Yellow Fever Virus

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the yellow fever virus, a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure virus of the genus Flavivirus. Humans and primates serve as reservoirs, and transmission occurs from the bite of an infected female mosquito. Most patients present with fever and flu-like symptoms. Severe disease can cause multiorgan dysfunction resulting in jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, renal dysfunction, hemorrhage, shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock, and potential death. The diagnosis can be confirmed with serology and PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). There is no antiviral treatment, so management is supportive. Prevention includes mosquito avoidance and vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination.

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Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

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Classification

Rna viruses flowchart classification

RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure virus identification:
Viruses can be classified in many ways. Most viruses, however, will have a genome formed by either DNA DNA The molecule DNA is the repository of heritable genetic information. In humans, DNA is contained in 23 chromosome pairs within the nucleus. The molecule provides the basic template for replication of genetic information, RNA transcription, and protein biosynthesis to promote cellular function and survival. DNA Types and Structure or RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure. RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure genome viruses can be further characterized by either a single- or double-stranded RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure. “Enveloped” viruses are covered by a thin coat of cell membrane Cell Membrane A cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment. A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane (usually taken from the host cell). If the coat is absent, the viruses are called “naked” viruses. Viruses with single-stranded genomes are “positive-sense” viruses if the genome is directly employed as messenger RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure (mRNA), which is translated into proteins. “Negative-sense,” single-stranded viruses employ RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure dependent RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure polymerase, a viral enzyme, to transcribe their genome into messenger RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure.

Image by Lecturio. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

General Characteristics and Epidemiology

Basic features of yellow fever virus

  • Taxonomy:
    • Family: Flaviviridae
    • Genus: Flavivirus
  • RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure virus:
    • Single-stranded
    • Positive-sense
    • Linear
  • Spherical
  • Icosahedral symmetry
  • Enveloped
  • Size: 40–60 nm
Yellow fever virus particles

Transmission electron microscopic image of yellow fever virus particles.
Virions are spheroidal, uniform in shape, and 40‒60 nm in diameter.

Image: “2176” by Erskine Palmer. License: Public Domain

Clinically relevant species

Yellow fever virus has only 1 serotype, which causes the disease (yellow fever).

Epidemiology

  • Approximately 200,000 infections per year worldwide
  • Approximately 30,000 deaths per year
  • Distribution:
    • South America
    • Sub-Saharan Africa (approximately 90% of cases)

Pathogenesis

Reservoirs

  • Humans
  • Primates

Transmission

Vectors:

  • Aedes mosquitoes
  • Haemagogus mosquitoes

Transmission cycles:

  • Jungle (sylvatic):
    • Cycle occurs between nonhuman primates and mosquitoes.
    • Humans become infected while working in or visiting the jungle.
  • Intermediate (savannah):
    • Cycle occurs between primates, humans, and mosquitoes.
    • Occurs in the African savannah in those who live in jungle border regions
  • Urban:
    • Cycle occurs between humans and mosquitoes.
    • The virus is brought to the urban setting by a human who was infected in the jungle or savannah.
Aedes aegypti bloodfeeding

Aedes aegypti feeding on human skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Structure and Function of the Skin

Image: “Aedes aegypti bloodfeeding CDC Gathany” by James Gathany. License: Public Domain

Viral replication cycle

  • Virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology: Overview binds to target cells via receptors → endocytosis
  • ↓ pH in the endosome → fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virus envelope → injection of nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm
  • Nucleocapsid disintegration → replication of the viral genome in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus → mature → released as an infectious virion

Pathophysiology

  • Mosquito feeds → inoculates virus into the host
  • Replication occurs at the inoculation site (dendritic cells).
  • Spreads through lymphatics → regional lymph nodes
  • Replication occurs in macrophages/monocytes.
  • Spreads through lymphatics → bloodstream → organs (particularly liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver) and tissues
  • Viral replication in organ tissues results in:
    • Eosinophilic degeneration
    • Apoptosis
    • Fatty change
  • Effects:
    • Liver damage
    • Renal failure
    • Cerebral edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
    • Systemic inflammatory response → shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock

Clinical Presentation

The incubation period is 3–6 days. Clinical features range from a self-limited, mild febrile illness (majority of cases) to severe, life-threatening disease.

Period of infection

The following early symptoms are nonspecific: 

  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Photophobia
  • Malaise
  • Myalgias
  • Lower back pain Back pain Back pain is a common complaint among the general population and is mostly self-limiting. Back pain can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic depending on the duration of symptoms. The wide variety of potential etiologies include degenerative, mechanical, malignant, infectious, rheumatologic, and extraspinal causes. Back Pain
  • Nausea
  • Anorexia
  • Dizziness

Period of intoxication

After a 48-hour period of remission, a minority of patients will develop symptoms of severe yellow fever. This period presents with high fever and multiorgan dysfunction.

  • Hepatic dysfunction: jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice
  • Renal dysfunction: oliguria
  • Hemorrhage (from hepatic dysfunction and DIC DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition characterized by systemic bodywide activation of the coagulation cascade. This cascade results in both widespread microvascular thrombi contributing to multiple organ dysfunction and consumption of clotting factors and platelets, leading to hemorrhage. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation):
    • Epistaxis
    • Melena
    • Hematemesis (black vomit)
    • Hematuria
  • Pancreatitis:
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Epigastric pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
  • Myocarditis Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, which may occur alone or in association with a systemic process. There are numerous etiologies of myocarditis, but all lead to inflammation and myocyte injury, most often leading to signs and symptoms of heart failure. Myocarditis
  • CNS dysfunction (from metabolic encephalopathy, cerebral edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema, and/or hemorrhage):
    • Delirium Delirium Delirium is a medical condition characterized by acute disturbances in attention and awareness. Symptoms may fluctuate during the course of a day and involve memory deficits and disorientation. Delirium
    • Seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures
    • Coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma

Physical exam

Findings will depend on the severity of the disease and phase of infection, but they may include:

  • Vital signs:
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
    • Bradycardia during fever (Faget sign)
    • Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension
  • Ocular:
    • Conjunctival injection
    • Scleral icterus
  • Cutaneous:
    • Facial flushing
    • Jaundice
    • Petechiae
    • Ecchymosis
  • Abdominal:
    • Epigastric tenderness
    • Hepatomegaly
  • Renal:
    • Dark urine
    • Hematuria

Diagnosis and Management

Diagnosis

Specific testing:

  • Serology (ELISA) for IgM antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins
  • PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for viral RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA), like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a polymer of nucleotides that is essential to cellular protein synthesis. Unlike DNA, RNA is a single-stranded structure containing the sugar moiety ribose (instead of deoxyribose) and the base uracil (instead of thymine). RNA generally carries out the instructions encoded in the DNA but also executes diverse non-coding functions. RNA Types and Structure
  • Viral culture
  • Note: Liver biopsy should never be performed owing to the risk of fatal hemorrhage.

Supporting evaluation:

  • CBC:
    • ↓ WBCs with neutropenia Neutropenia Neutrophils are an important component of the immune system and play a significant role in the eradication of infections. Low numbers of circulating neutrophils, referred to as neutropenia, predispose the body to recurrent infections or sepsis, though patients can also be asymptomatic. Neutropenia
    • Platelets Platelets Platelets are small cell fragments involved in hemostasis. Thrombopoiesis takes place primarily in the bone marrow through a series of cell differentiation and is influenced by several cytokines. Platelets are formed after fragmentation of the megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Platelets
  • Liver function tests Liver function tests Liver function tests, also known as hepatic function panels, are one of the most commonly performed screening blood tests. Such tests are also used to detect, evaluate, and monitor acute and chronic liver diseases. Liver Function Tests:
    • ↑ AST and ALT
    • ↑ Bilirubin
  • Coagulation studies Coagulation studies Coagulation studies are a group of hematologic laboratory studies that reflect the function of blood vessels, platelets, and coagulation factors, which all interact with one another to achieve hemostasis. Coagulation studies are usually ordered to evaluate patients with bleeding or hypercoagulation disorders. Coagulation Studies:
    • ↑ PT and PTT
    • ↓ Fibrinogen
    • ↑ D-dimer
  • Renal studies:
    • ↑ BUN and creatinine
    • ↑ Urine albumin and protein

Management

There is no antiviral therapy available to treat yellow fever. Management is supportive.

  • Hospitalization and ICU care is advisable because rapid deterioration can occur.
  • IV fluid hydration
  • Vasopressor support for shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock
  • Monitor for:
    • Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia
    • DIC DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition characterized by systemic bodywide activation of the coagulation cascade. This cascade results in both widespread microvascular thrombi contributing to multiple organ dysfunction and consumption of clotting factors and platelets, leading to hemorrhage. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
    • Liver dysfunction
    • Kidney dysfunction

Prevention

  • Mosquito avoidance:
    • Insect repellent
    • Protective clothing
    • Mosquito netting
    • Drain and prevent standing water
  • Vaccination is recommended for:
    • Travel to endemic areas
    • Residents of endemic regions

Comparison of Flavivirus Species

Table: Comparison of Flavivirus species
Organism Yellow fever virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C Virus Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus and a member of the genus Hepacivirus and the family Flaviviridae. The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C Virus Dengue virus Dengue Virus Dengue virus (DENV) is a small, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. The infection can be transmitted to humans by the bite of female Aedes mosquitoes. The majority of infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic individuals may progress through 3 stages of the disease, with severe manifestations occurring in those with previous infections. Dengue Virus
Characteristics
  • 1 serotype
  • 40–60 nm
  • 2 serotypes
  • 55–65 nm
  • 4 serotypes
  • 40–60 nm
Transmission Mosquito Blood-borne Mosquito
Clinical presentation
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Jaundice
  • Multiorgan dysfunction
  • Hemorrhage
  • Shock
  • Asymptomatic
  • Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic parenchymal necrosis and scarring (fibrosis) most commonly due to hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. Patients may present with jaundice, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly. Cirrhosis can also cause complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Cirrhosis
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically arises in a chronically diseased or cirrhotic liver and is the most common primary liver cancer. Diagnosis may include ultrasound, CT, MRI, biopsy (if inconclusive imaging), and/or biomarkers. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Skin flushing/rash
  • Severe pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
  • Multiorgan dysfunction
  • Hemorrhage
  • Shock
Diagnosis
  • Serology
  • PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Viral culture
  • Serology
  • PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Serology
  • PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Antigen testing
Management Supportive Direct-acting antivirals Supportive
Prevention
  • Mosquito avoidance measures
  • Vaccine
  • Avoid sharing needles
  • Proper sharps and waste disposal
  • Testing donated blood
  • Mosquito avoidance measures
  • Vaccine

Differential Diagnosis

  • Malaria Malaria Malaria is an infectious parasitic disease affecting humans and other animals. Most commonly transmitted via the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito infected with microorganisms of the Plasmodium genus. Patients present with fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and diaphoresis. Malaria: mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium species. Malaria Malaria Malaria is an infectious parasitic disease affecting humans and other animals. Most commonly transmitted via the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito infected with microorganisms of the Plasmodium genus. Patients present with fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and diaphoresis. Malaria often presents with fever, rigors, diaphoresis, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and renal impairment. A blood smear shows a single pleomorphic ring. Rapid testing for Plasmodium antigens can also be performed. Management requires a prolonged course of multiple antimalarial drugs Antimalarial drugs Malaria, a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium spp., is transmitted via injection of sporozoites or immature forms of the parasite into a person's bloodstream. Sporozoites then infect the hepatocytes and differentiate into schizonts, which subsequently rupture, and merozoites invade red blood cells. Antimalarial Drugs.
  • Lassa fever: hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus. Most Lassa fever infections infections are mild and flu-like. Some patients experience severe manifestations of pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid within the lung parenchyma and alveoli as a consequence of a disease process. Based on etiology, pulmonary edema is classified as cardiogenic or noncardiogenic. Patients may present with progressive dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, or respiratory failure. Pulmonary Edema, hepatitis, bleeding, facial swelling, seizures, coma, and shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock. The diagnosis is confirmed with serology and PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Ribavirin has been used successfully to treat Lassa fever. 
  • Ebola: highly contagious and potentially lethal hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus is a member of the Filoviridae family. They are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses with a characteristic filamentous, pleomorphic morphology. Transmission mainly occurs through contact with secretions from an infected individual. This virus causes flu-like symptoms, diarrhea, hemorrhage, multiorgan dysfunction, and shock. Ebolavirus/Marburgvirus. Patients present with symptoms of fever, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain. These symptoms can progress to hemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock. The diagnosis is confirmed PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), serology, and electron microscopy of tissue or blood. Management is supportive.    
  • Leptospirosis Leptospirosis Leptospira is a spiral or question mark-shaped, gram-negative spirochete with hook-shaped ends. The major clinical species is Leptospira interrogans, which causes a mild flu-like illness in a majority of cases. The manifestations are biphasic, with Leptospira found in the blood initially. Leptospira/Leptospirosis: disease caused by Leptospira Leptospira Leptospira is a spiral or question mark-shaped, gram-negative spirochete with hook-shaped ends. The disease, leptospirosis, is a zoonosis, infecting animals. Rodents are the most important reservoir. Bacteria shed in the urine of rodents and other animals can be transmitted to humans via contaminated water. Leptospira/Leptospirosis interrogans. The majority of patients present with a mild flu-like illness, and the manifestations are biphasic. In about 10% of infections, icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis develops, manifesting as hemorrhage, renal failure, and jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice. Bacterial culture takes weeks, so other diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests are important aspects in making a diagnosis. Some of the most important epidemiological values of diagnostic tests include sensitivity and specificity, false positives and false negatives, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and pre-test and post-test probabilities. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests, such as serology and dark-field microscopy, are used. Treatment is primarily with penicillin.
  • Relapsing fever Relapsing fever Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by multiple species of the spirochete Borrelia. There are 2 major forms of relapsing fever: tick-borne relapsing fever (caused by multiple species, such as B. hermsii, B. miyamotoi, and B. turicatae) and louse-borne relapsing fever (caused by B. recurrentis). Patients go through recurrent stages of fever, crisis phase, and afebrile periods. Relapsing Fever: vector-borne disease caused by multiple species of the spirochete Spirochete Treponema is a gram-negative, microaerophilic spirochete. Owing to its very thin structure, it is not easily seen on Gram stain, but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy. This spirochete contains endoflagella, which allow for a characteristic corkscrew movement. Treponema Borrelia Borrelia Borrelia are gram-negative microaerophilic spirochetes. Owing to their small size, they are not easily seen on Gram stain but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy, Giemsa, or Wright stain. Spirochetes are motile and move in a characteristic spinning fashion due to axial filaments in the periplasmic space. Borrelia. Patients go through recurrent stages of fever, crisis, and afebrile periods. Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, DIC DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition characterized by systemic bodywide activation of the coagulation cascade. This cascade results in both widespread microvascular thrombi contributing to multiple organ dysfunction and consumption of clotting factors and platelets, leading to hemorrhage. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, and myocarditis may occur. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and visualization of spirochetes on thick and thin blood smears. Management is with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, penicillin, or ceftriaxone.
  • Q fever: bacterial zoonotic infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. The clinical presentation of Q fever can vary, but it is often mild with flu-like symptoms. Other manifestations include pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia, hepatitis, endocarditis Endocarditis Endocarditis is an inflammatory disease involving the inner lining (endometrium) of the heart, most commonly affecting the cardiac valves. Both infectious and noninfectious etiologies lead to vegetations on the valve leaflets. Patients may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fever and fatigue. Endocarditis, and aseptic meningitis. A high degree of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, and it is aided by serology and PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).  Antibiotics are the mainstay of management. 

References

  1. World Health Organization. Yellow fever Fact sheet no. 100. May 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
  2. Tolle, M.A. (2009). Mosquito-borne diseases. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 39:97–140. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19327647/
  3. Chen, L.H., Kozarsky, P.E., Visser, L.G. (2019). What’s old is new again: the re-emergence of yellow fever in Brazil and vaccine shortages. Clin Infect Dis 68:1761–1762. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30204852
  4. Lindenbach, B.D., et al. (2007). Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. In Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M. (Eds.). Fields Virology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 1101. ISBN 978-0-7817-6060-7.
  5. Sanna, A, et al. (2018). Yellow fever cases in French Guiana, evidence of an active circulation in the Guiana Shield, 2017 and 2018. Euro Surveill 23(36):1800471. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30205871
  6. Leong, W.Y. (2018). New diagnostic tools for yellow fever. J Travel Med 25(1). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30184173
  7. Barrett, A.D., Higgs, S. (2007). Yellow fever: a disease that has yet to be conquered. Annu Rev Entomol 52:209–229. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16913829/
  8. Javelle, E., Gautret, P., Raoult, D. (2019). Towards the risk of yellow fever transmission in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 25:10–12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30170135
  9. Wilder-Smith, A. (2019). Yellow fever: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. In Baron, E.L. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/yellow-fever-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
  10. Wilder-Smith, A. (2021). Yellow fever: treatment and prevention. In Baron, E.L. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/yellow-fever-treatment-and-prevention
  11. Yuill, T.M. (2020). Yellow fever. MSD Manual Professional Version. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/arboviruses-arenaviridae-and-filoviridae/yellow-fever
  12. Simon, L.V., Hashimi, M.F., Torp, K.D. (2021). Yellow fever. StatPearls. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470425/
  13. Blyth, D.M. (2019). Yellow fever. In Brusch, J.L. (Ed.), Medscape. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/232244-overview
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Yellow fever. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/index.html

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