufficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition with characteristic edema). Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries (particularly in children)
  • A tangled mass of worms in heavy infections → bowel obstruction
  • Aberrant migration → obstruction of: 
    • Biliary tract Biliary tract Bile is secreted by hepatocytes into thin channels called canaliculi. These canaliculi lead into slightly larger interlobular bile ductules, which are part of the portal triads at the "corners" of hepatic lobules. The bile leaves the liver via the right and left hepatic ducts, which join together to form the common hepatic duct. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract cholecystitis Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is the inflammation of the gallbladder (GB) usually caused by the obstruction of the cystic duct (acute cholecystitis). Mechanical irritation by gallstones can also produce chronic GB inflammation. Cholecystitis is one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis but inflammation without gallstones can occur in a minority of patients. Cholecystitis
    • Pancreatic ducts → pancreatitis
    • Appendix → appendicitis Appendicitis Appendicitis is the acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix and the most common abdominal surgical emergency globally. The condition has a lifetime risk of 8%. Characteristic features include periumbilical abdominal pain that migrates to the right lower quadrant, fever, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Appendicitis

Clinical Presentation

General

  • Incubation period: 4–16 days after ingestion
  • Most patients with ascariasis are asymptomatic.
  • Symptomatic disease can present in 2 stages:
    • Early phase (pulmonary stage)
    • Late phase (intestinal stage)

Early phase

Symptoms of Löffler syndrome include:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Blood-tinged sputum 
  • Dyspnea
  • Wheezing
  • Substernal chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is one of the most common and challenging complaints that may present in an inpatient and outpatient setting. The differential diagnosis of chest pain is large and includes cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric etiologies. Chest Pain
  • Urticaria Urticaria Urticaria is raised, well-circumscribed areas (wheals) of edema (swelling) and erythema (redness) involving the dermis and epidermis with associated pruritus (itch). Urticaria is not a single disease but rather is a reaction pattern representing cutaneous mast cell degranulation. Urticaria (Hives)

Late phase

  • Abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
  • Bloating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Intermittent diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Adult worms passed in the stool

Complications

  • Malnutrition in children: 
    • Poor weight gain and failure to thrive Failure to Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT), or faltering growth, describes suboptimal weight gain and growth in children. The majority of cases are due to inadequate caloric intake; however, genetic, infectious, and oncological etiologies are also common. Failure to Thrive
    • Short stature
    • Impaired cognitive development
  • Bowel obstruction 
  • Cholecystitis
  • Acute cholangitis Acute Cholangitis Acute cholangitis is a life-threatening condition characterized by fever, jaundice, and abdominal pain which develops as a result of stasis and infection of the biliary tract. Septic shock, liver abscess, and multi-organ dysfunction are potential serious complications. Acute Cholangitis
  • Liver abscess 
  • Pancreatitis 
  • Appendicitis

Diagnosis and Management

Diagnosis

Definitive:

  • Microscopic examination of the stool for eggs
  • Presence of worms in the stool

Supporting evaluation:

  • CBC: eosinophilia (more commonly seen in the early phase)
  • Imaging:
    • Chest X-ray: patchy infiltrates → Löffler syndrome
    • Abdominal X-rays X-rays X-rays are high-energy particles of electromagnetic radiation used in the medical field for the generation of anatomical images. X-rays are projected through the body of a patient and onto a film, and this technique is called conventional or projectional radiography. X-rays
      • If concern for bowel obstruction
      • Barium contrast may demonstrate filling defects due to the presence of worms.
    • CT or MRI: 
      • May demonstrate worms in the bowel
      • “Bull’s eye” appearance indicates a cross-section of the worm on imaging
    • Ultrasound: evaluation of hepatobiliary complications
Ascaris infection in x-ray

An abdominal X-ray with barium swallow in a patient with ascariasis:
Adult worms appear in the duodenum as a tangled mass (black areas) within the white of the contrast medium.

Image: “Duodenal worms” by Larry Hadley. License: CC BY 2.0

Management

  • Albendazole (preferred)
  • Mebendazole
  • Pyrantel pamoate

Prevention

  • Wash hands.
  • Wash raw vegetables and fruits.
  • Cook food properly.
  • Sanitize properly.
  • Do not use human or pig feces as fertilizer.

Comparison of Roundworms

Table: Comparison of similar helminths and their associated diseases
Organism Enterobius Enterobius Enterobiasis is a helminth infection caused by Enterobius vermicularis, also known as a pinworm. This infection is typically seen in children and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. The primary clinical feature is anal pruritus, but patients are often asymptomatic. Enterobius/Enterobiasis vermicularis Toxocara Toxocara Toxocariasis is caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis and T. cati. These species frequently infect dogs and cats and are most commonly transmitted to humans via accidental ingestion of eggs through the fecal-oral route. Toxocara are not able to complete their life cycle in humans, but they do migrate to organs (including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, and eyes), where they cause inflammation and tissue damage. Toxocariasis canis Ascaris lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Trichinella Trichinella Trichinellosis is an illness caused by infection with Trichinella. The most common causative parasite is Trichinella spiralis, which is usually found in pigs and transmitted to humans through the ingestion of undercooked meat. Once ingested, the parasite grows and matures within the intestinal walls. Symptoms occur during larval migration. Trichinella/Trichinellosis spiralis
Reservoir Humans Dogs Humans
  • Humans
  • Dogs
  • Cats
Pigs
Transmission Fecal–oral Fecal–oral Fecal–oral Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Structure and Function of the Skin contact with contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat
Clinical
  • Pruritus ani
  • Abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain and vomiting are less common.
  • Visceral larva migrans
  • Ocular larva migrans
  • Cough
  • Wheezing
  • Hemoptysis Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood originating in the lower respiratory tract. Hemoptysis is a consequence of another disease process and can be classified as either life threatening or non-life threatening. Hemoptysis can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to both drowning (reduced gas exchange as the lungs fill with blood) and hemorrhagic shock. Hemoptysis
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Nausea
  • Malnutrition
  • Cough
  • Wheezing
  • Abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Fever
  • Periorbital edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
  • Myalgia
  • Petechial rash
  • Cough
  • Hepatomegaly
Diagnosis
  • Clinical
  • Cellophane tape test
  • Serology
  • Biopsy
Stool analysis
  • Stool analysis
  • Serology
  • Serology
  • Muscle biopsy
Management
  • Albendazole
  • Mebendazole
  • Pyrantel pamoate
  • Albendazole
  • Mebendazole
  • Albendazole
  • Mebendazole
  • Ivermectin
  • Albendazole
  • Self-limited
  • Albendazole
  • Mebendazole
  • Corticosteroids
Prevention Good hygiene
  • Good hygiene
  • Deworm dogs.
  • Proper disposal of dog feces
  • Good hygiene
  • Clean raw fruits and vegetables before consuming.
  • Wear shoes and protective clothing.
  • Improve sanitation.
  • Proper meat handling
  • Cook meat.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia: infection of the lung parenchyma most often caused by a bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology: Overview or virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology: Overview. Patients present with fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, and productive cough. Chest X-ray findings usually show lobar consolidation; however, multifocal infiltrates can be seen in some cases. Management usually involves empiric antibiotics, which can be tailored if the causative organism is identified. Antivirals are used in cases where a viral cause is suspected.  
  • Asthma Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory condition characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction. The disease is believed to result from the complex interaction of host and environmental factors that increase disease predisposition, with inflammation causing symptoms and structural changes. Patients typically present with wheezing, cough, and dyspnea. Asthma: an inflammatory respiratory condition characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction. Unlike ascariasis, the condition is chronic. Patients typically present with wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing, cough, and dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea. The diagnosis is confirmed with a pulmonary function test showing a reversible, obstructive pattern. Management includes bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids for control of inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation. Biologic agents may be used for severe, persistent asthma.
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species, which are common spore-forming molds found in our environment. As Aspergillus species are opportunistic, they cause disease primarily in patients who are immunocompromised. The organs that are most commonly involved are the lungs and sinuses. Aspergillus/Aspergillosis (ABPA): a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus. Patients may have symptoms of airway obstruction Airway obstruction Airway obstruction is a partial or complete blockage of the airways that impedes airflow. An airway obstruction can be classified as upper, central, or lower depending on location. Lower airway obstruction (LAO) is usually a manifestation of chronic disease, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway Obstruction such as dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing, productive cough, and fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever. Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease of the airways that results from permanent bronchial distortion. This results from a continuous cycle of inflammation, bronchial damage and dilation, impaired clearance of secretions, and recurrent infections. Bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a specific entity of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonia classification of interstitial lung diseases. As implied by the name, the exact causes are poorly understood. Patients often present in the moderate to advanced stage with progressive dyspnea and nonproductive cough. Pulmonary Fibrosis may occur if left untreated and eosinophilia may be seen. The diagnosis is made with imaging, IgE levels, skin-prick testing, and serology. Management includes steroids and antifungal therapy.
  • Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines, commonly caused by infections from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Transmission may be foodborne, fecal-oral, or through animal contact. Common clinical features include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Gastroenteritis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach and intestines, which is commonly caused by bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology: Overview, virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology: Overview, or parasite infection. Clinical features include abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, vomiting, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, and dehydration Dehydration Volume status is a balance between water and solutes, the majority of which is Na. Volume depletion refers to a loss of both water and Na, whereas dehydration refers only to a loss of water. Dehydration is primarily caused by decreased water intake and presents with increased thirst and can progress to altered mental status and low blood pressure if severe. Volume Depletion and Dehydration. Diagnostic testing with stool analysis or culture is not always required but can help determine the etiology in certain circumstances. The majority of cases are self-limited; therefore, management is typically supportive. Antibiotics are indicated in severe cases.
  • Acute cholecystitis Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is the inflammation of the gallbladder (GB) usually caused by the obstruction of the cystic duct (acute cholecystitis). Mechanical irritation by gallstones can also produce chronic GB inflammation. Cholecystitis is one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis but inflammation without gallstones can occur in a minority of patients. Cholecystitis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the gallbladder Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, located directly beneath the liver, that sits on top of the superior part of the duodenum. The primary functions of the gallbladder include concentrating and storing up to 50 mL of bile. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract resulting from sustained gallstone impaction of the cystic duct. Patients present with colicky, upper abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, nausea, and vomiting. Inflammation of the gallbladder Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, located directly beneath the liver, that sits on top of the superior part of the duodenum. The primary functions of the gallbladder include concentrating and storing up to 50 mL of bile. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract and gallstones is seen on ultrasound or CT. Adult worms are not seen on imaging, which rules out ascariasis. Management includes IV fluids IV fluids Intravenous fluids are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids. Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Intravenous Fluids, antibiotics, and cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure performed with the goal of resecting and extracting the gallbladder. It is one of the most common abdominal surgeries performed in the Western world. Cholecystectomy is performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, gallbladder polyps > 0.5 cm, porcelain gallbladder, choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis, and rarely, for gallbladder cancer. Cholecystectomy: Approaches and Technique
  • Acute pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas due to autodigestion. Common etiologies include gallstones and excessive alcohol use. Patients typically present with epigastric pain radiating to the back. Acute Pancreatitis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas. Patients present with sudden-onset, severe epigastric pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, which is typically sharp and radiates to the back. The diagnosis results from characteristic abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, lipase elevation, or imaging revealing pancreatic edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema. Management includes bowel rest, pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain control, and IV fluid hydration.

References

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