Moraxella is a genus of gram-negative diplococci Gram-negative diplococci Neisseria, with M. catarrhalis being the most clinically relevant species. M. catarrhalis is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract, but it can cause infection in susceptible individuals. The infection is transmitted through respiratory droplets Droplets Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pulmonary disease Diseases involving the respiratory system. Blastomyces/Blastomycosis ( COPD COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by progressive, largely irreversible airflow obstruction. The condition usually presents in middle-aged or elderly persons with a history of cigarette smoking. Signs and symptoms include prolonged expiration, wheezing, diminished breath sounds, progressive dyspnea, and chronic cough. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)) exacerbations in adults and otitis media in children. Moraxella species are catalase- and oxidase-positive, allowing them to resist damage from reactive oxygen species Reactive oxygen species Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include singlet oxygen; superoxides; peroxides; hydroxyl radical; and hypochlorous acid. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of phagocytes, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to nucleic acids; proteins; and lipids. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the highly oxygenated environment of the respiratory tract.
Last updated: 3 May, 2021
M. catarrhalis and M. lacunata are the most clinically relevant species within this genus.
M. lacunata is a common cause of chronic angular blepharoconjunctivitis in humans.
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