Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), also known as hyaline membrane disease, is caused by the lack of adequate pulmonary surfactant Surfactant Substances and drugs that lower the surface tension of the mucoid layer lining the pulmonary alveoli. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) production in an immature lung. The syndrome is most commonly seen in preterm infants. The incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency is inversely related to gestational age Gestational age The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of fertilization. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last menstruation which is about 2 weeks before ovulation and fertilization. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care, with the highest risk in neonates born at less than 28 weeks. Prenatal assessment of lung maturity and steroid administration can improve outcome if an early delivery cannot be prevented. Diagnosis is clinical. Affected newborns show signs of respiratory distress at birth, or soon thereafter, with nasal flaring, grunting Grunting Physical Examination of the Newborn respirations, and retractions. Treatment includes antenatal steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors, exogenous surfactant Surfactant Substances and drugs that lower the surface tension of the mucoid layer lining the pulmonary alveoli. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and respiratory support. Neonatal RDS is associated with high morbidity Morbidity The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population. Measures of Health Status and mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status in preterm infants.
Last updated: Sep 22, 2022
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a condition caused by a lack of pulmonary surfactant Surfactant Substances and drugs that lower the surface tension of the mucoid layer lining the pulmonary alveoli. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), most commonly seen in preterm infants born at < 28 weeks of gestation.
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