Gas Gangrene

Gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction, also known as clostridial myonecrosis Myonecrosis A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. novyi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases. Clostridia, is a life-threatening muscle and soft tissue Soft Tissue Soft Tissue Abscess infection that usually develops after traumatic inoculation with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), but can also develop spontaneously in association with other Clostridium species. Sudden, severe muscle pain Muscle Pain Ion Channel Myopathy classically develops shortly after the injury. Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions color changes (red/purple to black), tenderness, bullae Bullae Erythema Multiforme formation, and crepitus Crepitus Osteoarthritis are also present and progress rapidly. Most of the time, diagnosis is established clinically. Once the diagnosis is suspected, intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy should be started and emergent surgical debridement Debridement The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome should be performed.

Last updated: Feb 8, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction (clostridial myonecrosis Myonecrosis A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. novyi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases. Clostridia) is a rapidly progressing infection of muscle and soft tissue Soft Tissue Soft Tissue Abscess most commonly caused by Clostridium species.

Epidemiology

  • Cultivated land has Clostridium species widely distributed in the soil.
  • U.S. incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction: about 1,000 cases/year
  • Worldwide cases are suspected to be much higher than the United States but underreported due to lack of healthcare.

Etiology

  • Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) makes up > 80% of gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
  • C. perfringens is an anaerobic gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins bacillus Bacillus Bacillus are aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli. Two pathogenic species are Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) and B. cereus. Bacillus.
  • Other pathogens include C. septicum and C. histolyticum.
  • 2 major presentations:
    • Traumatic (70%; major pathogen C. perfringens): 
      • Gunshot or stab wounds Stab wounds Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object. Penetrating Abdominal Injury
      • Compound fractures or crush injuries
      • Bowel and biliary surgery
      • Abortion Abortion Expulsion of the product of fertilization before completing the term of gestation and without deliberate interference. Spontaneous Abortion/retained placenta Placenta A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (chorionic villi) derived from trophoblasts and a maternal portion (decidua) derived from the uterine endometrium. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (placental hormones). Placenta, Umbilical Cord, and Amniotic Cavity/prolonged rupture of the membranes
      • Intrauterine fetal demise
      • Intramuscular injection
      • Black tar heroin Heroin A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of federal regulations, title 21 parts 329. 1, 1308. 11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by federal statute. Nephrotic Syndrome injection
    • Spontaneous: major pathogen C. septicum
  • Immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis state (e.g., diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus) is an important risk factor.

Pathophysiology and Clinical Presentation

Traumatic gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction

  • Organisms get introduced into the tissues (through open wounds, during surgery).
  • Not every contamination results in infection.
  • Infection usually happens when there is compromised blood supply or devitalized tissue.
  • Conditions needed for C. perfringens to propagate:
    • Anaerobic environment
    • Acidic pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance
  • Severe progressive tissue necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage develops due to exotoxins Exotoxins Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment. Bacteriology produced by C. perfringens:
    • Alpha-toxin:
      • Hemolytic toxin; essential for disease manifestations and mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status
      • Has phospholipase C Phospholipase C A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of glycerophospholipids. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols. Pseudomonas and sphingomyelinase activity
      • Degrades tissue and cell membranes
      • Causes small vessel thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus and tissue ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage
      • Ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage creates anaerobic environment → further propagation Propagation Propagation refers to how the electrical signal spreads to every myocyte in the heart. Cardiac Physiology of C. perfringens
      • Also depresses cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) output and contributes to systemic shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock
    • Theta-toxin (perfringolysin O):
  • Important feature: lack of polymorphonuclear leukocytes Leukocytes White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (basophils; eosinophils; and neutrophils) as well as non-granular leukocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White Myeloid Cells: Histology in affected tissues

Spontaneous gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction

  • Hematogenous Hematogenous Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases seeding Seeding The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis of muscle with bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology
  • Points of entry:
    • Gastrointestinal tract (commonly from colonic adenocarcinomas)
    • Musculoskeletal allografts Allografts Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species. Organ Transplantation
  • C. septicum does not need anaerobic conditions and can grow in normal tissues.
  • Disease progression is caused by production of multiple exotoxins Exotoxins Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment. Bacteriology.

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

Localized signs and symptoms:

  • Typical incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period < 24 hours
  • Sudden onset of severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
  • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions color changes: paleness → bronze appearance → purple-to-purple red → black discoloration
  • Tense, tender skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions
  • Blistering and bullae Bullae Erythema Multiforme development: may be clear fluid or blood filled 
  • Foul-smelling discharge 
  • Crepitus Crepitus Osteoarthritis (gas in tissues): very sensitive and specific 

Systemic symptoms:

  • Tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children 
  • Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension 
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever 
  • Multiorgan failure 
  • Acute renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome: ↑ creatinine 
  • Liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy damage: jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice and liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage
  • Intravascular hemolysis Intravascular hemolysis Hemolytic Anemia

Diagnosis

Physical exam

  • Most of the time, an exam is sufficient to establish the diagnosis.
  • Severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways at the affected site
  • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions discoloration and blistering
  • Crepitus Crepitus Osteoarthritis
  • Systemic toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
    • Tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children/ hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension
    • Change in mental status 

Laboratory studies

Imaging

  • X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests
    • Gas in deep tissues
    • Quick and easy to obtain
  • Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):
    • More detailed imaging than plain X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests
    • Takes longer to obtain and may delay management
Soft-tissue gas consistent with gangrene

X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests reveals soft-tissue gas consistent with gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction.

Image: “Figure 3” by Cooney and Cooney. License: CC BY 2.0

Management

Medical

  • Supportive therapy: 
    • Intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation Resuscitation The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. . Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    • Correct electrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes are mineral salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions, which can be either be positively (cations) or negatively (anions) charged. Electrolytes are distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments in different concentrations. Electrolytes are essential for various basic life-sustaining functions. Electrolytes
    • Blood transfusion 
    • Hyperbaric oxygen Hyperbaric oxygen The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. The list of treatment modalities includes stroke. Decompression Sickness therapy: largely experimental 
    • Tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus toxoid Toxoid Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are tropanes found in cyanobacteria. Vaccination if indicated (in case of traumatic gas gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction)
  • Antibiotics:

Surgical

  • Aggressive surgical debridement Debridement The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome needs to be performed as soon as possible.
  • Multiple debridements are typically required.
  • Amputation Amputation An amputation is the separation of a portion of the limb or the entire limb from the body, along with the bone. Amputations are generally indicated for conditions that compromise the viability of the limb or promote the spread of a local process that could manifest systemically. Amputation may be required in case of extremity involvement.
  • Extremities must be monitored for compartment syndrome Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency usually occurring secondary to trauma. The condition is marked by increased pressure within a compartment that compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space. Compartment Syndrome and may require fasciotomy Fasciotomy Surgical incision on the fascia. It is used to decompress compartment pressure (e.g. in compartment syndromes; circumferential burns and extremity injuries) or to release contractures (e.g. in dupuytren’s contracture). Compartment Syndrome.

Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

  • The mortality rate Mortality rate Calculated as the ratio of the total number of people who die due to all causes over a specific time period to the total number of people in the selected population. Measures of Health Status can reach 20%–30% with the best care.
  • 100% mortality rate Mortality rate Calculated as the ratio of the total number of people who die due to all causes over a specific time period to the total number of people in the selected population. Measures of Health Status if untreated 
  • Spontaneous infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease can have mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status rates as high as 67%.
  • Infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease involving the abdominal soft tissue Soft Tissue Soft Tissue Abscess or chest wall Chest wall The chest wall consists of skin, fat, muscles, bones, and cartilage. The bony structure of the chest wall is composed of the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae. The chest wall serves as armor for the vital intrathoracic organs and provides the stability necessary for the movement of the shoulders and arms. Chest Wall: Anatomy have higher mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status than extremity infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
  • Predictors of mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status:
    • Shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock at the time of presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor
    • Presence of malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
    • Immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis state

Differential Diagnosis

  • Necrotizing fasciitis (NF): a life-threatening infection involving the fascia and the subcutaneous tissue that results in tissue necrosis and destruction. Patients present with pain out of proportion to the presenting symptoms and a rapidly progressing erythema after an injury. Quickly progresses into septic shock. Thus, aggressive surgical debridement, parenteral antibiotics, and continuous monitoring should be done.
  • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: a blistering skin disorder caused by a local infection usually due to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Presents with fever and diffuse, tender erythema, intraepidermal blisters, and sloughing off of the superficial layer of skin, leaving a red “scalded” appearance. Management is with admission and IV antibiotics.
  • Cellulitis Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common infection caused by bacteria that affects the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the skin. It is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The skin infection presents as an erythematous and edematous area with warmth and tenderness. Cellulitis: a common and painful bacterial skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions infection that affects the deeper layers of dermis Dermis A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the epidermis. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are sweat glands; hair follicles; and sebaceous glands. Skin: Structure and Functions and subcutaneous tissue Subcutaneous tissue Loose connective tissue lying under the dermis, which binds skin loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of adipocytes, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state. Soft Tissue Abscess. Presents with erythematous, edematous areas that are tender to touch. Caused most commonly by S. aureus S. aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). Diagnosis is usually clinical and management is antibiotics based on suspected organisms.
  • Bullous pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris are two different blistering autoimmune diseases. In bullous pemphigoid, autoantibodies attack the hemidesmosomes, which connect epidermal keratinocytes to the basement membrane. This attack results in large, tense subepidermal blisters. Bullous Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris and pemphigus vulgaris Pemphigus vulgaris Bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris are two different blistering autoimmune diseases. In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies attack the desmosomal proteins, which connect the keratinocytes to one another. This attack results in a more severe, potentially fatal condition with fragile, flaccid blisters, usually with significant mucosal involvement. Bullous Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris: autoimmune disorders that cause fluid-filled blisters with rounded skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions elevation. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with bullous pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris are two different blistering autoimmune diseases. In bullous pemphigoid, autoantibodies attack the hemidesmosomes, which connect epidermal keratinocytes to the basement membrane. This attack results in large, tense subepidermal blisters. Bullous Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris usually present with cutaneous, tense blisters and bullae Bullae Erythema Multiforme while patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with pemphigus vulgaris Pemphigus vulgaris Bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris are two different blistering autoimmune diseases. In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies attack the desmosomal proteins, which connect the keratinocytes to one another. This attack results in a more severe, potentially fatal condition with fragile, flaccid blisters, usually with significant mucosal involvement. Bullous Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris present with cutaneous, flaccid bullae Bullae Erythema Multiforme and mucosal erosions Erosions Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers. Both conditions require steroid management.

References

  1. Qureshi, S. (2019). Clostridial Gas Gangrene. Emedicine. Retrieved on January 29th, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/214992-overview
  2. Méndez MB, Goñi A, Ramirez W, & Grau RR. (2012). Sugar inhibits the production of the toxins that trigger clostridial gas gangrene. Microb Pathog 52(1):85-91. 
  3. Mandell, D., & Bennett. Gas Gangrene and Other Clostridium-Associated Diseases. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Eighth edition.
  4. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Dellinger EP, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, et al. (2014). Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis 59(2):e10-52. 
  5. Stevens, D., & Bryant, A. (2019). Clostridial myonecrosis. UptoDate. Retrieved on January 28, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridial-myonecrosis

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Create your free account or log in to continue reading!

Sign up now and get free access to Lecturio with concept pages, medical videos, and questions for your medical education.

Details