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Schistosoma/Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by Schistosoma, a trematode. Schistosomiasis occurs in developing countries with poor sanitation Sanitation The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public. Hepatitis E Virus. Freshwater snails are the intermediate host and are transmitted to humans through skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions contact with contaminated fresh water. The clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor occurs as a result of the host’s immune response to antigens from the eggs. Most patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are asymptomatic, but others may develop acute schistosome dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), acute schistosomiasis syndrome, or chronic schistosomiasis. The diagnosis can be made with microscopic evaluation of the urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat or feces, serology Serology The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro. Yellow Fever Virus, or PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The treatment for schistosomiasis is praziquantel Praziquantel An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations. Anthelmintic Drugs.

Last updated: 3 May, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

General Characteristics and Epidemiology

General features of Schistosoma

  • Trematode 
  • Parasitic flatworm
  • Eggs:
    • Round or oval shaped
    • Hinged at 1 end
  • Adults:
    • Elongated
    • Tubular
    • 10–20 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma long
    • Males are shorter than females.
    • Oral and ventral suckers
Schistosoma eggs

Photomicrograph depicting a grouping of 3 different species of Schistosoma eggs: S. japonicum, S. mansoni, and S. haematobium.

Image: “21017” by CDC/Dr. Brodsky. License: Public Domain

Clinically relevant species

  • GI disease:
    • S. mansoni
    • S. japonicum
    • S. mekongi
    • S. intercalatum
  • Genitourinary tract disease: S. haematobium

Epidemiology

  • Worldwide annual incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 200–300 million
  • Men > women
  • Children and adolescents > adults
  • Mortality rate Mortality rate Calculated as the ratio of the total number of people who die due to all causes over a specific time period to the total number of people in the selected population. Measures of Health Status: 0.3 per 100,000 cases

Geographic distribution

  • S. mansoni:
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • South America
    • Caribbean
    • Middle East
  • S. japonicum:
    • China
    • Philippines
    • Thailand
    • Indonesia
  • S. haematobium:
    • Africa
    • Middle East
  • S. mekongi: Southeast Asia ASIA Spinal Cord Injuries
  • S. intercalatum: Central and West Africa

Pathogenesis

Reservoir Reservoir Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (disease vectors) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks. Humans may serve both as disease reservoirs and carriers. Escherichia coli

  • Humans
  • Mammals:
    • Domesticated and wild animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic
    • Livestock
  • Freshwater snails are intermediate hosts.

Transmission

Transmission occurs through skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions contact with infected fresh water.

Host risk factors

Schistosoma occupies freshwater environments in areas with poor sewerage management.

  • Recreational exposures:  
    • Swimming
    • Playing in water or mud
  • Occupational exposures: 
    • Fishing
    • Laundry

Life cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

  • Schistosoma larvae Larvae Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals. Ascaris/Ascariasis (miracidia) penetrate a snail (intermediate host) → asexual reproduction and maturation into cercariae → released from the snail into water
  • Cercariae penetrate human skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions → become schistosomulae after shedding their forked tails
  • Migration into the bloodstream → infect the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy → maturation and reproduction
  • Adult worms move through the portal vessels to the mesenteric venules Venules The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins. Veins: Histology of the intestines.
  • The females lay eggs → penetrate the intestines → excreted in feces
  • Eggs hatch in water → cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation continues
  • Note: S. haematobium occupy the vesical venous plexus → eggs are excreted in the urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat
The life cycle of schistosoma

The life cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation of Schistosoma

Image by Lecturio.

Pathophysiology

Clinical disease is caused by:

  • Movement of eggs through the splanchnic venous system to:
    • Liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy
    • Lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy
    • Spleen Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, superior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach at the level of the 9th-11th ribs just below the diaphragm. The spleen is highly vascular and acts as an important blood filter, cleansing the blood of pathogens and damaged erythrocytes. Spleen: Anatomy
    • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification
    • Spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy
  • Immune response to proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis and carbohydrates Carbohydrates A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including starch; glycogen; cellulose; polysaccharides; and simple monosaccharides. Basics of Carbohydrates secreted by the eggs leads to:
    • Bowel inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation → blood loss and scarring Scarring Inflammation
    • Periportal fibrosis Fibrosis Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury. Bronchiolitis Obliterans → portal hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension and esophageal varices
    • Bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation → pseudopolyps and bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess cancer

Clinical Presentation

Most patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are asymptomatic. Symptomatic individuals can present in several ways:

Acute schistosome dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)

Also known as “swimmer’s itch”:

  • Pruritic rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever at the site of cercariae entry:
    • May be papular or urticarial
    • Due to a hypersensitivity reaction
  • Feet and lower legs are more often affected.
Swimmer's itch

A papular rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever due to acute schistosome dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema):
The hypersensitivity reaction occurs when skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions is penetrated by Schistosoma cercariae.

Image: “5249” by CDC. License: Public Domain

Acute schistosomiasis syndrome (Katayama fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever)

Occurs due to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction 3–8 weeks after the initial infection:

  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Chills Chills The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by shivering. Fever
  • Fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia
  • Urticaria Urticaria Urticaria is raised, well-circumscribed areas (wheals) of edema (swelling) and erythema (redness) involving the dermis and epidermis with associated pruritus (itch). Urticaria is not a single disease but rather is a reaction pattern representing cutaneous mast cell degranulation. Urticaria (Hives)
  • Angioedema Angioedema Angioedema is a localized, self-limited (but potentially life-threatening), nonpitting, asymmetrical edema occurring in the deep layers of the skin and mucosal tissue. The common underlying pathophysiology involves inflammatory mediators triggering significant vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. Angioedema
  • Nonproductive cough
  • Myalgias Myalgias Painful sensation in the muscles. Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus
  • Arthralgias
  • Abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen
  • Diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea

Chronic schistosomiasis

Presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor can vary depending on the number of eggs in the tissues, the infection site, and the immune response of the host.

Intestinal schistosomiasis:

  • Abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen
  • Decreased appetite
  • Diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Intestinal bleeding
  • Complications:

Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis:

  • Hepatosplenomegaly Hepatosplenomegaly Cytomegalovirus
  • Complications of portal hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension:
    • Esophageal varices (bleeding risk)
    • Pulmonary hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension (consequence of portosystemic collaterals allowing egg embolization Embolization A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and intracranial arteriovenous malformations, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal Bleeding to the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy)
  • Note: Liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy function is not compromised.

Genitourinary schistosomiasis:

  • Dysuria Dysuria Painful urination. It is often associated with infections of the lower urinary tract. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Urinary frequency
  • Terminal hematuria Hematuria Presence of blood in the urine. Renal Cell Carcinoma (blood at the end of urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat stream)
  • Hemospermia
  • Genital ulcerations
  • Complications:
    • Ureteral strictures
    • Bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess obstruction 
    • Hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis is dilation of the renal collecting system as a result of the obstruction of urine outflow. Hydronephrosis can be unilateral or bilateral. Nephrolithiasis is the most common cause of hydronephrosis in young adults, while prostatic hyperplasia and neoplasm are seen in older patients. Hydronephrosis
    • Bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess cancer
    • Infertility Infertility Infertility is the inability to conceive in the context of regular intercourse. The most common causes of infertility in women are related to ovulatory dysfunction or tubal obstruction, whereas, in men, abnormal sperm is a common cause. Infertility (due to ovary or fallopian tube Fallopian Tube A pair of highly specialized canals extending from the uterus to its corresponding ovary. They provide the means for ovum transport from the ovaries and they are the site of the ovum’s final maturation and fertilization. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy involvement)

Neuroschistosomiasis:

  • Acute myelopathy
  • Transverse myelitis Myelitis Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; autoimmune diseases; spinal cord; and ischemia. Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction. Relapsing Fever
  • Intracerebral lesions
  • Multifocal Multifocal Retinoblastoma encephalopathy Encephalopathy Hyper-IgM Syndrome

Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention

Diagnosis

  • Microscopic examination of urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat and stool for eggs
  • Serologic testing:
    • ELISA ELISA An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus
    • Indirect hemagglutination
    • Immunofluorescent antibody test
  • Antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination testing:
    • Schistosome circulating antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination
    • Circulating cathodic antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination
    • PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Parasite DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure testing ( PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR))
  • CT and MRI may show nonspecific changes for neuroschistosomiasis.

Management

  • Anthelmintic therapy Anthelmintic therapy Agents that kill parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of helminthiasis in man and animal. Toxocariasis ( praziquantel Praziquantel An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations. Anthelmintic Drugs):
    • Calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes ion permeability in adult worms
    • Damage to the worm induces a host immune response.
  • Corticosteroids Corticosteroids Chorioretinitis to reduce inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation in:
    • Acute schistosomiasis syndrome
    • Neuroschistosomiasis

Prevention

Personal protection in endemic areas:

  • Avoid swimming or wading in freshwater.
  • Vigorously towel off after brief, accidental water exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment.
  • Wear protective clothing and footwear.
  • Boil bath water.

Control strategies:

  • Sanitation Sanitation The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public. Hepatitis E Virus programs (dispose of human urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat and feces away from freshwater sources)
  • Snail control
  • Community-based mass-treatment programs

Comparison of Similar Helminths

Table: Comparison of similar helminths Helminths Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the acanthocephala; nematoda; and platyhelminths. Some authors consider certain species of leeches that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths. Anthelmintic Drugs and their associated diseases
Organism Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius Vermicularis Enterobius/Enterobiasis Toxocara Toxocara A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs. Toxocariasis canis Ascaris Ascaris Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes. The infection, ascariasis, is most often caused by A. lumbricoides. Transmission occurs primarily via ingestion of water or food contaminated with Ascaris eggs. Most patients with ascariasis are asymptomatic. Ascaris/Ascariasis lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Strongyloides stercoralis A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea. Strongyloidiasis Schistosoma mansoni
Characteristics Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Nematode Nematode A phylum of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites. Toxocariasis Trematode
Reservoir Reservoir Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (disease vectors) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks. Humans may serve both as disease reservoirs and carriers. Escherichia coli Humans Dogs Humans
  • Humans
  • Dogs
  • Cats
Humans
Transmission Fecal–oral Fecal–oral Fecal–oral Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions contact with contaminated soil Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions contact with contaminated water
Clinical
  • Visceral larva migrans Visceral larva migrans A condition produced in man by the prolonged migration of animal nematode larvae in extraintestinal tissues other than skin; characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, and frequently pneumonitis, commonly caused by toxocara canis and toxocara cati. Toxocariasis
  • Ocular larva migrans Ocular Larva Migrans Toxocariasis
  • Cough
  • Wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing
  • Hemoptysis Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood originating in the lower respiratory tract. Hemoptysis is a consequence of another disease process and can be classified as either life threatening or non-life threatening. Hemoptysis can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to both drowning (reduced gas exchange as the lungs fill with blood) and hemorrhagic shock. Hemoptysis
  • Abdominal cramping Abdominal cramping Norovirus
  • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics
  • Malnutrition Malnutrition Malnutrition is a clinical state caused by an imbalance or deficiency of calories and/or micronutrients and macronutrients. The 2 main manifestations of acute severe malnutrition are marasmus (total caloric insufficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition with characteristic edema). Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries
  • Cough
  • Wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing
  • Abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen
  • Diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Swimmer’s itch
  • Katayama fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Chronic infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease lead to granuloma formation, causing brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, lung, intestinal, and liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy disease.
Diagnosis Stool analysis
Management
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Mebendazole Mebendazole A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Mebendazole Mebendazole A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and inhibiting polymerization of microtubules. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Ivermectin Ivermectin A mixture of mostly avermectin h2b1a (rn 71827-03-7) with some avermectin h2b1b (rn 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from streptomyces avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other chloride channels. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of onchocerca volvulus but not the adult form. Anthelmintic Drugs
  • Albendazole Albendazole A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. Anthelmintic Drugs
Praziquantel Praziquantel An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations. Anthelmintic Drugs
Prevention Good hygiene
  • Good hygiene
  • Deworm dogs.
  • Proper disposal of dog feces
  • Good hygiene
  • Clean raw fruits and vegetables before consuming.
  • Wear shoes and protective clothing.
  • Improve sanitation Sanitation The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public. Hepatitis E Virus.
  • Avoid swimming or bathing in contaminated water.
  • Drink boiled or bottled water.
  • Improve sanitation Sanitation The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public. Hepatitis E Virus.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines, commonly caused by infections from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Transmission may be foodborne, fecal-oral, or through animal contact. Common clinical features include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Gastroenteritis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy and intestines, which is commonly caused by infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease from bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology, viruses Viruses Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells. Virology, or parasites. Clinical features include abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, and dehydration Dehydration The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism. Volume Depletion and Dehydration. Diagnostic testing with stool analysis or culture is not always required, but can help determine the etiology. Most cases are self-limited; therefore, the only required treatment is supportive therapy (fluids). 
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): chronic inflammation Chronic Inflammation Inflammation of the GI tract due to a cell-mediated immune response to the GI mucosa. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis Colitis Inflammation of the colon section of the large intestine, usually with symptoms such as diarrhea (often with blood and mucus), abdominal pain, and fever. Pseudomembranous Colitis are types of IBD. Symptoms include diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, and extraintestinal manifestations. Diagnosis includes imaging, endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), and biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Management involves steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, and biologic agents Biologic Agents Immunosuppressants.
  • Viral hepatitis: liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation caused by infection from a hepatitis virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may present with a viral prodrome Prodrome Symptoms that appear 24–48 hours prior to migraine onset. Migraine Headache of fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, anorexia Anorexia The lack or loss of appetite accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder anorexia nervosa. Anorexia Nervosa, and nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics. Right upper quadrant Right upper quadrant Anterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, and transaminitis Transaminitis Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus also occur. Diagnosis is made with viral serologic testing to differentiate viral hepatitis from schistosomiasis. Management of acute hepatitis Acute Hepatitis Autoimmune Hepatitis is supportive.
  • Acute pancreatitis Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of chronic pancreatitis. The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are alcoholic pancreatitis and gallstone pancreatitis. Acute Pancreatitis: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with a sudden onset of severe epigastric pain Epigastric pain Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (Mallory-Weiss Tear), which is typically sharp and radiates to the back. Acute pancreatitis Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of chronic pancreatitis. The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are alcoholic pancreatitis and gallstone pancreatitis. Acute Pancreatitis is associated with alcohol abuse and gallstones Gallstones Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are cholesterol stones, while the rest are composed of bilirubin (pigment stones) and other mixed components. Patients are commonly asymptomatic but may present with biliary colic (intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant). Cholelithiasis. Diagnosis is based on abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, lipase Lipase An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. Malabsorption and Maldigestion elevation, and/or imaging (reveals pancreatic edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema). Management includes bowel rest, pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways control, and IV fluid hydration.
  • Contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms. Male Genitourinary Examination: an erythematous, papular dermatitis Dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) often with areas of vesiculation (due to direct skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to an offending irritant with a direct cytotoxic Cytotoxic Parvovirus B19 effect). Diagnosis is based on history and physical exam findings. Management includes avoidance of offending irritants, adoption of protective measures, and the use of emollients Emollients Oleaginous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents. Pityriasis Rosea and moisturizers. Topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors are the 1st-line intervention.
  • Urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract: Anatomy infection: a wide spectrum disease ranging from simple cystitis Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) to severe pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis is infection affecting the renal pelvis and the renal parenchyma. This condition arises mostly as a complication of bladder infection that ascends to the upper urinary tract. Pyelonephritis can be acute or chronic (which results from persistent or chronic infections). Typical acute symptoms are flank pain, fever, and nausea with vomiting. T Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess. Depending on the location of the infection, patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship can present with dysuria Dysuria Painful urination. It is often associated with infections of the lower urinary tract. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), urinary urgency Urinary Urgency Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus/frequency, suprapubic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and/or fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever. Urinalysis Urinalysis Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children and culture establish the diagnosis. Management options include oral or IV antibiotics. 
  • Diphyllobothriasis Diphyllobothriasis Diphyllobothriasis represents an intestinal parasitic infection caused by the cestode Diphyllobothrium. Diphyllobothriasis is acquired by ingestion of late larvae in undercooked or raw fish. The clinical presentation of diphyllobothriasis varies from asymptomatic, nonspecific symptoms to intestinal obstruction, and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. Diphyllobothrium/Diphyllobothriasis: an intestinal parasitic infection caused by Diphyllobothrium Diphyllobothrium Diphyllobothriasis represents an intestinal parasitic infection caused by the cestode Diphyllobothrium. Diphyllobothriasis is acquired by ingestion of late larvae in undercooked or raw fish. The clinical presentation of diphyllobothriasis varies from asymptomatic, nonspecific symptoms to intestinal obstruction, and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. Diphyllobothrium/Diphyllobothriasis, a cestode Cestode A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms. Diphyllobothrium/Diphyllobothriasis, and acquired by ingestion of larvae Larvae Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals. Ascaris/Ascariasis in undercooked or raw fish FISH A type of in situ hybridization in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei. Chromosome Testing from cold-water lake regions. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with abdominal discomfort, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, glossitis, and anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types Diphyllobothriasis Diphyllobothriasis Diphyllobothriasis represents an intestinal parasitic infection caused by the cestode Diphyllobothrium. Diphyllobothriasis is acquired by ingestion of late larvae in undercooked or raw fish. The clinical presentation of diphyllobothriasis varies from asymptomatic, nonspecific symptoms to intestinal obstruction, and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. Diphyllobothrium/Diphyllobothriasis is diagnosed with microscopic examination of the stool for ova and parasites. Management includes anthelmintic therapy Anthelmintic therapy Agents that kill parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of helminthiasis in man and animal. Toxocariasis such as praziqunatel.
  • Taeniasis Taeniasis Taenia belong to the Cestoda class of helminths. Humans are infected with these tapeworms by eating undercooked beef (T. saginata) or pork (T. solium and T. asiatica). Taeniasis is often asymptomatic, but the ingestion of larvae can cause abdominal discomfort, nausea, and constipation or diarrhea. Taenia/Taeniasis: a tapeworm infection occurring after consumption of raw or undercooked beef or pork. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are generally asymptomatic, but may present with the passage of proglottids Proglottids Taenia/Taeniasis. Taenia Taenia Taenia belong to the Cestoda class of helminths. Humans are infected with these tapeworms by eating undercooked beef (T. saginata) or pork (T. solium and T. asiatica). Taeniasis is often asymptomatic, but the ingestion of larvae can cause abdominal discomfort, nausea, and constipation or diarrhea. Taenia/Taeniasis solium presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor may rarely include seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures from neurocysticercosis Neurocysticercosis Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus taenia (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. Seizures represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. Taenia/Taeniasis. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, a stool analysis (for ova and parasites), or imaging. Management includes anthelmintic therapy Anthelmintic therapy Agents that kill parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of helminthiasis in man and animal. Toxocariasis.

References

  1. Schistosomiasis, Fact Sheet No 115; February 2010. World Health Organization. Retrieved April 15, 2021, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs115/en/
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  7. Soentjens, P., and Clerinx, J. (2021). Schistosomiasis: Treatment and prevention. In Baron, E.L. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved April 15, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/schistosomiasis-treatment-and-prevention
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