The most common benign Benign Fibroadenoma liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy tumors include hepatic hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from hypertrophy, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells. Cellular Adaptation, and hepatic adenomas. These tumors are mostly asymptomatic and/or found incidentally on abdominal imaging. While these tumors are benign Benign Fibroadenoma, large lesions can cause symptoms such as upper abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, or produce complications such as bleeding. Malignant potential is a concern for hepatic adenoma, depending on risk factors. The diagnosis is based on imaging studies, with characteristic findings defining the tumor Tumor Inflammation. Biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma generally is reserved for equivocal cases. Management is observation for most small, asymptomatic, and non-growing tumors. However, high-risk factors, symptoms, increasing tumor Tumor Inflammation size, and complications dictate the need for surgical intervention.
Last updated: Dec 5, 2022
|Hepatic hemangioma Hemangioma A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of blood vessels that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve capillaries and veins. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Imaging of the Liver and Biliary Tract||Focal nodular hyperplasia Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from hypertrophy, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells. Cellular Adaptation||Hepatocellular adenoma||Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically arises in a chronically diseased or cirrhotic liver and is the most common primary liver cancer. Diagnosis may include ultrasound, CT, MRI, biopsy (if inconclusive imaging), and/or biomarkers. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases|
|Characteristics and pathologic features||Cavernous vascular spaces||Central stellate scar Scar Dermatologic Examination + portal tracts, bile ductules Bile ductules Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy, Kupffer cells||Sheets of enlarged hepatocytes Hepatocytes The main structural component of the liver. They are specialized epithelial cells that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules. Liver: Anatomy; no portal tracts or bile ductules Bile ductules Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy||Well-differentiated (similar to normal hepatocytes Hepatocytes The main structural component of the liver. They are specialized epithelial cells that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules. Liver: Anatomy); poorly differentiated (marked cytologic atypia Atypia Fibrocystic Change)|
|Predominant gender Gender Gender Dysphoria affected||Women||Women||Women||Men|
|Clinical history||Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) may affect growth.||OCP effect not proven; little or no effect on development or growth||OCPs, anabolic steroids a factor||History of cirrhosis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic parenchymal necrosis and scarring (fibrosis) most commonly due to hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. Patients may present with jaundice, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly. Cirrhosis can also cause complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Cirrhosis and risk factors (e.g., hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, which belongs to the Orthohepadnavirus genus and the Hepadnaviridae family. Most individuals with acute HBV infection are asymptomatic or have mild, self-limiting symptoms. Chronic infection can be asymptomatic or create hepatic inflammation, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B Virus)|
|Malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax potential||None||None||Yes||N/A|
|MRI (contrast): arterial phase||Peripheral nodular enhancement||Early homogeneous Homogeneous Imaging of the Spleen/diffuse enhancement||Well-demarcated enhancement; heterogeneous (due to hemorrhage, necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage, steatosis Steatosis Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)||Hyperenhancement|
|MRI (contrast): venous phase||Progressive centripetal fill-in||Isointense with central scar Scar Dermatologic Examination enhancement||
Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups.
Types of Variables
Sepsis in Children
||Portal venous washout|
|Additional key points||60%–70% positive uptake in sulfur colloid Colloid Colloid solutions include large proteins or cells that do not readily cross capillary membranes. They remain in the ecf and do not distribute into the icf (similar to crystalloids). Intravenous Fluids scan||No MRI-specific pattern was identified for β-catenin–mutated HCA.||Rim enhancement on delayed post-contrast images causing a capsule-appearance: relatively specific for HCC HCC Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically arises in a chronically diseased or cirrhotic liver and is the most common primary liver cancer. Diagnosis may include ultrasound, CT, MRI, biopsy (if inconclusive imaging), and/or biomarkers. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases|
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