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Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) refers to a spontaneous or traumatic bleed into the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification parenchyma and is the 2nd-most common cause of cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), commonly known as stroke, after ischemic CVAs. Trauma, hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, vasculopathy, vascular malformations, tumors, coagulopathy, and hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic stroke Ischemic Stroke An ischemic stroke (also known as cerebrovascular accident) is an acute neurologic injury that occurs as a result of brain ischemia; this condition may be due to cerebral blood vessel occlusion by thrombosis or embolism, or rarely due to systemic hypoperfusion. Ischemic Stroke may all be causative factors. Clinical presentation may vary depending on the size and location of the hemorrhage and may range from headache Headache The symptom of pain in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of headache disorders. Brain Abscess, neurologic signs and symptoms, and altered level of consciousness to coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma. Treatment includes stabilization, stopping or reversing of anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs, blood pressure control, monitoring in a neurologic ICU ICU Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients. West Nile Virus, and possible neurosurgical intervention. Intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with significant morbidity Morbidity The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population. Measures of Health Status and mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status.

Last updated: Jun 29, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Definition and Epidemiology

Definition

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) refers to a spontaneous or traumatic bleed into the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification parenchyma and is the 2nd-most common cause of cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs).

Deep ICH:

  • Accounts for ⅔ of the cases of ICH
  • Affects the deeper structures within the cranial vault Cranial Vault Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP):
    • Basal ganglia Basal Ganglia Basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclear agglomerations involved in movement, and are located deep to the cerebral hemispheres. Basal ganglia include the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. Basal Ganglia: Anatomy
    • Internal capsule Capsule An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides. Bacteroides
    • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification stem
    • Cerebellum Cerebellum The cerebellum, Latin for “little brain,” is located in the posterior cranial fossa, dorsal to the pons and midbrain, and its principal role is in the coordination of movements. The cerebellum consists of 3 lobes on either side of its 2 hemispheres and is connected in the middle by the vermis. Cerebellum: Anatomy

Lobar ICH:

  • Accounts for ⅓ of the cases of ICH
  • Affects structures of the cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex is the largest and most developed part of the human brain and CNS. Occupying the upper part of the cranial cavity, the cerebral cortex has 4 lobes and is divided into 2 hemispheres that are joined centrally by the corpus callosum. Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy and the superficial subcortical structures
  • Involves 1 or more lobes of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification

Epidemiology

  • Spontaneous (atraumatic) ICH accounts for approximately 10% of CVAs.
  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency:
    • Approximately 12–20 per 100,000 individuals
    • Doubles every 10 years in individuals 35 years and older
    • In the US, the incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency varies by ethnicity (highest to lowest):
      • Chinese and Japanese Americans
      • African Americans
      • Mexican Americans
      • Non-Hispanic White Americans
  • Slightly more common in men than in women
  • Among all stroke types, ICH carries the highest mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status.
Hemorrhagic stroke

(a) illustration of intracerebral hemorrhage
(b) CT of intracerebral hemorrhage

Image: “1602 The Hemorrhagic Stroke-02” by OpenStax College. License: CC BY 3.0

Etiology

Risk factors

  • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension:
    • Most important risk factor
    • More than doubles the risk for ICH
  • Vasculopathy
  • Advanced age
  • Prior CVA
  • Coagulopathy:
    • Anticoagulant therapy
    • Antiplatelet therapy (minor increase in risk)
    • Thrombolytics Thrombolytics Thrombolytics, also known as fibrinolytics, include recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPa) (i.e., alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase), urokinase, and streptokinase. The agents promote the breakdown of a blood clot by converting plasminogen to plasmin, which then degrades fibrin. Thrombolytics
    • Inherited bleeding disorders Bleeding disorders Hypocoagulable conditions, also known as bleeding disorders or bleeding diathesis, are a diverse group of diseases that result in abnormal hemostasis. Physiologic hemostasis is dependent on the integrity of endothelial cells, subendothelial matrix, platelets, and coagulation factors. The hypocoagulable states result from abnormalities in one or more of these contributors, resulting in ineffective thrombosis and bleeding. Hypocoagulable Conditions
    • Chronic liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy disease
  • CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease
  • History of falls
  • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity
  • Low cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism levels (especially LDL)
  • Lifestyle factors:
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Heavy dependence on alcohol
    • Tobacco use
    • Use of stimulant drugs:
      • Cocaine Cocaine An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. Local Anesthetics
      • Amphetamines Amphetamines Analogs or derivatives of amphetamine. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation. Stimulants
      • Sympathomimetics Sympathomimetics Sympathomimetic drugs, also known as adrenergic agonists, mimic the action of the stimulators (î±, β, or dopamine receptors) of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Sympathomimetic drugs are classified based on the type of receptors the drugs act on (some agents act on several receptors but 1 is predominate). Sympathomimetic Drugs

Leading causes

  • Hypertensive vasculopathy:
    • Most common cause
    • Association with deep ICH is greater than that with lobar ICH.
    • Affected vessels include branches of:
      • Basilar artery
      • Posterior cerebral arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology
      • Middle cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the cerebral cortex. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities. Cerebrovascular System: Anatomy
      • Cerebellar arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology
    • Affected vessels largely supply:
      • Pons Pons The front part of the hindbrain (rhombencephalon) that lies between the medulla and the midbrain (mesencephalon) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the cerebellum to the cerebrum. Brain Stem: Anatomy
      • Midbrain Midbrain The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the pons and the diencephalon. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal tectum mesencephali and the ventral tegmentum mesencephali, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimotor systems. Brain Stem: Anatomy
      • Thalamus Thalamus The thalamus is a large, ovoid structure in the dorsal part of the diencephalon that is located between the cerebral cortex and midbrain. It consists of several interconnected nuclei of grey matter separated by the laminae of white matter. The thalamus is the main conductor of information that passes between the cerebral cortex and the periphery, spinal cord, or brain stem. Thalamus: Anatomy
      • Globus pallidus Globus pallidus The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus. Basal Ganglia: Anatomy
      • Putamen
      • Caudate nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles
      • Cerebellar nuclei Cerebellar nuclei Four clusters of neurons located deep within the white matter of the cerebellum, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii. Cerebellum: Anatomy
    • Accelerates degenerative changes Degenerative Changes Spinal Stenosis in the cerebral arterial/arteriolar branch points
    • Increased risk in the setting of comorbid vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and/or coagulopathy
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy Amyloid angiopathy A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by amyloid deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of cerebral cortex and meninges. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar cerebral hemorrhage; cerebral ischemia; and cerebral infarction. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized amyloidosis. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease:
    • 2nd-most common cause
    • Association with lobar ICH is greater than that with deep ICH.
    • More common in the elderly
    • Amyloid accumulation in the arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology of the cortex is causative.
    • Affected individuals are prone to recurrent ICH.

Other causes

  • Vascular malformations:
    • Arteriovenous malformations
    • Cavernous malformations
  • Thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus of the cerebral vein:
    • Most common in individuals with thrombophilia Thrombophilia A disorder of hemostasis in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of thrombosis. Hypercoagulable States
    • Thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus increases venous pressure and leads to venous capillary rupture.
  • Hemorrhagic transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology of ischemic CVAs:
    • Common in large ischemic infarcts with significant associated cerebral edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
    • Common in ischemic infarcts of embolic origin
  • Primary tumors:
    • Glioma
    • Glioblastoma
    • Primary CNS lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum
    • Pineal tumors
    • Pituitary Pituitary A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk which is called the infundibulum. Hormones: Overview and Types tumors
    • Meningioma Meningioma Meningiomas are slow-growing tumors that arise from the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. The vast majority are benign. These tumors commonly occur in individuals with a history of high doses of skull radiation, head trauma, and neurofibromatosis 2. Meningioma
    • Acoustic neuroma Acoustic neuroma Acoustic neuroma, also referred to as vestibular schwannoma, is a benign tumor arising from Schwann cells of the vestibular component of the cranial nerve VIII. Acoustic neuroma forms within the internal auditory meatus and extends into the cerebellopontine angle. Acoustic Neuroma
  • Metastatic tumors:
    • Melanoma Melanoma Melanoma is a malignant tumor arising from melanocytes, the melanin-producing cells of the epidermis. These tumors are most common in fair-skinned individuals with a history of excessive sun exposure and sunburns. Melanoma
    • Lung carcinoma
    • Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma contains no chorionic villi but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (trophoblasts). It is characterized by the large amounts of chorionic gonadotropin produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
    • Renal cell carcinoma Renal cell carcinoma Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a tumor that arises from the lining of the renal tubular system within the renal cortex. Renal cell carcinoma is responsible for 80%-85% of all primary renal neoplasms. Most RCCs arise sporadically, but smoking, hypertension, and obesity are linked to its development. Renal Cell Carcinoma
    • Thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body. The thyroid gland is a highly vascular, brownish-red gland located in the visceral compartment of the anterior region of the neck. Thyroid Gland: Anatomy carcinoma
  • Infection of CNS structures:
    • Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis
    • Encephalitis Encephalitis Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by an infection, usually viral. Encephalitis may present with mild symptoms such as headache, fever, fatigue, and muscle and joint pain or with severe symptoms such as seizures, altered consciousness, and paralysis. Encephalitis
    • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification abscess Abscess Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Mycotic aneurysms:
    • Originate from the emboli from infective endocarditis Infective endocarditis Infective endocarditis (IE) is caused by infection or inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocardium), most commonly affecting the heart valves. Endocarditis
    • May seed and infect the arterial wall causing weakening and aneurysm Aneurysm An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area of a blood vessel that causes an abnormal widening of its diameter > 1.5 times the size of the native vessel. Aneurysms occur more often in arteries than in veins and are at risk of dissection and rupture, which can be life-threatening. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms formation
  • Cerebral vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: from the primary CNS or systemic vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome:
  • Reversible vertebral vasoconstriction Vasoconstriction The physiological narrowing of blood vessels by contraction of the vascular smooth muscle. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure syndrome (RVCS):

Pathophysiology

In the absence of trauma, cerebral parenchymal bleed generally results from the rupture of small penetrating arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology.

Vascular rupture

Vascular rupture often occurs at or near the bifurcation of the affected arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology and is attributed to degenerative vascular changes associated with:

  • Common vascular risk factors:
    • Advancing age
    • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
    • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Hypertensive vasculopathy:
    • Cumulative effect of aging and vascular shear forces
    • Hyperplasia Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from hypertrophy, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells. Cellular Adaptation of the intimal layer
    • Hyaline deposition in the vessel wall
    • Focal vessel wall necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage
  • Cerebrovascular amyloid deposition:
    • Deposition of amyloid proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis between the media and adventitia
    • Subsequent extension Extension Examination of the Upper Limbs into and degradation of the smooth muscle layer
    • Affects small arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology, arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology, and capillaries Capillaries Capillaries are the primary structures in the circulatory system that allow the exchange of gas, nutrients, and other materials between the blood and the extracellular fluid (ECF). Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels. Because a capillary diameter is so small, only 1 RBC may pass through at a time. Capillaries: Histology
    • Manifestations include perivascular inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation, microaneurysms, and fibrinoid necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage.

Hematoma Hematoma A collection of blood outside the blood vessels. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue. Intussusception expansion

Causes a mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast effect leading to:

  • Increased intracranial pressure Increased Intracranial Pressure Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) ( ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP))
  • Neurologic deterioration
  • Possible herniation Herniation Omphalocele

Perilesional edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema

  • Multiple contributing factors:
    • Mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast effect
    • Perilesional neuronal ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage
    • Release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology or accumulation of:
      • Vasoactive mediators (i.e., inflammatory vasodilators Vasodilators Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease))
      • Cytotoxic Cytotoxic Parvovirus B19 mediators (i.e., cytokines Cytokines Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner. Adaptive Immune Response)
  • May persist for days to weeks after the initial bleeding insult
  • Decreased perfusion to the perilesional cerebral parenchyma causes a secondary ischemic insult.

Vasogenic and cytotoxic Cytotoxic Parvovirus B19 mediator accumulation

  • Promotes edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema adjacent to the hematoma Hematoma A collection of blood outside the blood vessels. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue. Intussusception
  • Disrupts the blood– brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification barrier
  • Causes neuronal sodium Sodium A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. Hyponatremia pump Pump ACES and RUSH: Resuscitation Ultrasound Protocols failure leading to neuronal death

Cessation of bleeding

  • Occurs via the intrinsic homeostatic pathways
  • Vascular tamponade Tamponade Pericardial effusion, usually of rapid onset, exceeding ventricular filling pressures and causing collapse of the heart with a markedly reduced cardiac output. Pericarditis is imposed by the cranial vault Cranial Vault Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP).
  • Impaired/delayed by the presence of coagulopathy ( iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment. Anterior Cord Syndrome or pathologic)
  • Impaired/delayed by the presence of severely elevated blood pressure

Clinical Presentation

The signs and symptoms of ICH depend on the anatomical location and size of the hemorrhage.

General symptoms and signs

  • Symptoms:
    • Higher likelihood of occurrence and in presenting severely in larger hemorrhages compared with smaller hemorrhages:
      • Headache Headache The symptom of pain in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of headache disorders. Brain Abscess
      • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics/ vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
      • Altered level of consciousness
      • Neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways/stiffness
    • Onset is most common at routine levels of exertion.
    • Hypertensive bleed: emotional or physical stress/exertion
    • Smaller/slower bleed: insidious onset of symptoms over minutes
    • Larger bleed: rapid progression of symptoms
  • Signs:
    • Severe blood pressure elevation
    • Meningismus Meningismus Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Altered level of consciousness
    • Seizure
    • Focal neurologic deficit
    • Progressive neurologic deterioration

Specific neurological findings

The following findings suggest rapidly progressive neurological impairment due to elevated ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP):

  • Pupillary palsy Palsy paralysis of an area of the body, thus incapable of voluntary movement Cranial Nerve Palsies
  • Extraocular movement palsy Palsy paralysis of an area of the body, thus incapable of voluntary movement Cranial Nerve Palsies
  • Progressive drowsiness
  • Cushing triad:
    • Bradycardia Bradycardia Bradyarrhythmia is a rhythm in which the heart rate is less than 60/min. Bradyarrhythmia can be physiologic, without symptoms or hemodynamic change. Pathologic bradyarrhythmia results in reduced cardiac output and hemodynamic instability causing syncope, dizziness, or dyspnea. Bradyarrhythmias
    • Respiratory depression
    • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension

Cardiac manifestations

  • ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities:
  • Echocardiographic findings:
  • Elevated cardiac biomarkers (generally, mild elevation):
    • Cardiac enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes:
      • Creatine Creatine An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as creatinine in the urine. Acute Kidney Injury kinase-MB (CKMB)
      • Troponin-I
      • Troponin-T
      • Troponin-C

Diagnosis

Intracerebral hemorrhage should be suspected in any individual presenting with neurologic signs or symptoms suggestive of a CVA. Prompt diagnosis is critical, as ICH is associated with significant morbidity Morbidity The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population. Measures of Health Status and mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status.

Imaging

Noncontrast head CT:

  • Should be performed emergently
  • To distinguish between ischemic CVAs and ICH
  • Findings suggesting rapidly progressive neurological impairment due to elevated ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP):
    • Cerebellar hemorrhage:
      • > 3 cm in diameter
      • With neurologic deterioration
      • Compression Compression Blunt Chest Trauma of the brainstem
      • Ventricular obstruction leading to hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, intracranial. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Intraventricular hemorrhage:
      • Ventricular enlargement indicating hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, intracranial. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
      • Neurologic deterioration
    • Supratentorial (hemispheric) hemorrhage:
      • Neurological deterioration
      • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification compression Compression Blunt Chest Trauma
      • Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, intracranial. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Follow-up imaging:

  • Repeat CT/MRI appropriate for:
    • Evaluation of neurologic deterioration
    • Confirmation of hematoma Hematoma A collection of blood outside the blood vessels. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue. Intussusception stabilization
  • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification MRI with contrast is the modality of choice to evaluate the underlying cause of ICH.
  • CT with contrast CT with Contrast Imaging of the Head and Brain may be an option if MRI is contraindicated.
  • CTA CTA A non-invasive method that uses a ct scanner for capturing images of blood vessels and tissues. A contrast material is injected, which helps produce detailed images that aid in diagnosing vascular diseases. Pulmonary Function Tests or MRA MRA Imaging of the Heart and Great Vessels to evaluate for vascular abnormalities

Laboratory evaluation

  • CBC
  • Comprehensive metabolic panel Comprehensive metabolic panel Primary vs Secondary Headaches:
    • Electrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes are mineral salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions, which can be either be positively (cations) or negatively (anions) charged. Electrolytes are distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments in different concentrations. Electrolytes are essential for various basic life-sustaining functions. Electrolytes
    • BUN/creatinine
    • Hepatic transaminases Transaminases A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. Autoimmune Hepatitis
    • Glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance
  • Coagulation studies Coagulation studies Coagulation studies are a group of hematologic laboratory studies that reflect the function of blood vessels, platelets, and coagulation factors, which all interact with one another to achieve hemostasis. Coagulation studies are usually ordered to evaluate patients with bleeding or hypercoagulation disorders. Coagulation Studies:
    • PT and INR
    • PTT
  • Urinalysis Urinalysis Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children
  • Urine toxicology screen

Cardiac evaluation

  • Baseline ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Cardiac enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes to evaluate for myocardial ischemia Myocardial ischemia A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (coronary artery disease), to obstruction by a thrombus (coronary thrombosis), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Coronary Heart Disease
  • Echocardiogram Echocardiogram Transposition of the Great Vessels

Electroencephalography Electroencephalography Seizures

Electroencephalography Electroencephalography Seizures is indicated to evaluate seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures and unexplained encephalopathy Encephalopathy Hyper-IgM Syndrome.

Management

Acute ICH is an emergent neurologic situation that may sometimes require surgical intervention. Affected individuals should be managed in the ICU ICU Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients. West Nile Virus or a dedicated stroke unit. Failure of prompt treatment could result in hemorrhagic expansion, parenchymal brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification injury, elevated ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP), brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification herniation Herniation Omphalocele, and ultimately death.

Stabilization

  • Evaluate and stabilize the affected individual using advanced trauma life support (ATLS) or advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) protocols.
  • Airway management Airway management An airway, breathing, and circulation (ABC) assessment is the mainstay for evaluating and treating critically ill individuals. The airway assessment helps identify individuals with potential obstruction of the airway, which may benefit from airway management techniques to ensure adequate ventilation and oxygenation. Airway Management and respiratory support, if indicated
  • Stop/reverse all anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants/ antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents are medications that inhibit platelet aggregation, a critical step in the formation of the initial platelet plug. Abnormal, or inappropriate, platelet aggregation is a key step in the pathophysiology of arterial ischemic events. The primary categories of antiplatelet agents include aspirin, ADP inhibitors, phosphodiesterase/adenosine uptake inhibitors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Antiplatelet Drugs.
  • Line placement (peripheral IV, central venous catheter Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheters are IV lines placed into the large central veins for monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP), prolonged drug administration, or administration of parenteral nutrition. The most common sites of insertion are the internal jugular and subclavian veins. Central Venous Catheter, arterial line)
  • Emergent neurosurgical consultation:
    • Surgical clinical decision-making
    • Placement of an ICP-monitoring device
    • Emergent CSF drainage for:

General management

  • Noncontrast head CT as soon as possible
  • Assessment:
    • Baseline and serial neurologic examination
    • Repeat noncontrast CT immediately if deterioration is detected.
  • Cessation of bleeding:
    • Stop/reverse anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants/ antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents are medications that inhibit platelet aggregation, a critical step in the formation of the initial platelet plug. Abnormal, or inappropriate, platelet aggregation is a key step in the pathophysiology of arterial ischemic events. The primary categories of antiplatelet agents include aspirin, ADP inhibitors, phosphodiesterase/adenosine uptake inhibitors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Antiplatelet Drugs.
    • Order baseline coagulation studies Coagulation studies Coagulation studies are a group of hematologic laboratory studies that reflect the function of blood vessels, platelets, and coagulation factors, which all interact with one another to achieve hemostasis. Coagulation studies are usually ordered to evaluate patients with bleeding or hypercoagulation disorders. Coagulation Studies.
  • Prophylactic measures (to reduce increased ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)):
    • Elevate the head of the bed.
    • Sedate agitated individuals.
    • Treat fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever.
  • Maintain eunatremia (AVOID hypotonic Hypotonic Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid. Renal Sodium and Water Regulation fluids).
  • Osmotic therapy in increased ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP):
    • Administration of hypertonic Hypertonic Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid. Renal Sodium and Water Regulation saline and/or mannitol Mannitol A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity. Osmotic Diuretics
    • Administer prophylactic osmotic therapy:
      • If severe neurologic impairment on presentation
      • If rapid neurologic deterioration is detected
      • If there is a delay in imaging
      • If neurosurgical evaluation is delayed
  • Hyperventilation Hyperventilation A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide. Respiratory Alkalosis:
    • Induced by manipulation of ventilator settings
    • Induces cerebral vasoconstriction Vasoconstriction The physiological narrowing of blood vessels by contraction of the vascular smooth muscle. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure → reduced cerebral blood volume (↓ ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP))
    • Hyperventilation Hyperventilation A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide. Respiratory Alkalosis is a temporizing measure reserved for:
      • Individuals with acute brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification herniation Herniation Omphalocele (until better definitive therapy is available)
      • Individuals with neurologic deterioration awaiting either urgent surgery or central venous access for osmotherapy

Neurosurgical interventions

Blood pressure control

  • Blood pressure elevation may be the cause of hemorrhage.
  • Conversely, increased ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) may cause blood pressure elevation.
  • Elevated blood pressure may be necessary to maintain cerebral perfusion Cerebral Perfusion Syncope in the setting of cerebral edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema.
  • Pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways due to ICH may also contribute to blood pressure elevation.
  • BP goals (when clinically stable):
    • Acute ICH with systolic BP ( SBP SBP Ascites) of 150–220 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg: Lower to a target of 140 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg.
    • Acute ICH with SBP SBP Ascites > 220 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg: 
      • Rapidly lower to below 220 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg; THEN,
      • Gradually reach a range of 140–160 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg.
  • Choice of medication:
    • Systolic blood pressure ≥ 160 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg: nicardipine Nicardipine A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents. Class 4 Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Calcium Channel Blockers)
    • Systolic blood pressure < 160 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg: labetalol Labetalol A salicylamide derivative that is a non-cardioselective blocker of beta-adrenergic receptors and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Seizure management

  • Individuals with ICH often experience seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures:
    • Early seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures in the course of management:
    • Status epilepticus Status Epilepticus A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition. Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. Seizures during the course of management
    • Late seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures after ICH stabilization:
      • Usually recurrent and also known as “post-stroke epilepsy Epilepsy Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder marked by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. These seizures can be classified as focal or generalized and idiopathic or secondary to another condition. Clinical presentation correlates to the classification of the epileptic disorder. Epilepsy
      • Attributed to scarring Scarring Inflammation/gliosis after ICH
  • Seizure prophylaxis Prophylaxis Cephalosporins did not reduce mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status, and, in some studies, worsened outcomes.
  • Acute (early) ICH-related seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures: immediate IV administration of antiepileptics
  • Post-stroke (late) seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures: long-term antiepileptic therapy

Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

  • Mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status:
    • 30-day mortality rate Mortality rate Calculated as the ratio of the total number of people who die due to all causes over a specific time period to the total number of people in the selected population. Measures of Health Status: 30%–50%
    • 10-year survival rate: < 20%
  • Morbidity Morbidity The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population. Measures of Health Status:
    • Residual neurologic impairment and associated disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment
    • Cognitive impairment
  • Risk factors for poor outcomes:
    • Advanced age
    • Severe baseline neurologic impairment
    • Early neurologic deterioration
    • Premature Premature Childbirth before 37 weeks of pregnancy (259 days from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period, or 245 days after fertilization). Necrotizing Enterocolitis or early withdrawal of support
    • Use of anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants/ antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents are medications that inhibit platelet aggregation, a critical step in the formation of the initial platelet plug. Abnormal, or inappropriate, platelet aggregation is a key step in the pathophysiology of arterial ischemic events. The primary categories of antiplatelet agents include aspirin, ADP inhibitors, phosphodiesterase/adenosine uptake inhibitors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Antiplatelet Drugs
    • Hematoma Hematoma A collection of blood outside the blood vessels. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue. Intussusception characteristics:

Differential Diagnosis

  • Ischemic stroke Ischemic Stroke An ischemic stroke (also known as cerebrovascular accident) is an acute neurologic injury that occurs as a result of brain ischemia; this condition may be due to cerebral blood vessel occlusion by thrombosis or embolism, or rarely due to systemic hypoperfusion. Ischemic Stroke: an ischemic infarct Infarct Area of necrotic cells in an organ, arising mainly from hypoxia and ischemia Ischemic Cell Damage of the cerebral parenchyma caused by the occlusion of a cerebral artery by atherosclerotic lesions or cardioembolic emboli. Ischemic stroke Ischemic Stroke An ischemic stroke (also known as cerebrovascular accident) is an acute neurologic injury that occurs as a result of brain ischemia; this condition may be due to cerebral blood vessel occlusion by thrombosis or embolism, or rarely due to systemic hypoperfusion. Ischemic Stroke presents with neurologic deficits Neurologic Deficits High-Risk Headaches and/or altered mental status Altered Mental Status Sepsis in Children/altered level of consciousness that depends on the size and location of the infarct Infarct Area of necrotic cells in an organ, arising mainly from hypoxia and ischemia Ischemic Cell Damage. Diagnosis is clinical and confirmed by neuroimaging Neuroimaging Non-invasive methods of visualizing the central nervous system, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities. Febrile Infant. Management includes initial stabilization, possible cerebrovascular intervention, and addressing identifiable underlying etiologies ( severe hypertension Severe hypertension A confirmed blood pressure ≥ 180 mm Hg systolic and/or ≥ 120 mm Hg diastolic. Uncontrolled Hypertension, embolus), and cardiovascular risk factors.
  • Other hemorrhagic cerebral conditions: Carotid/cerebral artery dissection, epidural hemorrhage Epidural Hemorrhage Epidural hemorrhage (EDH) is an event characterized by bleeding into the epidural space between the dural layers of the meninges and the skull. The primary mechanism triggering bleeding is trauma (i.e., closed head injury), which causes arterial injury, most commonly middle meningeal artery injury. Epidural Hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage Subdural Hemorrhage Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is bleeding into the space between the dural and arachnoid meningeal layers surrounding the brain. The most common mechanism triggering the bleeding event is trauma (e.g., closed head injury) causing a tearing injury to the extracerebral “bridging” veins. Subdural Hemorrhage are other hemorrhagic manifestations of the cerebral vasculature that can present with neurologic deficits Neurologic Deficits High-Risk Headaches and/or altered mental status Altered Mental Status Sepsis in Children/altered level of consciousness. Diagnosis is clinical and confirmed by neuroimaging Neuroimaging Non-invasive methods of visualizing the central nervous system, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities. Febrile Infant. Management depends on the hemorrhagic etiology and includes initial stabilization, neurosurgical/endovascular consultation, management of ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP), and monitoring in a neurologic ICU ICU Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients. West Nile Virus.
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy Encephalopathy Hyper-IgM Syndrome: neurologic deficits Neurologic Deficits High-Risk Headaches and/or altered mental status Altered Mental Status Sepsis in Children/altered level of consciousness that present in the setting of severe hypertension Severe hypertension A confirmed blood pressure ≥ 180 mm Hg systolic and/or ≥ 120 mm Hg diastolic. Uncontrolled Hypertension. Diagnosis is based on the presence of elevated blood pressure and neurologic signs and symptoms. Neuroimaging Neuroimaging Non-invasive methods of visualizing the central nervous system, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities. Febrile Infant is useful to rule out ischemic or hemorrhagic CVAs.

References

  1. Caplan, L. (2021). Clinical diagnosis of stroke subtypes. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-diagnosis-of-stroke-subtypes
  2. Caplan, L. (2021). Overview of the evaluation of stroke. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-evaluation-of-stroke
  3. Rordorf, G. (2021). Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-pathogenesis-clinical-features-and-diagnosis
  4. Rordorf, G. (2021). Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Acute treatment and prognosis. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-acute-treatment-and-prognosis
  5. Magdy, S. (2021). Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Secondary prevention and long-term prognosis. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-secondary-prevention-and-long-term-prognosis
  6. Aguilar, M.I., Brott, T.G. (2011). Update in intracerebral hemorrhage. The Neurohospitalist, 1, pp. 148–159. Retrieved September 22, 2021, from https://doi.org/10.1177/1941875211409050

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