Nocardia is a branching, filamentous, gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins bacilli Bacilli Shigella. It is partially acid fast Acid fast Tuberculosis due to the presence of mycolic acids Mycolic acids Long fatty acids found in the cell walls of some actinobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium in the cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic. Nocardia is a ubiquitous soil organism that most commonly affects immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship. Nocardia is transmitted via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology or less commonly, via direct contact with wounds. Nocardia causes opportunistic infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, primarily pulmonary infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease ( pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia, abscess Abscess Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, or cavitary lesions), which may spread to form brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification abscesses. In immunocompetent patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship, Nocardia can cause a cutaneous infection. Treatment for nocardiosis is with trimethoprim Trimethoprim The sulfonamides are a class of antimicrobial drugs inhibiting folic acid synthesize in pathogens. The prototypical drug in the class is sulfamethoxazole. Although not technically sulfonamides, trimethoprim, dapsone, and pyrimethamine are also important antimicrobial agents inhibiting folic acid synthesis. The agents are often combined with sulfonamides, resulting in a synergistic effect. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim– sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethoxazole A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim and/or surgical intervention as indicated.
Last updated: 4 Jun, 2021
|Differentiating factors||Actinomyces Actinomyces Actinomyces is an anaerobic, gram-positive, branching, filamentous rod. Actinomyces israelii is the most common species involved in human disease. The organism is commonly found as part of the normal flora in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract. Actinomyces/Actinomycosis||Nocardia|
|Acid-fast stain Acid-Fast Stain Meningitis in Children||Not acid fast Acid fast Tuberculosis||Acid fast Acid fast Tuberculosis (partially)|
|Reservoir Reservoir Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (disease vectors) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks. Humans may serve both as disease reservoirs and carriers. Escherichia coli/habitat||Normal oral, gastrointestinal, and reproductive flora||Found in soil, water, decaying organic matter|
|Infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease caused||
|Management||Treatment with penicillin Penicillin Rheumatic Fever||Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole|
|Differentiating factors||Mycobacterium Mycobacterium Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium||Nocardia|
|Spore Spore The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as bacteria; fungi; and cryptogamic plants. Microsporidia/Microsporidiosis formation||Non-spore forming||Non-spore forming|
|Acid-fast stain Acid-Fast Stain Meningitis in Children||Acid fast Acid fast Tuberculosis||Partially acid fast Acid fast Tuberculosis|
|Structure||Straight or slightly curved rods||Branching filamentous rods|
|PPD* test||PPD* positive||PPD* negative|
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