Second Messengers

Signaling pathways are complex systems in which a single extracellular signal can elicit multiple intracellular events, some of which may also be triggered by other signaling pathways or may themselves trigger other intracellular events. "Second messengers" is a term used to refer to a diverse group of small molecules or ions that transmit the extracellular signal initiated by a ligand binding to a cell surface receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors to effector proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis inside the cell. In the resting state, small amounts of second messengers exist in a cell; however, their production can rapidly ramp up once a signal has been received. Once released inside the cell, second messengers bind BIND Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn to their target proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis and alter their properties (activity, localization, availability of reaction sites, stability, etc ETC The electron transport chain (ETC) sends electrons through a series of proteins, which generate an electrochemical proton gradient that produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Electron Transport Chain (ETC).), causing a change in the cell’s homeostasis Homeostasis The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable. Cell Injury and Death and thus transmitting the message.

Last updated: Sep 5, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview of Second Messengers

Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to first messengers, which are extracellular signaling molecules.

  • First messengers (ligands):
    • Extracellular factors
    • Hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Epinephrine Epinephrine The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. Sympathomimetic Drugs
    • Growth hormone (GH)
    • Serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS
  • Second messenger categories and their specific functions:
    • Cyclic nucleotides Nucleotides The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleic Acids and other soluble molecules: signal within the cytosol Cytosol A cell’s cytoskeleton is a network of intracellular protein fibers that provides structural support, anchors organelles, and aids intra- and extracellular movement. The Cell: Cytosol and Cytoskeleton
    • Lipid messengers: originate within cell membranes
      • Diacylglycerol (DAG)
      • Inositol trisphosphate (IP3)
      • Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3)
    • Ions: signal within and between cellular compartments
      • Calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes ( Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts))
      • Mg
    • Gases and free radicals Free radicals Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated. Ischemic Cell Damage: can signal throughout the cell and even to neighboring cells
      • NO
      • CO
      • Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. Salmonella (H2S)
  • Second messengers can trigger Trigger The type of signal that initiates the inspiratory phase by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation multiple functions, including:
    • Proliferation
    • Differentiation
    • Migration
    • Survival
    • Apoptosis Apoptosis A regulated cell death mechanism characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, at regularly spaced, internucleosomal sites, I.e., DNA fragmentation. It is genetically-programmed and serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth. Ischemic Cell Damage
The second messenger mechanism

General schematic of the second messenger mechanism

Image: “Second Messenger Mechanism” by Lunska. License: Public Domain

Cyclic Nucleotides

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Adenosine monophosphate Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2′-, 3′-, or 5′-position. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

  • General properties:
    • Common second messenger seen in fight-or-flight response as well as many other metabolic pathways
    • Derived from adenosine Adenosine A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. Class 5 Antiarrhythmic Drugs triphosphate (ATP)
  • Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in response to first messenger:
    • First messengers (e.g., epinephrine Epinephrine The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. Sympathomimetic Drugs) bind BIND Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn to extracellular receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors.
    • Cause intracellular activation of G protein subunits of receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors
    • G protein activates adenylyl cyclase.
    • Adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors.
    • Intracellular levels of cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors increase.
  • Second messenger activity: 
    • cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors targets protein kinase A Protein kinase A A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic amp and catalyze the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-amp-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition. Glycogen Metabolism (PKA).
    • 2 cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors molecules bind BIND Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn to PKA → activate it
    • PKA phosphorylates serine Serine A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the l-isomer. It is synthesized from glycine or threonine. It is involved in the biosynthesis of purines; pyrimidines; and other amino acids. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids or threonine residues on target proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis.
    • Phosphorylation Phosphorylation The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety. Post-translational Protein Processing affects the activity of multiple groups of proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis, particularly those regulating the metabolism of sugars, glycogen, and lipids Lipids Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic organic molecules, which include fats, oils, sterols, and waxes. Fatty Acids and Lipids.
    • The intracellular concentration of cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, therefore, determines the fraction of PKA in its active form, and thus the rate at which it phosphorylates its substrates.
  • Examples:
    • Epinephrine Epinephrine The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. Sympathomimetic Drugs pathway:
      • Epinephrine Epinephrine The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. Sympathomimetic Drugs binds to the beta-adrenergic receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors of a muscle cell.
      • G protein activation → cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors levels increase
      • Activation of PKA leads to the activation of glycogen phosphorylase Glycogen phosphorylase An enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of glycogen in animals by releasing glucose-1-phosphate from the terminal alpha-1, 4-glycosidic bond. This enzyme exists in two forms: an active phosphorylated form ( phosphorylase A) and an inactive un-phosphorylated form (phosphorylase B). Both A and B forms of phosphorylase exist as homodimers. In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver and brain tissue. Glycogen Metabolism.
      • Increased glycogen breakdown for a fight-or-flight response.
    • The glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions pathway follows a similar mechanism.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Guanosine monophosphate A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

  • Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in response to first messenger:
    • Guanylyl cyclase Guanylyl cyclase A mammalian enzyme composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits. Each subunit consists of four domains; N-terminal HNOX domain, PAS-like domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. All four domains are homologous proteins with a similar conformation of functional domains. Soluble guanylate cyclase catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP from GTP, and is a key enzyme of the nitric oxide signaling pathway involved in the regulation of a variety of biological and physiological processes in mammals. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure (GA) activation converts guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cGMP cGMP Guanosine cyclic 3. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors.
    • GA activation can be triggered by:
      • Membrane-impermeable peptide hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types binding to extracellular membrane receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors
      • NO permeating through the plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products membrane, activating GA found in the cytoplasm
  • Second messenger activity:
    • Increased levels of cGMP cGMP Guanosine cyclic 3. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors → increased activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Protein kinase A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to adp and a phosphoprotein. Interferons (PKG)
    • PKG phosphorylates proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis that regulate:
      • Ion channel conductance
      • Glycogenolysis Glycogenolysis The release of glucose from glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase before entering glycolysis. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by glucagon or epinephrine via the activation of phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen Metabolism
      • Cellular apoptosis Apoptosis A regulated cell death mechanism characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, at regularly spaced, internucleosomal sites, I.e., DNA fragmentation. It is genetically-programmed and serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth. Ischemic Cell Damage
  • Examples: cGMP cGMP Guanosine cyclic 3. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors functions as a signal to: 
    • Relax smooth muscle in blood vessels → vasodilation Vasodilation The physiological widening of blood vessels by relaxing the underlying vascular smooth muscle. Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs and increased blood flow Blood flow Blood flow refers to the movement of a certain volume of blood through the vasculature over a given unit of time (e.g., mL per minute). Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure.
    • Regulate Na channels Channels The Cell: Cell Membrane in the eye, controlling phototransduction and image transmission to the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification
Second messengers

Nitric oxide Nitric Oxide A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide is one of the endothelium-dependent relaxing factors released by the vascular endothelium and mediates vasodilation. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic gmp. Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs signaling in smooth muscle cells through the cGMP cGMP Guanosine cyclic 3. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors pathway
GMP: guanosine monophosphate Guanosine monophosphate A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
GTP: guanosine triphosphate
PPi: inorganic pyrophosphate

Image by Lecturio.

Lipids

Lipids Lipids Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic organic molecules, which include fats, oils, sterols, and waxes. Fatty Acids and Lipids present in the plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products membrane, such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), are often modified and utilized as second messengers. Binding of first messengers to receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors can activate lipid-modifying enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes. This leads to the hydrolyzation of specific acyl chains or polar head groups on specific lipid groups, which allows them to function as second messengers.

Diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate

  • Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in response to first messenger:
    • Binding of ligands to a G protein–coupled receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors (GPCR) (e.g., histamine) or a receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors tyrosine Tyrosine A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor of epinephrine; thyroid hormones; and melanin. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids kinase (RTK) (e.g., growth hormone) activates phospholipase C Phospholipase C A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of glycerophospholipids. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols. Pseudomonas (PLC)
    • PLC cleaves PIP2, creating 2 second messengers: DAG and IP3.
  • Second messenger activity: 
    • IP3 cascade → release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic/ sarcoplasmic reticulum Sarcoplasmic Reticulum A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle fibers that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions. Muscle Tissue: Histology → muscle contraction or hormone release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology (depending on the type of cell).
    • DAG cascade works with the released Ca2+ from the IP3 pathway to activate protein kinase Protein kinase A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to adp and a phosphoprotein. Interferons C → phosphorylation Phosphorylation The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety. Post-translational Protein Processing of other proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis.
G protein coupled receptor (gpcr)

G protein coupled receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors (GPCR) activates phospholipase C Phospholipase C A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of glycerophospholipids. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols. Pseudomonas, which converts PIP2 into IP3 and DAG. IP3 promotes the release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology of calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes stores in the cell.
GDP: guanosine diphosphate
GTP: guanosine triphosphate

Image by Lecturio.

Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate

  • Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in response to first messenger:
    • Growth factor (first messenger) binds to tyrosine Tyrosine A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor of epinephrine; thyroid hormones; and melanin. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids kinase receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors
    • Tyrosine Tyrosine A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor of epinephrine; thyroid hormones; and melanin. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids kinase activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)
    • Induces the phosphorylation Phosphorylation The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety. Post-translational Protein Processing of PIP2 at the 3′ to produce PIP3, a second messenger
  • Second messenger activity: 
    • PIP3 targets the prosurvival kinase Akt in the cell cytosol Cytosol A cell’s cytoskeleton is a network of intracellular protein fibers that provides structural support, anchors organelles, and aids intra- and extracellular movement. The Cell: Cytosol and Cytoskeleton.
    • Once bound, Akt moves to the plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products membrane, where it is involved in a complex signal pathway that promotes cell survival and growth.

Ions

  • Overview:
    • Ions and ion gradients have complex signaling roles within cells (e.g., action potential Action Potential Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the cell membrane of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli. Membrane Potential propagation Propagation Propagation refers to how the electrical signal spreads to every myocyte in the heart. Cardiac Physiology and signal cofactors).
    • Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) and Mg can also function as intracellular second messengers.
    • They can either be released from intracellular stores or imported into the cell from the extracellular space.
  • Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts):
    • In response to signals, such as IP3, intracellular Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) levels can increase dramatically and act as a second messenger by:
      • Individual ions binding to proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis directly, affecting their activity
      • Changes in overall Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) concentration levels triggering calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes sensor proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis that have downstream effects
    • Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) intracellular levels are regulated tightly.
      • Pumps and channels Channels The Cell: Cell Membrane function to store Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) in the ER or remove it from the cell.
      • A buffer protein like parvalbumin can soak up excess calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes.
    • Signal termination: Pumps and channels Channels The Cell: Cell Membrane remove Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) actively from the cell, transporting it to the ER or outside the cell.
  • Mg:
    • Functions as a second messenger similarly to calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes
    • Can further contribute to signaling by antagonizing Ca-signaling activity (Mg reduces Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Condylomata acuminata are described as raised, pearly, flesh-colored, papular, cauliflower-like lesions seen in the anogenital region that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding. Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) levels by inhibiting its transport into the cytosol Cytosol A cell’s cytoskeleton is a network of intracellular protein fibers that provides structural support, anchors organelles, and aids intra- and extracellular movement. The Cell: Cytosol and Cytoskeleton)

References

  1. Heldin, CH, Lu, B, Evans, R, & Gutkind, JS. (2016). Signals and receptors. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 8(4):a005900. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27037414/ 
  2. Sassone-Corsi, P. (2012). The cyclic AMP pathway. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4(12):a011148. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23209152/ 
  3. Francis, SH, & Corbin, JD. (1999). Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: Intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP action. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 36(4), 275–328. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10486703/ 
  4. Tsui, MM, & York, JD. (2009). Roles of inositol phosphates and inositol pyrophosphates in development, cell signaling, and nuclear processes. Adv Enzyme Regul. 50(1), 324–37. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20006638/ 
  5. Cantley, LC. (2002). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Science. 296(5573), 1655-7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12040186/ 
  6. Berridge, MJ, Lipp, P, & Bootman, MD. (2000). The versatility and universality of calcium signaling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 1(1), 11–21. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11413485/ 
  7. Newton, AC, Bootman, MD, & Scott, JD. (2016). Second messengers. Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968160/ 

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