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Clostridia

Clostridia species comprise a group of spore Spore The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Microsporidia/Microsporidiosis-forming, obligate anaerobic, gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins bacilli Bacilli Shigella. Major pathogenic species include Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene ( C. perfringens C. perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene), which is associated with gas gangrene Gas gangrene Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Gas Gangrene; Clostridioides difficile, which is associated with pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis; C. tetani, which causes tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus; and C. botulinum, which causes botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism. Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene ( C. perfringens C. perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene), Clostridioides difficile, C. tetani, and C. botulinum have broad-spectrum Broad-Spectrum Fluoroquinolones invasiveness and clinical manifestations that are summarized below. Note that Clostridium difficile has been reclassified as Clostridioides difficile. However, exams will likely not have the updated genus for several years.

Last updated: 14 Apr, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Classification

Microbiology flowchart gram-positive bacteria classification

Gram-positive bacteria gram-positive bacteria Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by gram’s method. Bacteriology:
Most bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology can be classified according to a lab procedure called Gram staining Gram staining Bacteriology.
Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology with cell walls that have a thick layer of peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan Penicillins retain the crystal violet stain utilized in Gram staining Gram staining Bacteriology but are not affected by the safranin counterstain. These bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology appear as purple-blue on the stain, indicating that they are gram positive Gram positive Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by gram’s method. Nocardia/Nocardiosis. The bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology can be further classified according to morphology (branching filaments, bacilli Bacilli Shigella, and cocci Cocci Bacteriology in clusters or chains) and their ability to grow in the presence of oxygen (aerobic versus anaerobic). The cocci Cocci Bacteriology can also be further identified. Staphylococci can be narrowed down on the basis of the presence of the enzyme coagulase Coagulase Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human prothrombin. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococcus and yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen. Staphylococcus and on their sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques to the antibiotic novobiocin. Streptococci are grown on blood agar Blood agar Nocardia/Nocardiosis and classified on the basis of which form of hemolysis they employ (α, β, or γ). Streptococci are further narrowed on the basis of their response to the pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) test, their sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques to specific antimicrobials (optochin and bacitracin), and their ability to grow on sodium Sodium A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. Hyponatremia chloride Chloride Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion. Electrolytes (NaCl) media.

Image by Lecturio. License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

General Characteristics

Basic features of Clostridium species

  • Gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins bacilli Bacilli Shigella
  • Spore Spore The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Microsporidia/Microsporidiosis-forming organisms
  • Obligate anaerobes Anaerobes Lincosamides
  • Habitat:
    • Soil, fresh water, marine sediments
    • Intestinal tract of humans and animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic
    • Cervical-vaginal flora
    • Spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax can be airborne.
  • Pathogenesis:
    • Infection can be exogenous (from outside) or endogenous.
    • Cause disease by exotoxins Exotoxins Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment. Bacteriology or enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea production
Clostridia cartoon

A cartoon showing the general structure of the gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins Clostridia bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology

Image by Lecturio.

Pathogenic species

  • C. perfringens C. perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene (20%–40% of all isolates)
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • C. tetani
  • C. botulinum
Table: Compare and contrast Clostridia species
C. botulinum Clostridioides difficile C. perfringens C. perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene C. tetani
Habitat
  • Soil 
  • Marine sediments
  • Intestinal flora
  • Soil 
  • Intestinal flora
  • Soil 
  • Intestinal flora
Virulence Virulence The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its virulence factors. Proteus
  • Botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon endocytosis into presynaptic nerve endings. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific snare proteins which are essential for secretion of acetylcholine by synaptic vesicles. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular paralysis. Botulism
  • Enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea A
  • Toxin B
  • Alpha toxin
  • Enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea
  • Tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus toxin (tetanospasmin)
Transmission Ingestion of:
  • Spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax
  • Preformed toxin
Via spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax:
  • Nosocomial infection Nosocomial infection Nosocomial infections include intravascular catheter-related infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs), and surgical site infections. Multidrug-resistant Organisms and Nosocomial Infections (poor handwashing)
  • Opportunistic intestinal flora
Via spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax:
  • Traumatic wounds
  • Food ingestion
Via spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax:
  • Traumatic wounds
  • Umbilical cord Umbilical cord The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing fetus to the placenta in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus. Placenta, Umbilical Cord, and Amniotic Cavity contamination during delivery
Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor
  • Flaccid paralysis
  • Botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism
  • Infants: floppy baby syndrome Floppy Baby Syndrome Botulism
  • Nosocomial diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
  • Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis
  • Food poisoning
  • Localized cellulitis Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common infection caused by bacteria that affects the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the skin. It is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The skin infection presents as an erythematous and edematous area with warmth and tenderness. Cellulitis
  • Clostridium myonecrosis
  • Spastic paralysis
  • Trismus Trismus Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including tetanus, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions. Tetanus
  • Risus sardonicus Risus Sardonicus Tetanus
  • Opisthotonos
  • Neonatal tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus

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Clostridium botulinum

Epidemiology

  • Foodborne botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism:
    • In the United States, most common in Alaskan Natives (via ingestion of aged fish FISH A type of in situ hybridization in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei. Chromosome Testing)
    • Overall national rate is 0.0068 per 100,000
  • Infant botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism:
    • Ingestion of spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax:
      • From raw honey
      • From environmental dust
    • Highest incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency in Utah, Pennsylvania, and California
  • Wound botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism: in injection drug users

Transmission

  • Adults ingest preformed toxin from food
    • Associated with improper canning
    • Sometimes from fermented beverages (e.g., moonshine)
  • Infants ingest spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax: toxin then produced in vivo
  • Wound botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism:
    • Wound contamination with spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax
    • Germination and toxin production in vivo

Pathogenesis

  • Botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism is a potentially life-threatening neuroparalytic disease.
  • Botulinum neurotoxin:
    • Protease Protease Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene. HIV Infection and AIDS that cleaves soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology protein (SNAP) receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors (SNARE) proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis
    • Inhibits release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology of stimulatory acetylcholine Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS ( ACh ACh A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS)
    • Causes depletion of ACh ACh A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS in neuromuscular junctions
    • Results in flaccid paralysis
Pathophysiological mechanism caused by clostridium botulinum

Pathophysiological mechanism caused by Clostridium botulinum
Introducing the pathogen with its toxin causes hyperexcitation since part of the toxin blocks the motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology end-plate from releasing its neurotransmitters into the synapse Synapse The junction between 2 neurons is called a synapse. The synapse allows a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or target effector cell. Synapses and Neurotransmission

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

Adults:

  • Prodromal symptoms: 
    • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics/ vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
    • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
    • Diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Dry mouth
    • Sore throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy
  • Early symptoms:
    • Diplopia Diplopia A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include refractive errors; strabismus; oculomotor nerve diseases; trochlear nerve diseases; abducens nerve diseases; and diseases of the brain stem and occipital lobe. Myasthenia Gravis
    • Ptosis Ptosis Cranial Nerve Palsies
    • Dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia
  • Descending, flaccid paralysis
  • Severity may vary.

Infants ( floppy baby syndrome Floppy Baby Syndrome Botulism):

Pmc3223485 eplasty11e47 fig5

Six-week-old infant with botulism Botulism Botulism is a rare, neuroparalytic syndrome caused by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A fatal neurotoxin (botulinum toxin) is released causing varying degrees of muscle paralysis and distinct clinical syndromes. The most common types of botulism are foodborne and infant. Botulism
Marked loss of muscle tone Muscle tone The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. Skeletal Muscle Contraction, especially in the region of the head and neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess

Image: “PMC3223485_eplasty11e47_fig5” by Chopra K, Conde-Green A, Folstein MK, Knepp EK, Christy MR MR Calculated as the ratio of the total number of people who die due to all causes over a specific time period to the total number of people in the selected population. Measures of Health Status, & Singh DP. License: CC BY 2.0.

Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms

  • Toxin identification Identification Defense Mechanisms from:
    • Serum
    • Stool
    • Vomitus
    • Food
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ELISA An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus) test
  • Mouse bioassay
  • Quantitative polymerase chain reaction Polymerase chain reaction Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ( PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)): detects toxin genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure in the organism

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Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile

Epidemiology

  • Most common cause of antibiotic-induced colitis Colitis Inflammation of the colon section of the large intestine, usually with symptoms such as diarrhea (often with blood and mucus), abdominal pain, and fever. Pseudomembranous Colitis (especially associated with clindamycin Clindamycin An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of lincomycin. Lincosamides)
  • Carrier Carrier Vaccination rate:
    • In healthy adults: 3%
    • In hospitalized/institutionalized adults: 8%–10%
  • New exposures more likely to result in symptomatic disease

Transmission

  • Fecal-oral spore Spore The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Microsporidia/Microsporidiosis transmission
  • Spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax transmitted from person to person (poor handwashing)

Pathogenesis

  • Produces 2 potent exotoxins Exotoxins Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment. Bacteriology
  • Inactivate Ras RAS Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the narrowing of one or both renal arteries, usually caused by atherosclerotic disease or by fibromuscular dysplasia. If the stenosis is severe enough, the stenosis causes decreased renal blood flow, which activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and leads to renovascular hypertension (RVH). Renal Artery Stenosis homologous (Rho) guanosine triphosphate (GTP) enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes (GTPases):
    • Enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea A:
      • Targets brush border Brush border Tubular System enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes
      • Alters fluid secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies
      • Causes watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Toxin B (10 times more potent):
      • Depolymerizes actin Actin Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or f-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or g-actin. In conjunction with myosins, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle. Skeletal Muscle Contraction 
      • Disrupts cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm. The Cell: Cytosol and Cytoskeleton of enterocytes
      • Causes pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis
  • Dipicolinic acid in spore Spore The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Microsporidia/Microsporidiosis core: highly resistant to heat Heat Inflammation and chemicals

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis:

  • Abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
  • Profuse watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea (may occasionally be bloody)
  • Leukocytosis Leukocytosis A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid. West Nile Virus
  • Associated with recent antibiotic use
Pseudomembranous colitis

Pathologic specimen showing pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis

Image: “ Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis Pseudomembranous colitis is a bacterial disease of the colon caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation and is acquired due to antimicrobial use and the consequent disruption of the normal colonic microbiota. C. difficile infections account for the most commonly diagnosed hospital-acquired diarrheal illnesses. Pseudomembranous Colitis” by the pathologist at work. License: Public domain.

Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms

  • Toxin antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination detection in stool
  • PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Clostridioides difficile deoxyribonucleic acid Deoxyribonucleic acid A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure ( DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure)

Clostridium perfringens

Epidemiology

  • Food poisoning:
    • 2nd most common cause of foodborne illness
    • Estimated 1 million cases each year in the United States
  • Soft-tissue infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease:
    • 30%–80% of open wounds are contaminated with Clostridium species.
    • 80% of traumatic gas gangrene Gas gangrene Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Gas Gangrene cases
    • Spontaneous gas gangrene Gas gangrene Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Gas Gangrene is usually caused by another species: C. septicum C. septicum A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with gas gangrene. Gas Gangrene.

Transmission

  • Spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax in the soil: wound contamination
  • Spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax in reheated meats: food poisoning

Pathogenesis

Myonecrosis ( gas gangrene Gas gangrene Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Gas Gangrene):

  • Alpha toxin:
    • Hemolytic toxin; essential for disease manifestations and mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status
    • Has phospholipase C Phospholipase C A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of glycerophospholipids. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols. Pseudomonas and sphingomyelinase activity
    • Degrades tissue and cell membranes
    • Causes small vessel thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus and tissue ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage
    • Ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage creates anaerobic environment → further propagation Propagation Propagation refers to how the electrical signal spreads to every myocyte in the heart. Cardiac Physiology of C. perfringens C. perfringens The most common etiologic agent of gas gangrene. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins. Gas Gangrene
    • Also depresses cardiac output Cardiac output The volume of blood passing through the heart per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with stroke volume (volume per beat). Cardiac Mechanics and contributes to systemic shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock
  • Theta toxin ( perfringolysin O Perfringolysin O Gas Gangrene):

Food poisoning:

  • Caused by type A strains
  • Spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax survive cooking temperatures and propagate in improperly stored foods.
  • Enterotoxin Enterotoxin Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc. ; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria. Diarrhea:
    • Disrupts ion transport in the ileum Ileum The distal and narrowest portion of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the ileocecal valve of the large intestine. Small Intestine: Anatomy
    • Results in watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

  • Foodborne illness:
    • Slow-onset watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea with abdominal cramping Abdominal cramping Norovirus
    • Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia and fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever are uncommon.
    • 12–24 hours after food consumption
    • Self-limiting Self-Limiting Meningitis in Children, resolves in 1–3 days
  • Myonecrosis:
    • Severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways 
    • Tissue crepitus Crepitus Osteoarthritis (from gas formation)
    • Edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema, blisters, and bullae Bullae Erythema Multiforme
    • Purplish skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions discoloration
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, change in mental status
Gas gangrene

Gas gangrene Gas gangrene Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Gas Gangrene of the right leg Leg The lower leg, or just “leg” in anatomical terms, is the part of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle joint. The bony structure is composed of the tibia and fibula bones, and the muscles of the leg are grouped into the anterior, lateral, and posterior compartments by extensions of fascia. Leg: Anatomy and pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles. The pelvic girdle, composed of 2 “hip” bones and the sacrum, is a ring-like bony structure of the axial skeleton that links the vertebral column with the lower extremities. Pelvis: Anatomy

Image: “ Gas gangrene Gas gangrene Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Gas Gangrene” by Engelbert Schröpfer, Stephan Rauthe, and Thomas Meyer. License: CC BY 2.0.

Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms

Clostridium tetani

Epidemiology

  • Causes tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus: a nervous system Nervous system The nervous system is a small and complex system that consists of an intricate network of neural cells (or neurons) and even more glial cells (for support and insulation). It is divided according to its anatomical components as well as its functional characteristics. The brain and spinal cord are referred to as the central nervous system, and the branches of nerves from these structures are referred to as the peripheral nervous system. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification disorder
  • Very rare in resource-rich countries due to widespread vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination
  • Remains endemic in resource-limited countries

Transmission

  • Via spores Spores The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Anthrax
  • Associated with skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions puncture wounds:
    • Rusty nails
    • Barbed wire
    • Construction workers
  • Will not grow in healthy tissues
  • Predisposing factors:
    • Localized ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage
    • Devitalized tissue
    • Foreign body Foreign Body Foreign Body Aspiration
    • Co-infection with other bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology 

Pathogenesis

  • Average incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period: 8 days
  • Retrograde transport of toxin to the central nervous system Central nervous system The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification (CNS)
  • Tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus toxin or tetanospasmin (A/B toxin):
    • Protease Protease Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene. HIV Infection and AIDS that cleaves the SNARE protein
    • Blocks exocytosis Exocytosis Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the cell membrane. The Cell: Cell Membrane of inhibitory neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA GABA The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS) and glycine Glycine A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids) from Renshaw cells in the spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy
    • Causes accumulation of ACh ACh A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS
    • Results in spastic paralysis
Pathophysiological mechanism caused by clostridium tetani

Pathophysiological mechanism caused by Clostridium tetani Clostridium tetani The cause of tetanus in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin. Tetanus
Tetanospasmin blocks the binding of neurotransmitters ( GABA GABA The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS/ glycine Glycine A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids) to their receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors on the postsynaptic membrane Postsynaptic membrane Synapses and Neurotransmission; thus, inhibitory neurotransmission Neurotransmission The communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across electrical synapses. Synapses and Neurotransmission

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

  • Generalized:
    • Spastic paralysis
    • Risus sardonicus Risus Sardonicus Tetanus 
    • Trismus Trismus Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including tetanus, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions. Tetanus ( lockjaw Lockjaw Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including tetanus, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions. Tetanus)
    • Opisthotonus Opisthotonus Tetanus 
  • Local:
    • Only 1 extremity or part of the body involved
    • Often progresses to generalized
  • Cephalic:
    • Predominant involvement of cranial nerves Cranial nerves There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves (CNs), which run from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. The CNs can be sensory or motor or both. The CNs are named and numbered in Roman numerals according to their location, from the front to the back of the brain. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions
    • May progress to generalized
  • Neonatal:
    • Results from contamination of the umbilical cord Umbilical cord The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing fetus to the placenta in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus. Placenta, Umbilical Cord, and Amniotic Cavity at delivery
    • Rare in developed countries
Risus sardonicus in patient with generalized tetanus

Risus sardonicus Risus Sardonicus Tetanus in a patient with generalized tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus

Image: “PMC4946959_cureus-0008-000000000644-i01” by Zunga PM, Tarfarosh SF, Farooq O, Dar IH, Rashid S, & Yaseen U. License: CC BY 3.0.

Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms

Prevention

  • Toxoid Toxoid Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are tropanes found in cyanobacteria. Vaccination vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination
  • For clean wounds, give vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination:
    • If < 3 previous doses 
    • If last dose > 10 years ago
  • For contaminated wounds:
    • Give vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination if last dose > 5 years ago.
    • Give human tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus immune globulin if < 3 doses of toxoid Toxoid Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are tropanes found in cyanobacteria. Vaccination vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination.

References

  1. Brooke I. (1988). Clostridium species (Clostridium perfringens, C. butyricum, C. clostridioforme, C. innocuum, C. ramosum, C. septicum, C. sordellii, C. tertium). http://antimicrobe.org/b90.asp
  2. Knapp, S. (2020). Clostridium botulinum. https://biologydictionary.net/clostridium-botulinum/ 
  3. Lamont J.T., Kelly C.P., Bakken J.S. (2020). Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection in adults: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved December 25, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridioides-formerly-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=clostridium%20difficile&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2 
  4. LaRocque R., & Harris J.B. (2019). Causes of acute infectious diarrhea and other foodborne illnesses in resource-rich settings. UpToDate. Retrieved December 23, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-and-other-foodborne-illnesses-in-resource-rich-settings?search=clostridium%20perfringens&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~40&usage_type=default&display_rank=2
  5. Pegram P.S., & Stone S.M. (2020). Botulism. UpToDate. Retrieved December 25, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/botulism?search=botulism&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~68&usage_type=default&display_rank=1
  6. Sexton D.J., & Thwaites L. (2020). Tetanus. UpToDate. Retrieved December 25, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/tetanus?search=tetanus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H16
  7. Stevens D.L, & Bryant A. (2020). Clostridial myonecrosis. UpToDate. Retrieved December 23, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridial-myonecrosis?search=clostridium%20perfringens&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~40&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

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