Sinusitis is inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses that usually occurs concurrently with inflammation of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis), together known as rhinosinusitis. The most common etiology of acute rhinosinusitis is a viral infection; other causes include bacteria or fungi. Clinically, sinusitis presents with facial pain, nasal obstruction, mucopurulent drainage, and decreased olfaction. Diagnosis is usually clinical, and management is supportive; antibiotics are generally not recommended unless symptoms do not improve after 10 days. Chronic sinusitis lasts 12 weeks or longer and may be associated with nasal polyposis or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The goal of management in most chronic cases is to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life rather than cure the disorder, which may require surgery.
Last updated: May 19, 2023
Viral sinusitis usually presents in a milder form and lasts 7–10 days.
Fungal sinusitis usually presents chronically, with atypical symptoms ( epistaxis Epistaxis Bleeding from the nose. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, and black/brown nasal secretions).
Complications and/or associated conditions
Diagnosis is usually based on clinical symptoms.
To differentiate viral sinusitis from bacterial sinusitis:
Presence of more than 104 colony-forming units/mL on bacterial culture is confirmatory for bacterial sinusitis in children.
Biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma
Only needed if infection recurs or if there is no response to different empiric therapies.
General supportive care
The following are potential underlying conditions or differential diagnoses of sinusitis:
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