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Veins: Histology

Veins are tubular collections of cells, which transport deoxygenated blood and waste from the capillary beds Capillary beds Groups of 10–100 individual capillary vessels supplied by a single metarteriole. Capillaries: Histology back to the heart. Veins are classified into 3 types: small veins/venules, medium veins, and large veins. Each type contains 3 primary layers: tunica intima Tunica intima The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina. Arteries: Histology, tunica media Tunica media The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel. Arteries: Histology, and tunica adventitia Tunica adventitia The outermost covering of organs, blood vessels, and other such structures in the body. Arteries: Histology. The venous circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment is a low-pressure system with much lower amounts of smooth muscle and elastic Elastic Connective Tissue: Histology tissue, thinner walls, and larger lumens than arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology. Veins are capacitance Capacitance The measure of a blood vessel's ability to increase the volume of blood it holds without a large increase in blood pressure. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure. Venous Function vessels with significant compliance and the ability to distend and hold up to 70%–80% of blood volume at rest.

Last updated: 9 Mar, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Veins are tubular collections of cells transporting deoxygenated blood and waste products from capillaries Capillaries Capillaries are the primary structures in the circulatory system that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and other materials between the blood and the extracellular fluid (ECF). Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels. Because a capillary diameter is so small, only 1 RBC may pass through at a time. Capillaries: Histology in the periphery of the body back to the heart.

General characteristics

Characteristics of veins and the venous system include:

  • Veins are more abundant than arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology.
  • Compared to arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology, veins have:
  • Blood passes through veins in order of increasing luminal diameter:
    • Starts with the smallest vessels (venules)
    • Ends in the largest vessel (the vena cava)
  • Veins often accompany an artery:
    • Veins surround the artery in an irregular branching network.
    • Function as a countercurrent heat Heat Inflammation exchange → allows cool blood returning from the periphery to be warmed before returning to the heart
  • Capacitance Capacitance The measure of a blood vessel’s ability to increase the volume of blood it holds without a large increase in blood pressure. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure. Venous Function vessels:
    • Collapsed when empty, but able to distend significantly (known as compliance)
    • The venous system can hold up to 70%–80% of the blood volume at rest.

Pressure within the venous circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment

  • Venous circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment is a low-pressure system
    • Averages only 10 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg (compared to 120 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg in the arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology during systole Systole Period of contraction of the heart, especially of the heart ventricles. Cardiac Cycle)
    • Minimal fluctuations between systole Systole Period of contraction of the heart, especially of the heart ventricles. Cardiac Cycle and diastole Diastole Post-systolic relaxation of the heart, especially the heart ventricles. Cardiac Cycle
  • Pressure is affected by gravity and proximity to the heart:
    • More proximal to the heart = ↓ pressure
    • Compared to standing, the recumbent position has ↓ pressure.
    • While standing: foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy pressure highest, head pressure the lowest
  • Pressure is too low to spontaneously push blood against gravity
  • Moving blood up (against gravity) requires:
    • The pumping action of contracting skeletal muscles Skeletal muscles A subtype of striated muscle, attached by tendons to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles. Muscle Tissue: Histology
    • One-way venous valves preventing retrograde flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure

Layers of the Vessel Wall

All veins have the same basic structure and are made up of 3 primary layers: tunica intima Tunica intima The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina. Arteries: Histology, tunica media Tunica media The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel. Arteries: Histology, and tunica adventitia Tunica adventitia The outermost covering of organs, blood vessels, and other such structures in the body. Arteries: Histology.

Structure of a vein wall

Structure of a vein wall

Image: “Structure of a vein wall” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0
Cross-section of artery and vein

Cross-section of artery and vein

Image: “Types of Arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology and Arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0, edited by Lecturio.

Tunica intima Tunica intima The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina. Arteries: Histology

  • Made of:
    • A single layer of endothelial cells
      • Simple, squamous epithelial cells
      • Endothelium Endothelium A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (vascular endothelium), lymph vessels (lymphatic endothelium), and the serous cavities of the body. Arteries: Histology in veins appears smooth.
    • Small amounts of fibrous Fibrous Fibrocystic Change connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology
    • Valves: 
      • Formed from thickened endothelium Endothelium A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (vascular endothelium), lymph vessels (lymphatic endothelium), and the serous cavities of the body. Arteries: Histology and connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology
      • Found in medium veins (most commonly in the limbs and veins inferior to the heart)
  • Functions:
    • Acts as a selectively permeable barrier
    • Secretes vasoactive substances
    • Provides a smooth lining to the blood vessel (prevents aggregation Aggregation The attachment of platelets to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., thrombin; collagen) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a thrombus. Coagulation Studies of platelets Platelets Platelets are small cell fragments involved in hemostasis. Thrombopoiesis takes place primarily in the bone marrow through a series of cell differentiation and is influenced by several cytokines. Platelets are formed after fragmentation of the megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Platelets: Histology and/or RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology when intact)
    • Valves help prevent retrograde blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure, especially in the lower extremities.
  • Vascularized by direct diffusion Diffusion The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially facilitated diffusion, is a major mechanism of biological transport. Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis from the lumen
  • In capillaries Capillaries Capillaries are the primary structures in the circulatory system that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and other materials between the blood and the extracellular fluid (ECF). Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels. Because a capillary diameter is so small, only 1 RBC may pass through at a time. Capillaries: Histology: the only layer present in the vessel wall
  • In veins: no internal elastic membrane Internal elastic membrane Arteries: Histology (present, however, in larger arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology)

Tunica media Tunica media The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel. Arteries: Histology

  • Made of: 
    • Collagen Collagen A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of skin; connective tissue; and the organic substance of bones (bone and bones) and teeth (tooth). Connective Tissue: Histology
    • Smooth muscle (much less than in arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology)
    • Elastic Elastic Connective Tissue: Histology tissue (sparse compared to arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology)
  • Functions: provides strength and structure
  • In veins: no external elastic membrane External elastic membrane Arteries: Histology (present, however, in larger arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology)

Tunica adventitia Tunica adventitia The outermost covering of organs, blood vessels, and other such structures in the body. Arteries: Histology

  • Also called the tunica externa
  • Normally the thickest layer in veins
  • Made of: 
    • The primary component is collagen Collagen A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of skin; connective tissue; and the organic substance of bones (bone and bones) and teeth (tooth). Connective Tissue: Histology, which merges with connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology and surrounds neighboring vessels, nerves, and organs.
    • Longitudinal smooth muscle fibers (vena cava only)
  • Functions:
    • Strengthens the vessel wall
    • Anchors the vessel
  • Innervated by tiny nerves known as nervi vasorum Nervi vasorum Arteries: Histology
  • Vascularized by tiny vessels known as vasa vasorum Vasa vasorum Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins. Arteries: Histology

Types of Veins

Segmental differentiation distinguishes the 3 primary types of veins by overall size, function, and composition. Veins generally exist on a continuum with gradual changes in vessel morphology down the venous tree.

The 3 primary types of veins are:

  1. Small veins and venules
  2. Medium veins
  3. Large veins
Comparison of vein types

Comparison of large, medium, and small veins

Image: “Comparison of large, medium, and small veins” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0
Intraluminal pressures of different vessels

Intraluminal pressures of different vessels

Image by Lecturio.

Venules and small veins

  • Marks the beginning of the venous circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment (drains capillaries Capillaries Capillaries are the primary structures in the circulatory system that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and other materials between the blood and the extracellular fluid (ECF). Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels. Because a capillary diameter is so small, only 1 RBC may pass through at a time. Capillaries: Histology)
  • Venules:
    • Thinnest walls relative to their lumens
    • Range: 15–100 µm in diameter
    • Can be quite porous → exchange fluid with surrounding tissue (similar to capillaries Capillaries Capillaries are the primary structures in the circulatory system that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and other materials between the blood and the extracellular fluid (ECF). Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels. Because a capillary diameter is so small, only 1 RBC may pass through at a time. Capillaries: Histology)  
    • Join together to form small veins
  • Small veins: 
    • Generally 100 µm–1 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma in diameter 
    • Can unite to form venous plexuses
    • Unnamed
Venule

Diagram of a venule

Image: “Venule” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0

Medium veins

  • Diameter up to 1 cm
  • Drain venous plexuses
  • Accompany medium-sized (distributing) arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology
  • Embedded in skeletal muscle compartments → skeletal muscle acts as a pump Pump ACES and RUSH: Resuscitation Ultrasound Protocols, moving blood towards the heart
  • One-way venous valves prevent retrograde blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure within veins → ensures blood keeps moving forward
  • Includes most named vessels, for example:
    • Cephalic and basilic veins (upper limb)
    • Great and small saphenous veins (lower limb)
Medium sized vein

Diagram of a medium-sized vein

Image: “Medium-sized vein” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0

Large veins

Large vein

Diagram of a large vein

Image: “Large vein” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0

Venous sinuses

  • Characterized by:
    • Especially thin walls
    • Large lumens
    • No smooth muscle
  • Examples:
    • Coronary sinus Coronary Sinus A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the myocardium and drains into the right atrium. Coronary sinus, normally located between the left atrium and left ventricle on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) of the heart
    • Dural sinuses of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification

Clinical Relevance

  • Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic venous disease is a spectrum of disorders characterized by venous dilation and/or abnormal vein function in the lower extremities resulting from venous hypertension. “Chronic venous insufficiency” refers to the more severe forms of chronic venous disease. Skin changes typically distinguish chronic venous insufficiency from milder forms of venous disease. Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI): spectrum of disorders characterized by venous dilation and/or abnormal vein function in the lower extremities, resulting from venous hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension. More severe cases present with skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions changes, which may include skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions pigmentation, stasis dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), lipodermatosclerosis Lipodermatosclerosis Chronic Venous Insufficiency, and (eventually) the development of ulcers. Diagnosis is usually based on exam findings alone. The mainstay of management is compression Compression Blunt Chest Trauma therapy, though a variety of surgical options also exist. Venous ulcers are common as the disease progresses.
  • Phlebitis Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (thrombophlebitis). Glycopeptides and thrombophlebitis: Phlebitis Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (thrombophlebitis). Glycopeptides refers to inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of a vein and is commonly due to the presence of a thrombus, which is known as thrombophlebitis. The conditions may occur in both deep and superficial veins. In certain situations, such as the postpartum period Postpartum period In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (parturition). Postpartum Complications or an indwelling vascular catheter, the clot may become infected and lead to septic thrombophlebitis. Management involves anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs if a clot is present, and antibiotics if the clot is infected. Isolated superficial phlebitis Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (thrombophlebitis). Glycopeptides is typically benign Benign Fibroadenoma and self-limited.
  • Deep vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus ( DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis) and pulmonary embolism Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs as a result of intraluminal obstruction of the main pulmonary artery or its branches. The causative factors include thrombi, air, amniotic fluid, and fat. In PE, gas exchange is impaired due to the decreased return of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): Deep vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus refers to a thrombus formed in a deep vein. A DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis most commonly forms in a femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, or pelvic vein. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways and swelling Swelling Inflammation distal to the thrombus. A PE occurs if a portion breaks off, lodges in the pulmonary vasculature, and occludes the affected vessel. Pulmonary embolisms can be fatal. Ultrasound can visualize the thrombus and anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs is the primary mode of treatment. 
  • Edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema: Excess serous fluid accumulates in a body cavity or the interstitial space. Hydrostatic pressure Hydrostatic pressure The pressure due to the weight of fluid. Edema increases within a vein leading to increased pressure within the capillaries Capillaries Capillaries are the primary structures in the circulatory system that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and other materials between the blood and the extracellular fluid (ECF). Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels. Because a capillary diameter is so small, only 1 RBC may pass through at a time. Capillaries: Histology. The increased pressure pushes fluid out of the vasculature and into the extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid The fluid of the body that is outside of cells. It is the external environment for the cells. Body Fluid Compartments, resulting in edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema and the underlying etiology. Edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema is a symptom of a wide variety of illnesses.

References

  1. Taylor, A.M., and Bordoni, B. (2021). Histology, blood vascular system. In StatPearls. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553217/ 
  2. Saladin, K.S., Miller, L. (2004). Anatomy and physiology. (3rd Ed., Pp. 752‒753). 
  3. Moore, K.L., and Dalley, A.F. (2006). Clinically oriented anatomy. (5th Ed., Pp 42‒43).

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