Sinusitis refers to inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses Paranasal Sinuses The 4 pair of paranasal sinuses include the maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses. The sinuses are a group of air-filled cavities located within the facial and cranial skeleton; all are connected to the main nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Paranasal Sinuses: Anatomy. The condition usually occurs concurrently with inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the nasal mucosa Nasal mucosa The mucous lining of the nasal cavity, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the olfactory mucosa. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, goblet cells, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (stem cells) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Anatomy ( rhinitis Rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavities. Rhinitis), a condition known as rhinosinusitis. Acute sinusitis is due to an upper respiratory infection Upper respiratory infection Rhinitis caused by a viral, bacterial, or fungal agent. Viral etiologies are the most common cause. Sinusitis presents with facial pain Facial pain Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as facial pain syndromes. Trigeminal Neuralgia over the affected sinus and purulent rhinorrhea Rhinorrhea Excess nasal drainage. Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Diagnosis is usually clinical and management is supportive, although it may require antibiotics.
Last updated: Sep 13, 2021
Viral sinusitis usually presents in a milder form and lasts 7–10 days.
Fungal sinusitis usually presents chronically, with atypical symptoms ( epistaxis Epistaxis Bleeding from the nose. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, and black/brown nasal secretions).
Complications and/or associated conditions
Diagnosis is usually based on clinical symptoms.
To differentiate viral sinusitis from bacterial sinusitis:
Presence of more than 104 colony-forming units/mL on bacterial culture is confirmatory for bacterial sinusitis in children.
Only needed if infection recurs or if there is no response to different empiric therapies.
General supportive care
The following are potential underlying conditions or differential diagnoses of sinusitis:
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