Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease of the airways that results from permanent bronchial distortion Distortion Defense Mechanisms. This results from a continuous cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation of inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation, bronchial damage and dilation, impaired clearance of secretions, and recurrent infections Recurrent infections Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID). Most cases are idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis, though infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, bronchial obstruction, congenital Congenital Chorioretinitis disorders, and systemic conditions can contribute. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with slowly progressive symptoms of cough and sputum production. The diagnosis is made from characteristic radiographic findings, such as bronchial wall thickening and luminal dilatation. Management focuses on improving clearance of mucus, relieving airway Airway ABCDE Assessment obstruction, treating infection, and managing the underlying etiology. Management can include chest physiotherapy Physiotherapy Spinal Stenosis, bronchodilators Bronchodilators Asthma Drugs, and antibiotics.
Last updated: 31 Mar, 2022
Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease in which there is permanent damage to the airways, causing abnormal bronchial dilation and mucosal inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation.
The signs and symptoms of bronchiectasis will slowly progress over years and are accompanied by periods of acute exacerbation.
Exacerbations of bronchiectasis are often heralded by the following:
Nose Nose The nose is the human body’s primary organ of smell and functions as part of the upper respiratory system. The nose may be best known for inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide, but it also contributes to other important functions, such as tasting. The anatomy of the nose can be divided into the external nose and the nasal cavity. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Anatomy and throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy exam:
Evidence of right heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR):
Bronchiectasis is diagnosed with the use of radiography.
Chest X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests:
The evaluation for an underlying etiology may include:
Bronchiectasis is a chronic condition. Thus, management focuses on:
Surgery is not usually indicated, but it may be used in specific circumstances:
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