Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique that utilizes magnetic fields and radiofrequency pulses to produce highly detailed images of the human anatomy. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect minute changes, reliably delineate lesions, and characterize vascular malformations. Soft tissues, such as abnormalities affecting non-bony structures, can be evaluated using MRI. Images can be obtained in most planes (commonly used are sagittal Sagittal Computed Tomography (CT), coronal Coronal Computed Tomography (CT), and axial Axial Computed Tomography (CT)). Contrary to CT, MRI does not expose patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship to ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma. There are some limitations Limitations Conflict of Interest of this imaging modality: MRI is expensive, time consuming, and not readily available in some centers. Additionally, patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with ferromagnetic implants or devices cannot be exposed to the MRI equipment, which has magnets. Contrast studies may result in renal complications; thus, the determination of renal function is necessary before using certain contrast agents Contrast agents Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues. Computed Tomography (CT).

Last updated: May 7, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Terminology and Technological Aspects

Mechanism

  • The human body is abundant in protons:
    • These protons align with a strong magnetic field.
    • A radiofrequency ( RF RF Rheumatoid Arthritis) current can make protons spin out of equilibrium Equilibrium Occurs when tumor cells survive the initial elimination attempt These cells are not able to progress, being maintained in a state of dormancy by the adaptive immune system. In this phase, tumor immunogenicity is edited, where T cells keep selectively attacking highly immunogenic tumor cells.This attack leaves other cells with less immunogenicity to potentially develop resistance to the immune response. Cancer Immunotherapy.
    • When the current is removed, the protons will realign with the magnetic field. Depending on the chemical nature, the alignment will differ in terms of:
      • The time it takes to realign
      • The amount of energy released
    • Sensors (such as those used in MRI) can differentiate between types of tissues based on these properties.
  • MRI images are created by the magnetic manipulation of hydrogen atoms:
    • Achieved by using a magnet with continuous electrical current Electrical current The flow of charged particles from one point to another (in physiology, usually across a cell membrane) Cardiac Physiology, creating a permanent magnetic field
    • RF RF Rheumatoid Arthritis pulses are transmitted, which excite and change the orientation Orientation Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person. Psychiatric Assessment of protons.
    • Once the RF RF Rheumatoid Arthritis pulses stop, protons:
      • Realign with the magnetic field
      • Release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology energy in the form of an RF RF Rheumatoid Arthritis pulse
    • The coils receive these signals from the protons, which are then processed to an image through a computer algorithm.

Image generation

  • Pulse sequences:
    • Predetermined imaging protocols that are specific to the body part being scanned, the parameters of which include:
    • Highlights different tissue characteristics
  • By setting the above parameters, images are created based on the following factors:
    • Proton density ( PD PD Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although the cause is unknown, several genetic and environmental risk factors are currently being studied. Individuals present clinically with resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. Parkinson’s Disease): density of hydrogen ions in the tissues
    • T1: 
      • Relaxation time for the protons to align longitudinal/parallel to the magnetic field 
      • Short TR and TE
    • T2: 
      • Relaxation time for the protons to align transverse/perpendicular to the magnetic field
      • Long TR and TE
  • Signal suppression Suppression Defense Mechanisms (inversion recovery pulse sequences):
    • Suppression Suppression Defense Mechanisms of signals from certain types of tissues: appear dark rather than bright
    • While generating PD-, T1-, or T2-weighted images T2-Weighted Images Imaging of the Head and Brain, signals from other tissues are suppressed:
      • FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery): suppresses water
      • STIR (short tau inversion recovery): suppresses fat
    • Allows for better contrast visualization and characterization of specific lesions
Magnetic resonance imaging (mri)

MRI

Image: “MRI-Philips” by Jan Ainali. License: CC BY 3.0

Interpretation

  • Structures are described as: 
    • Hyperintense:
      • Indicating that the structure has more signal intensity
      • Brighter than the surrounding structures
    • Hypointense:
      • Indicating that the structure has low signal intensity
      • Darker than the surrounding structures
  • Use of FLAIR: T2-weighted MRI sequence in which CSF is suppressed, so other T2 hyperintensities are easier to see ( edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema)
  • Contrast
    • Heavy metals
    • Often, the element gadolinium
    • Increases the speed of proton realignment with the magnetic field (the faster the realignment, the brighter the image)
    • Given to a patient before or during MRI
    • Administered through different routes (e.g., intravenously and intra-articularly)
    • Excreted by the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy
Table: Interpretation of MRI
Tissue T1-weighted images T1-Weighted Images Imaging of the Head and Brain T2-weighted images T2-Weighted Images Imaging of the Head and Brain
Fluid (e.g., CSF) Dark Bright
White matter White Matter The region of central nervous system that appears lighter in color than the other type, gray matter. It mainly consists of myelinated nerve fibers and contains few neuronal cell bodies or dendrites. Brown-Séquard Syndrome Light gray Dark gray
Gray matter Gray matter Region of central nervous system that appears darker in color than the other type, white matter. It is composed of neuronal cell bodies; neuropil; glial cells and capillaries but few myelinated nerve fibers. Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy Gray Light gray
Fat Bright Bright
Inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation Dark Bright

Indications and Contraindications

Central nervous system Nervous system The nervous system is a small and complex system that consists of an intricate network of neural cells (or neurons) and even more glial cells (for support and insulation). It is divided according to its anatomical components as well as its functional characteristics. The brain and spinal cord are referred to as the central nervous system, and the branches of nerves from these structures are referred to as the peripheral nervous system. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification

  • Cerebrovascular accidents: MRI shows greater sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques in detecting acute infarcts using diffusion-weighted imaging Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Imaging of the Head and Brain.
  • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification tumors: primary (e.g., glioblastoma multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme is a high-grade astrocytoma, an aggressive brain tumor arising from astrocytes, with an unknown cause and a poorly understood link to risk factors. There are two main types: primary, a more aggressive form seen more commonly in older patients, and secondary, developing from lower-grade astrocytomas and seen more commonly in younger patients. Glioblastoma Multiforme) or secondary
  • Encephalitis Encephalitis Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by an infection, usually viral. Encephalitis may present with mild symptoms such as headache, fever, fatigue, and muscle and joint pain or with severe symptoms such as seizures, altered consciousness, and paralysis. Encephalitis/ meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis
  • Dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease)
  • Spinal disc herniation Herniation Omphalocele
  • Spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy injuries

Musculoskeletal system

  • Knee injuries: meniscal, anterior cruciate ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. Knee Joint: Anatomy ( ACL ACL A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. Knee Joint: Anatomy)/ posterior cruciate ligament Posterior Cruciate Ligament A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia. Knee Joint: Anatomy ( PCL PCL A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia. Knee Joint: Anatomy) tears, fractures, etc ETC The electron transport chain (ETC) sends electrons through a series of proteins, which generate an electrochemical proton gradient that produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Electron Transport Chain (ETC).
  • Soft-tissue tumors: evaluation for soft-tissue component to osseous primary tumors
  • Shoulder injuries: rotator cuff tear, adhesive capsulitis Adhesive Capsulitis Chronic Shoulder Pain, labral tear, etc ETC The electron transport chain (ETC) sends electrons through a series of proteins, which generate an electrochemical proton gradient that produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Electron Transport Chain (ETC).

Other systems

  • Rectal cancer
  • Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men. In the United States, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is approximately 11%, and the lifetime risk of death is 2.5%. Prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer that takes years, or even decades, to develop into advanced disease. Prostate Cancer
  • Liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy masses:
  • Screening Screening Preoperative Care for breast cancer Breast cancer Breast cancer is a disease characterized by malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the breast. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Breast Cancer in BRCA carriers Carriers The Cell: Cell Membrane

Contraindications Contraindications A condition or factor associated with a recipient that makes the use of a drug, procedure, or physical agent improper or inadvisable. Contraindications may be absolute (life threatening) or relative (higher risk of complications in which benefits may outweigh risks). Noninvasive Ventilation

Contraindications Contraindications A condition or factor associated with a recipient that makes the use of a drug, procedure, or physical agent improper or inadvisable. Contraindications may be absolute (life threatening) or relative (higher risk of complications in which benefits may outweigh risks). Noninvasive Ventilation relevant in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with:

  • Ferromagnetic implants: Movement or possibility of overheating cause injury.
  • Electrical or mechanical devices:
    • Cochlear implants
    • Pacemakers
    • Drug/insulin-infusion pumps
  • Claustrophobia: pretreated with sedatives
  • Allergy Allergy An abnormal adaptive immune response that may or may not involve antigen-specific IgE Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction to contrast: may manifest as anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered antigen. The reaction may include rapidly progressing urticaria, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic shock, and death. Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction
  • Abnormal renal function:
    • A relative contraindication, as newer gadolinium-based agents, such as ProHance, no longer require checking GFR GFR The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman’s capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to inulin clearance. Kidney Function Tests prior to administration.
    • For older types of gadolinium:
      • Check renal function (cannot use for GFR GFR The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman’s capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to inulin clearance. Kidney Function Tests < 30).
      • It is important to avoid nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Fibrosis Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury. Bronchiolitis Obliterans (a fibrotic disorder of the joints and organs in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome receiving gadolinium).

Other Imaging Modalities

Comparison of imaging modalities

Table: Comparison of imaging methods
Radiography CT Ultrasound MRI
Mechanism of acquisition Ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma Ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma Acoustic energy Ferromagnetic pulses
Relative cost Inexpensive Expensive Very inexpensive Very expensive
Portable Yes No Yes No
Length of exam Seconds < 1 minute Seconds Many minutes up to about 1 hour
Contrast No May be needed May be needed May be needed

Other imaging modalities by system

  • Imaging of the CNS ( brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy, and vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy): 
    • Radiography is often used to evaluate fractures of the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy.
    • CT is a good choice for head trauma Head trauma Head trauma occurs when external forces are directed to the skull and brain structures, resulting in damage to the skull, brain, and intracranial structures. Head injuries can be classified as open (penetrating) or closed (blunt), and primary (from the initial trauma) or secondary (indirect brain injury), and range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Head Trauma and to exclude intracranial hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of cerebrovascular accident (stroke) resulting from intracranial hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and the pia mater layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. Most sahs originate from a saccular aneurysm in the circle of willis but may also occur as a result of trauma, uncontrolled hypertension, vasculitis, anticoagulant use, or stimulant use. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
    • MRI provides more detailed images of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification and spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy, allowing for the identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of infarcts, tumors, disc herniation Herniation Omphalocele, and demyelinating disease.
  • Pulmonary radiology Pulmonary Radiology Pulmonary, or chest, imaging includes imaging of the lungs and surrounding structures in the thorax. Imaging of the chest represents a substantial portion of the imaging tests that are routinely performed. Common imaging methods include X-ray, CT, MRI, and ultrasonography (US). Imaging of the Lungs and Pleura and imaging of the mediastinum Mediastinum The mediastinum is the thoracic area between the 2 pleural cavities. The mediastinum contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous systems including the heart and esophagus, and major thoracic vessels. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy
    • Radiography is the preferred initial imaging study for viewing lung pathology.
    • CT provides more detailed views of the lung parenchyma, mediastinal structures, and vasculature.
    • MRI is not often used, but may be employed for evaluating malignancies and cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) disease.
    • Ultrasound can be used for a rapid assessment of bedside trauma and to guide procedures ( thoracentesis Thoracentesis Aspiration of fluid or air from the thoracic cavity. It is coupled sometimes with the administration of drugs into the pleural cavity. Thoracic Surgery).
  • Breast imaging Breast Imaging Female breasts, made of glandular, adipose, and connective tissue, are hormone-sensitive organs that undergo changes along with the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Breasts may be affected by various diseases, in which different imaging methods are important to arrive at the correct diagnosis and management. Mammography is used for breast cancer screening and diagnostic evaluation of various breast-related symptoms. Imaging of the Breast
    • Mammography Mammography Radiographic examination of the breast. Breast Cancer Screening is often the initial choice for breast cancer Breast cancer Breast cancer is a disease characterized by malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the breast. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Breast Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care.
    • MRI can be used to further evaluate and stage breast cancer Breast cancer Breast cancer is a disease characterized by malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the breast. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Breast Cancer.
    • Ultrasound is helpful in evaluating lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy and guiding biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma.
  • Imaging of the abdomen and renal imaging Renal imaging The renal system is composed of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Varying conditions such as infections, cysts, solid masses, ischemia, and mechanical obstruction can affect the renal system. Evaluation of diseases rely on imaging methods such as radiography, ultrasonography, CT, and MRI. Some of these are also used to guide tissue sampling (e.g., renal biopsy). Imaging of the Urinary System
    • Radiography is often used to evaluate for kidney stones Kidney stones Nephrolithiasis is the formation of a stone, or calculus, anywhere along the urinary tract caused by precipitations of solutes in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone is the calcium oxalate stone, but other types include calcium phosphate, struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate), uric acid, and cystine stones. Nephrolithiasis, bowel obstruction Bowel obstruction Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of intestinal contents toward the anal canal. Ascaris/Ascariasis, and pneumoperitoneum Pneumoperitoneum A condition with trapped gas or air in the peritoneal cavity, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the lung and the gastrointestinal tract, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination. Perforated Viscus. In addition, barium may be used to assess swallowing Swallowing The act of taking solids and liquids into the gastrointestinal tract through the mouth and throat. Gastrointestinal Motility and bowel function.
    • CT and MRI provide more detailed assessments of the abdominal viscera and vasculature.
    • Nuclear medicine Nuclear medicine A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds. Nuclear Imaging can be used to assess gallbladder Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, located directly beneath the liver, that sits on top of the superior part of the duodenum. The primary functions of the gallbladder include concentrating and storing up to 50 mL of bile. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy function, gastric emptying Gastric emptying The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum. Gastrointestinal Motility, and GI bleeding.
  • Imaging of the uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy and ovaries Ovaries Ovaries are the paired gonads of the female reproductive system that contain haploid gametes known as oocytes. The ovaries are located intraperitoneally in the pelvis, just posterior to the broad ligament, and are connected to the pelvic sidewall and to the uterus by ligaments. These organs function to secrete hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and to produce the female germ cells (oocytes). Ovaries: Anatomy
    • Ultrasound is the most commonly used modality to evaluate the ovaries Ovaries Ovaries are the paired gonads of the female reproductive system that contain haploid gametes known as oocytes. The ovaries are located intraperitoneally in the pelvis, just posterior to the broad ligament, and are connected to the pelvic sidewall and to the uterus by ligaments. These organs function to secrete hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and to produce the female germ cells (oocytes). Ovaries: Anatomy and uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy, including assessing pregnancies and the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym PALM-COEIN, with PALM representing the structural causes and COEIN indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.
    • CT and MRI provide more detailed views and are often useful in assessing cysts Cysts Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an epithelium. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues. Fibrocystic Change, malignancies, and benign Benign Fibroadenoma masses.
  • Imaging of the musculoskeletal system: 
    • Radiography is often used to exclude fractures.
    • CT is more sensitive to bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types pathology, including osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that results from the spread of microorganisms from the blood (hematogenous), nearby infected tissue, or open wounds (non-hematogenous). Infections are most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Osteomyelitis.
    • MRI is preferred for soft-tissue evaluation, such as assessing for malignancies and myositis.
    • Bone scan Bone Scan Osteosarcoma can be useful in identifying occult fractures, osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that results from the spread of microorganisms from the blood (hematogenous), nearby infected tissue, or open wounds (non-hematogenous). Infections are most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Osteomyelitis, and metabolic bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types disease.

References

  1. Guha-Thakurta, N., Ginsberg, L.E. (2011). Chapter 13. Imaging of the spine. In Chen, M.M., Pope, T.L., Ott, D.J.(Eds.). Basic Radiology, 2e. McGraw-Hill.
  2. Zaer, N.F., Amini, B., Elsayes, K.M. (2014). Overview of diagnostic modalities and contrast agents. In Elsayes, K.M., Oldham, S.A.(Eds.). Introduction to Diagnostic Radiology. McGraw-Hill.

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