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Stomatitis

Stomatitis is a general term referring to inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, which may include sores. Stomatitis can be caused by infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, autoimmune disorders, allergic reactions Allergic Reactions Type I hypersensitivity reaction against plasma proteins in donor blood Transfusion Reactions, or exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to irritants. The typical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor may be either solitary or a group of painful oral lesions. The etiology of the lesion is diagnosed based on appearance and associated symptoms. Treatment involves symptomatic relief, but infectious Infectious Febrile Infant causes may require antivirals/antibiotics and autoimmune etiologies may require steroid therapy.

Last updated: Feb 10, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Stomatitis, sometimes called mucositis, is a broad term referring to inflammatory lesions of the oral mucosa of varied etiologies.

Etiology

  • Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant:
    • Viral:
      • Herpes simplex Herpes Simplex A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. Congenital TORCH Infections virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology ( HSV HSV Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae. Herpes simplex virus commonly causes recurrent infections involving the skin and mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2)
      • Herpes zoster Herpes Zoster Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus in the Herpesviridae family. Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) is more common in adults and occurs due to the reactivation of VZV. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox
      • Coxsackievirus Coxsackievirus Coxsackievirus is a member of a family of viruses called Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus. Coxsackieviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, and are divided into coxsackie group A and B viruses. Both groups of viruses cause upper respiratory infections, rashes, aseptic meningitis, or encephalitis. Coxsackievirus
    • Fungal: Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis
    • Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology:
      • Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Mycoplasma is a species of pleomorphic bacteria that lack a cell wall, which makes them difficult to target with conventional antibiotics and causes them to not gram stain well. Mycoplasma bacteria commonly target the respiratory and urogenital epithelium. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae), the causative agent of atypical or “walking” pneumonia. Mycoplasma
      • Syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis
      • Gonorrhea Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the gram-negative bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae). Gonorrhea may be asymptomatic but commonly manifests as cervicitis or urethritis with less common presentations such as proctitis, conjunctivitis, or pharyngitis. Gonorrhea
  • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma related:
    • Cytotoxic Cytotoxic Parvovirus B19 chemotherapeutic agents: 
      • Methotrexate Methotrexate An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA. Antimetabolite Chemotherapy
      • Cytarabine Cytarabine A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the s phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. Antimetabolite Chemotherapy
      • Doxorubicin
      • Etoposide Etoposide A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the g2 and s phases of the cell cycle. Microtubule and Topoisomerase Inhibitors
      • Fluorouracil Fluorouracil A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the thymidylate synthetase conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat
    • Radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma
  • Autoimmune:
    • Irritable bowel disease (IBD)
    • Celiac disease Celiac disease Celiac disease (also known as celiac sprue or gluten enteropathy) is an autoimmune reaction to gliadin, which is a component of gluten. Celiac disease is closely associated with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. The immune response is localized to the proximal small intestine and causes the characteristic histologic findings of villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac Disease 
    • Lupus
    • Stevens-Johnson syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a cutaneous, immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is commonly triggered by medications, including antiepileptics and antibiotics. The condition runs on a spectrum with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) based on the amount of body surface area (BSA) involved. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome ( SJS SJS Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a cutaneous, immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is commonly triggered by medications, including antiepileptics and antibiotics. The condition runs on a spectrum with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) based on the amount of body surface area (BSA) involved. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome)
  •  Vascular:
    • Behcet’s disease
    • Kawasaki disease Kawasaki disease An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities. Kawasaki Disease
  • Mechanical irritation:
    • Ill-fitting dentures or braces
    • Irregular fillings
  • Irritant exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment:
    • Oral hygiene products
    • Tobacco
    • Spicy, hot, or acidic food
  • Nutritional:
    • Iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements deficiency
    • Zinc Zinc A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65. 38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol zn. Trace Elements deficiency
  • Idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis: aphthous ulcers

Diagnosis

Given the varied etiology, a careful history and physical exam are essential to narrow the diagnosis. Laboratory testing can then confirm findings and clinical suspicion.

History

  • Timing of appearance of lesions: Recurrence suggests systemic illness.
  • Duration of symptoms
  • Presence of other family members currently with similar symptoms: Household outbreak suggests viral infection.
  • Immunization status
  • Associated factors:
    • Pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways (lupus has painless oral ulcers Oral ulcers A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis; necrotizing gingivitis, toothbrushing, and various irritants. Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome)
    • Appearance of rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in other locations
    • New medication
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
    • Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery
    • Diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Specific food intolerance
    • Other systemic symptoms

Physical exam

  • Description of lesions:
    • Appearance:
      • Solitary and discrete vs. multiple and widespread
      • Blistering (suggests HSV HSV Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae. Herpes simplex virus commonly causes recurrent infections involving the skin and mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 or zoster)
      • Whitish (suggests Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis)
    • Location:
      • Inside cheeks Cheeks The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth. Melasma
      • Gums
      • Tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy
      • Lips Lips The lips are the soft and movable most external parts of the oral cavity. The blood supply of the lips originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy
      • Palate Palate The palate is the structure that forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity. This structure is divided into soft and hard palates. Palate: Anatomy
  • Examination of other surfaces:
    • Mucosal:
      • Genital (Behcet’s disease, HSV HSV Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae. Herpes simplex virus commonly causes recurrent infections involving the skin and mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2)
      • Gastrointestinal (IBD)
    • Cutaneous:
      • Palms and soles ( coxsackievirus Coxsackievirus Coxsackievirus is a member of a family of viruses called Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus. Coxsackieviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, and are divided into coxsackie group A and B viruses. Both groups of viruses cause upper respiratory infections, rashes, aseptic meningitis, or encephalitis. Coxsackievirus, Kawasaki disease Kawasaki disease An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities. Kawasaki Disease)
      • Face ( malar rash Malar Rash Systemic Lupus Erythematosus seen with lupus)

Laboratory testing

  • Bacterial/ viral culture Viral culture West Nile Virus
  • Blood work: complete blood count (CBC), iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements, or vitamin levels
  • Biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma of lesion if recurrent to rule out malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
Oral mucositis

Oral mucositis in a patient who has undergone radiotherapy

Image: “ Radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma induced oral mucositis” by Ps PS Invasive Mechanical Ventilation SK SK Seborrheic keratosis (sk) is the most common benign epithelial cutaneous neoplasm. The condition consists of immature keratinocytes. Seborrheic keratosis is the most common benign skin tumor in middle-aged and elderly adults and presents as a sharply demarcated, exophytic, skin lesion that may be tan or black and has a “stuck-on” appearance. Seborrheic Keratosis, Balan A, Sankar A, Bose T. License: CC BY 2.0

Management

Management is focused on supportive care, pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways reduction, and prevention of secondary infection of the exposed oral mucosa while the underlying cause is treated.

  • Supportive care: Ensure appropriate nutrition and hydration (intravenous (IV) therapy may be necessary).
  • Pain reduction:
    • Oral anesthetics (lidocaine rinse)
    • Risks and benefits of opioid use must be carefully weighed.
  • Infection prevention:
    • Protective coatings of the oral mucosa
    • Prophylactic antibiotics
  • Treatment of underlying etiology:
    • Antivirals (acyclovir) for herpetic lesions
    • Nystatin “swish and swallow” liquid for Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    • Treatment of underlying autoimmune disease
    • Correct nutritional imbalances.
  • If ulcers persist for > 6 weeks, investigation (e.g., biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma) should be conducted to rule out malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax.

Clinical Relevance

  • Nutritional deficiency: deficiency of iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements, zinc Zinc A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65. 38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol zn. Trace Elements, vitamin B2 Vitamin B2 Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as flavin mononucleotide and flavin-adenine dinucleotide. Water-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies, B3, B6, B9, or B12 due to dietary deficits or other pathologies resulting in malabsorption Malabsorption General term for a group of malnutrition syndromes caused by failure of normal intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption and Maldigestion and causing painful oral lesions. Treatment is supplementation of the deficient nutrient.
  • Aphthous stomatitis (most common): painful ulcers that are round or oval, crater-like in appearance, and on a yellow-gray base with erythematous margins. Mucosal ulcers are on non-keratinized mucosal surfaces (lesions on the perioral area exclude diagnosis of aphthous ulcer). The recurrence of ulcers is common and does not involve systemic symptoms. Aphthous stomatitis occurs after minimal trauma (e.g., tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy biting) and treatment is supportive.
  • Angular stomatitis: Saliva Saliva The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains mucins, water, organic salts, and ptyalin. Salivary Glands: Anatomy collects in corners of the mouth causing a buildup of microorganisms, such as Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis, Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus, or Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci. These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus, creating painful, ulcerative lesions. Risk factors include the use of a pacifier, dentures, or a face mask. Treatment includes antifungal Antifungal Azoles or antibacterial Antibacterial Penicillins topical agents and the prevention of chapped lips Lips The lips are the soft and movable most external parts of the oral cavity. The blood supply of the lips originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy.
  • Oral candidiasis Candidiasis Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis (or thrush): presents as white plaques on oral mucosa that can be scraped off using a tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy depressor. Predisposing conditions include ill-fitting dentures, immunosuppression, and corticosteroid inhaler use. Oral candidiasis Candidiasis Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis is common in pediatrics, particularly in small children, and 90% of cases are due to Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis. Treatment is antifungal Antifungal Azoles mouthwash.
  • Allergic or contact stomatitis: a Type IV hypersensitivity reaction Type IV hypersensitivity reaction Type IV hypersensitivity reaction, or delayed-type hypersensitivity, is a cell-mediated response to antigen exposure. The reaction involves T cells, not antibodies, and develops over several days. Presensitized T cells initiate the immune defense, leading to tissue damage. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction presenting as ulcerations on the mouth or tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy due to contact with an allergen. Common causes are flavorings, metals, or other components in oral hygiene products, foods, dental restorations, and medications. Treatment is the removal of the offending product Product A molecule created by the enzymatic reaction. Basics of Enzymes and supportive care.
  • Autoimmune conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a cutaneous, immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is commonly triggered by medications, including antiepileptics and antibiotics. The condition runs on a spectrum with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) based on the amount of body surface area (BSA) involved. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome ( SJS SJS Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a cutaneous, immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is commonly triggered by medications, including antiepileptics and antibiotics. The condition runs on a spectrum with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) based on the amount of body surface area (BSA) involved. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome) is a serious disorder of the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions and oral mucosa, usually from medication. And, Behcet’s disease is a rare disorder due to blood vessel inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation, causing sores on oral and urogenital mucosa. Various autoimmune disorders can involve oral mucosa but are usually associated with other systemic symptoms of disease.
  • Herpetic gingivostomatitis Herpetic gingivostomatitis Stomatitis caused by herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents. Labial and Genital Herpes: presents with painful perioral vesicular lesions (clusters of small vesicles Vesicles Female Genitourinary Examination) caused by herpes simplex Herpes Simplex A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. Congenital TORCH Infections virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology type 1 Type 1 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (HSV1). Herpetic gingivostomatitis Herpetic gingivostomatitis Stomatitis caused by herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents. Labial and Genital Herpes is more common in children and usually occurs after the 1st exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to the herpes virus Herpes Virus Antivirals for Herpes Virus, which is also responsible for cold sores Cold sores Stomatitis caused by herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents. Labial and Genital Herpes and fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever blisters. Treatment is supportive, but antivirals can be used.
  • Herpangina Herpangina Acute types of coxsackievirus infections or echovirus infections that usually affect children during the summer and are characterized by vesiculoulcerative lesions on the mucous membranes of the throat; dysphagia; vomiting, and fever. Coxsackievirus: common childhood illness often caused by a group A coxsackievirus Coxsackievirus Coxsackievirus is a member of a family of viruses called Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus. Coxsackieviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, and are divided into coxsackie group A and B viruses. Both groups of viruses cause upper respiratory infections, rashes, aseptic meningitis, or encephalitis. Coxsackievirus. Oral lesions usually have a white base with a red border and may be very painful; lesions typically involve the posterior pharynx Pharynx The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy. Herpangina Herpangina Acute types of coxsackievirus infections or echovirus infections that usually affect children during the summer and are characterized by vesiculoulcerative lesions on the mucous membranes of the throat; dysphagia; vomiting, and fever. Coxsackievirus presents as a prodrome Prodrome Symptoms that appear 24–48 hours prior to migraine onset. Migraine Headache of fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, anorexia Anorexia The lack or loss of appetite accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder anorexia nervosa. Anorexia Nervosa, irritability, malaise Malaise Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, sleeplessness, and headache Headache The symptom of pain in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of headache disorders. Brain Abscess. Treatment is supportive.

References

  1. Peterson DE, Schubert MM. Oral toxicity. In: The Chemotherapy Source Book, 3rd ed, Perry MC (Ed), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 2001.
  2. O’Duffy JD. Behcet’s syndrome. In: Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 10th, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta 1993. Vol 29, p.206.
  3. Edgar NR, Saleh D, Miller RA. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017 Mar;10(3):26-36. Epub 2017 Mar 1. PMID: 28360966; PMCID: PMC5367879. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28360966/.
  4. Canavan TN, Mathes EF, Frieden I, Shinkai K. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced rash and mucositis as a syndrome distinct from Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015 Feb;72(2):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.06.026. PMID: 25592340. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25592340/.
  5. Cifuentes M, Davari P, Rogers RS 3rd. Contact stomatitis. Clin Dermatol. 2017 Sep-Oct;35(5):435-440. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2017.06.007. Epub 2017 Jun 24. PMID: 28916024. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28916024/.

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