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Enterobius/Enterobiasis

Enterobiasis is a helminth infection caused by Enterobius vermicularis, also known as a pinworm. This infection is typically seen in children and is transmitted through the fecal–oral route. The primary clinical feature is anal pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), but patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are often asymptomatic. Visualization of ova or worms on cellophane tape testing is often required for diagnosis. Anthelmintic medications are used for treatment. Prevention of reinfection and transmission requires frequent handwashing and bathing, as well as washing of clothes and linens.

Last updated: 24 May, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

General Characteristics and Epidemiology

Basic features of Enterobius

  • Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis 
  • Appearance:
    • White 
    • Slender 
    • Pointed tail
  • Size: 
    • Females: 8–13 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma long
    • Males: 2–5 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma long
  • Eggs:
    • Elongated
    • Flattened on 1 side
    • Translucent

Clinically relevant species

Enterobius vermicularis, or pinworm, causes enterobiasis.

Epidemiology

Enterobiasis is the most common helminth infection in the United States and Western Europe.

  • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency
    • United States: 5%–15% of the general population (approximately 40 million people)
    • Worldwide: 60 million to 100 million infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease annually
  • Children > adults
  • Men > women

Pathogenesis

Reservoir Reservoir Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (disease vectors) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks. Humans may serve both as disease reservoirs and carriers. Escherichia coli

Humans are the primary hosts of E. vermicularis.

Transmission

  • Fecal–oral
  • Contact with contaminated surfaces and fomites Fomites Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include clothing, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and cooking and eating utensils. Adenovirus

Host risk factors

  • Disabled persons
  • Schoolchildren
  • Prisoners
  • Healthcare, school, and prison workers

Life cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

The entire life cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation of E. vermicularis takes place in the human GI tract.

  • Ingestion of eggs → hatch and release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology larvae Larvae Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals. Ascaris/Ascariasis in the small intestine Small intestine The small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract, extending from the pyloric orifice of the stomach to the ileocecal junction. The small intestine is the major organ responsible for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is divided into 3 segments: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Small Intestine: Anatomy
  • Adult worms reside in the cecum Cecum The blind sac or outpouching area of the large intestine that is below the entrance of the small intestine. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform appendix. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy, appendix Appendix A worm-like blind tube extension from the cecum. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy, and ascending colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy.
  • Female worms migrate through the rectum Rectum The rectum and anal canal are the most terminal parts of the lower GI tract/large intestine that form a functional unit and control defecation. Fecal continence is maintained by several important anatomic structures including rectal folds, anal valves, the sling-like puborectalis muscle, and internal and external anal sphincters. Rectum and Anal Canal: Anatomy (usually at night)  → deposit eggs on perianal skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions 
  • Inflammatory reaction to worms and eggs on skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions → intense pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
  • Autoinfection occurs by patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship transferring the eggs to the mouth with contaminated hands after scratching the affected region.
  • Environmental contamination may also occur via the consumption of contaminated foods or contact with surfaces that are contaminated with eggs.

Clinical Presentation

  • Enterobiasis is often asymptomatic.
  • Most common presentation: perianal itching ( pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) ani)
  • Rare symptoms indicative of a high worm burden: 
    • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
    • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics and vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
  • Rare extraintestinal manifestations:
    • Vulvovaginitis Vulvovaginitis The term vulvovaginitis is used to describe an acute inflammation of the vulva and vagina. Vulvovaginitis can be caused by several infectious and non-infectious etiologies, and results from disruption of the normal vaginal environment. Common signs and symptoms include pain, pruritus, erythema, edema, vaginal discharge and dyspareunia. Vulvovaginitis
    • Salpingitis
    • Oophoritis Oophoritis Inflammation of the ovary, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Mumps Virus/Mumps
    • Cervical granuloma
    • Peritoneal inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation

Diagnosis and Management

Diagnosis

  • Visual inspection Inspection Dermatologic Examination of mobile worms:
    • Near the anus
    • On clothing or bed linens
  • Cellophane tape test (often called the “Scotch tape test”):
    • Apply an adhesive tape–like material to the perianal region.
    • Eggs will accumulate on the adhesive surface.
    • Examination of the tape under the microscope may show ova or worms.
    • Improved yield at night or first thing in the morning
Photomicrograph enterobius vermicularis eggs enterobiasis

Photomicrograph of 8 Enterobius vermicularis eggs on cellophane tape

Image: Photomicrograph depicts eight eggs of the human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis” by CDC. License: Public Domain

Management

Medical therapy:

  • Anthelmintic medications: 
    • Mebendazole Mebendazole A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. Anthelmintic Drugs
    • Pyrantel pamoate
    • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Family members and classmates of the patient should be treated (owing to the high transmission rate).

Measures to reduce reinfection and spread:

  • All linens and clothing should be washed.
  • Frequent handwashing and bathing
  • Clip fingernails.

Comparison of Similar Helminths

Table: Comparison of similar helminths Helminths Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the acanthocephala; nematoda; and platyhelminths. Some authors consider certain species of leeches that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths. Anthelmintic Drugs and their associated diseases
Organism Enterobius vermicularis Toxocara Toxocara A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs. Toxocariasis canis Ascaris Ascaris Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes. The infection, ascariasis, is most often caused by A. lumbricoides. Transmission occurs primarily via ingestion of water or food contaminated with Ascaris eggs. Most patients with ascariasis are asymptomatic. Ascaris/Ascariasis lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Strongyloides stercoralis A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea. Strongyloidiasis Schistosoma Schistosoma Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by Schistosoma, a trematode. Schistosomiasis occurs in developing countries with poor sanitation. Freshwater snails are the intermediate host and are transmitted to humans through skin contact with contaminated fresh water. The clinical presentation occurs as a result of the host’s immune response to antigens from the eggs. Schistosoma/Schistosomiasis mansoni
Characteristics Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Trematode Trematode Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, monogenea, aspidogastrea, and digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle. Schistosoma/Schistosomiasis
Reservoir Reservoir Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (disease vectors) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks. Humans may serve both as disease reservoirs and carriers. Escherichia coli Humans Dogs Humans
  • Humans
  • Dogs
  • Cats
Humans
Transmission Fecal–oral Fecal–oral Fecal–oral Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions contact with contaminated soil Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions contact with contaminated water
Clinical
  • Pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) ani
  • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways and vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia are less common.
  • Visceral larva migrans Visceral larva migrans A condition produced in man by the prolonged migration of animal nematode larvae in extraintestinal tissues other than skin; characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, and frequently pneumonitis, commonly caused by toxocara canis and toxocara cati. Toxocariasis
  • Ocular larva migrans Ocular Larva Migrans Toxocariasis
  • Cough
  • Wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing
  • Hemoptysis Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood originating in the lower respiratory tract. Hemoptysis is a consequence of another disease process and can be classified as either life threatening or non-life threatening. Hemoptysis can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to both drowning (reduced gas exchange as the lungs fill with blood) and hemorrhagic shock. Hemoptysis
  • Abdominal cramping Abdominal cramping Norovirus
  • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics
  • Malnutrition Malnutrition Malnutrition is a clinical state caused by an imbalance or deficiency of calories and/or micronutrients and macronutrients. The 2 main manifestations of acute severe malnutrition are marasmus (total caloric insufficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition with characteristic edema). Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries
  • Cough
  • Wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing
  • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
  • Diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Swimmer’s itch Swimmer’s itch Schistosoma/Schistosomiasis
  • Katayama fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Chronic infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease lead to granuloma formation causing brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, lung, intestinal, and liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy disease.
Diagnosis
  • Clinical
  • Cellophane tape test
Stool analysis
Management
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Mebendazole Mebendazole A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Pyrantel pamoate
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Mebendazole Mebendazole A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Mebendazole Mebendazole A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Ivermectin Ivermectin A mixture of mostly avermectin h2b1a (rn 71827-03-7) with some avermectin h2b1b (rn 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from streptomyces avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other chloride channels. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of onchocerca volvulus but not the adult form. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
Praziquantel Praziquantel An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations. Anthelmintic Drugs
Prevention Good hygiene
  • Good hygiene
  • Deworm dogs.
  • Proper disposal of dog feces
  • Good hygiene
  • Clean raw fruits and vegetables before consuming.
  • Wear shoes and protective clothing.
  • Improve sanitation Sanitation The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public. Hepatitis E Virus.
  • Avoid swimming or bathing in contaminated water.
  • Drink boiled or bottled water.
  • Improve sanitation Sanitation The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public. Hepatitis E Virus.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Proctitis Proctitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum, the distal end of the large intestine. Chronic Granulomatous Disease: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the rectal mucosa that may be caused by inflammatory bowel disease, infectious Infectious Febrile Infant organisms (e.g., Salmonella Salmonella Salmonellae are gram-negative bacilli of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonellae are flagellated, non-lactose-fermenting, and hydrogen sulfide-producing microbes. Salmonella enterica, the most common disease-causing species in humans, is further classified based on serotype as typhoidal (S. typhi and paratyphi) and nontyphoidal (S. enteritidis and typhimurium). Salmonella, Shigella Shigella Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, non-lactose-fermenting facultative intracellular bacilli. Infection spreads most commonly via person-to-person contact or through contaminated food and water. Humans are the only known reservoir. Shigella), radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, and ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage: Symptoms include pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, tenesmus, itching, and bleeding. Diagnosis depends on physical exam, proctoscopy or colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening, cultures Cultures Klebsiella, and biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Management depends on the etiology and can include antibiotics and steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors.  
  • Psoriasis Psoriasis Psoriasis is a common T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unknown, but is thought to be due to genetic inheritance and environmental triggers. There are 4 major subtypes, with the most common form being chronic plaque psoriasis. Psoriasis: chronic inflammatory skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions condition: Inverse psoriasis Psoriasis Psoriasis is a common T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unknown, but is thought to be due to genetic inheritance and environmental triggers. There are 4 major subtypes, with the most common form being chronic plaque psoriasis. Psoriasis causes symmetric, smooth, shiny, and erythematous plaques in intertriginous areas Intertriginous areas Malassezia Fungi, including the intergluteal region. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship can experience pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), particularly at night. The diagnosis is clinical, and no eggs would be seen on a cellophane tape test. Management may include topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors, calcineurin Calcineurin A calcium and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin a catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including histones; myosin light chain; and the regulatory subunits of camp-dependent protein kinases. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes. Vitiligo inhibitors, vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in skin by action of ultraviolet rays upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ergosterol, and acts on vitamin D receptors to regulate calcium in opposition to parathyroid hormone. Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies analogs, and emollients Emollients Oleaginous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents. Pityriasis Rosea. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are antiinflammatory medications used to manage rheumatoid arthritis. The medications slow, but do not cure, the progression of the disease. The medications are classified as either synthetic or biologic agents and each has unique mechanisms of action and side effects. Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) and biologics may be used for severe cases.
  • Atopic dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema): chronic inflammatory skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions disease, usually due to a combination of genetics Genetics Genetics is the study of genes and their functions and behaviors. Basic Terms of Genetics, immunologic dysfunction, and environmental factors: Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship will have pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) and erythematous lesions on flexural surfaces, but it can occur, rarely, in the gluteal region Gluteal region The gluteal region is located posterior to the pelvic girdle and extends distally into the upper leg as the posterior thigh. The gluteal region consists of the gluteal muscles and several clinically important arteries, veins, and nerves. The muscles of the gluteal region help to move the hip joint during walking, running, standing, and sitting. Gluteal Region: Anatomy. Diagnosis is based on history and exam, and the cellophane tape test will be negative for eggs. Management includes trigger Trigger The type of signal that initiates the inspiratory phase by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation avoidance, moisturizers, and topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors
  • Internal hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions in the anal canal composed of dilated vascular tissue, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. They do not cause issues unless they are enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed. Patients often present with rectal bleeding of bright red blood, or they may have pain, perianal pruritus, or a palpable mass. Hemorrhoids: dilated vessels of the hemorrhoidal plexus in the anal canal, commonly caused by constipation Constipation Constipation is common and may be due to a variety of causes. Constipation is generally defined as bowel movement frequency < 3 times per week. Patients who are constipated often strain to pass hard stools. The condition is classified as primary (also known as idiopathic or functional constipation) or secondary, and as acute or chronic. Constipation: Internal hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions in the anal canal composed of dilated vascular tissue, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. They do not cause issues unless they are enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed. Patients often present with rectal bleeding of bright red blood, or they may have pain, perianal pruritus, or a palpable mass. Hemorrhoids are painless, but pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) can occur with prolapsed hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions in the anal canal composed of dilated vascular tissue, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. They do not cause issues unless they are enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed. Patients often present with rectal bleeding of bright red blood, or they may have pain, perianal pruritus, or a palpable mass. Hemorrhoids. Visualization of hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions in the anal canal composed of dilated vascular tissue, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. They do not cause issues unless they are enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed. Patients often present with rectal bleeding of bright red blood, or they may have pain, perianal pruritus, or a palpable mass. Hemorrhoids on exam will provide the diagnosis. Management includes stool softeners, topical hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone The main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. Immunosuppressants, and sitz baths. Additional treatment options are rubber band ligation Band ligation Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (Mallory-Weiss Tear) and surgical removal.
  • Perianal and perirectal abscess Abscess Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. Chronic Granulomatous Disease: collections of pus in the enclosed space near the perirectal tissues: These infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease originate from obstruction of anal crypt glands. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways in the anal or rectal area. Pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) is less common. Finding a tender, fluctuant Fluctuant Dermatologic Examination mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast on physical exam can provide the diagnosis. Management requires prompt surgical incision and drainage Incision And Drainage Chalazion, which may be followed by a course of antibiotics in some cases. 
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis Ulcerative colitis Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the mucosal surface of the colon. It is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with Crohn’s disease (CD). The rectum is always involved, and inflammation may extend proximally through the colon. Ulcerative Colitis and is characterized by chronic inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the GI tract due to a cell-mediated immune response to the GI mucosa: Symptoms include diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, and extraintestinal manifestations. Diagnosis includes imaging, endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), and biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Treatment involves steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors, aminosalicylates, immunomodulatory, and biologic agents Biologic Agents Immunosuppressants.

References

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  2. Cho SY, Kang SY. (1975). Significance of scotch-tape anal swab technique in the diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis infection. Korean J Parasitol. https://www.parasitol.kr/journal/view.php?doi=10.3347/kjp.1975.13.2.102
  3. Bøås H, Tapia G, Sødahl JA, Rasmussen T, Rønningen KS. (2012). Enterobius vermicularis and risk factors in healthy Norwegian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. https://reference.medscape.com/medline/abstract/22531241
  4. Centers for Disease Control and prevention. Parasitic Diseases Information. Retrieved April 13, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/pinworm/index.html
  5. Rawla P, Sharma S. (2020). Enterobius vermicularis. [online] StatPearls. Retrieved April 13, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536974/
  6. Pearson RD. (2020). Pinworm infestation. MSD Manual Professional Version. Retrieved April 13, 2021, from https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/nematodes-roundworms/pinworm-infestation
  7. Wolfram W, Afuwape LO, Indra S. (2016). Enterobiasis. In Steele, R.W. (Ed.), Medscape. Retrieved April 13, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/997814-overview
  8. Leder K, Weller PF. (2020). Enterobiasis (pinworm) and trichuriasis (whipworm). In Baron, E.L. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved April 13, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/enterobiasis-pinworm-and-trichuriasis-whipworm

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