Achieve Mastery of Medical Concepts

Study for medical school and boards with Lecturio

Endophthalmitis

Endophthalmitis is an inflammatory process of the inner layers of the eye, which may be either infectious Infectious Febrile Infant or sterile Sterile Basic Procedures. Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant endophthalmitis can lead to irreversible vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss if not treated quickly. Based on the entry mode of the infectious Infectious Febrile Infant source, endophthalmitis is divided into endogenous and exogenous types. Exogenous endophthalmitis occurs via direct inoculation of infectious Infectious Febrile Infant organisms during cataract Cataract Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). Neurofibromatosis Type 2 surgery, ocular trauma Ocular Trauma Cataracts in Children, or intravitreal injection. Endogenous endophthalmitis results from hematogenous Hematogenous Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases seeding Seeding The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis. Sterile Sterile Basic Procedures endophthalmitis may result from toxins or retained lens Lens A transparent, biconvex structure of the eye, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor (vitreous body). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the ciliary body is crucial for ocular accommodation. Eye: Anatomy material after an ocular operation. Clinical features vary depending on the type and course of the disease. Features may include decreased vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam, conjunctival injection, ocular pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea, and corneal edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema. The diagnosis primarily depends on history and ophthalmological examination, and treatment is based upon the underlying cause. Sterile Sterile Basic Procedures endophthalmitis generally resolves spontaneously while infectious Infectious Febrile Infant endophthalmitis is treated with antimicrobials (antibiotics or antifungals). Vitrectomy Vitrectomy Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma. Retinal Detachment may be needed in severe disease.

Last updated: 6 May, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Definition and Epidemiology

Definition

Endophthalmitis is an inflammatory process of the intraocular cavities (e.g., aqueous and/or vitreous humor Vitreous humor The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the eye and in front of the retina. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe. Eye: Anatomy) usually caused by bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology or fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology.

Epidemiology

  • The incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency between men and women is equal.
  • More common in the elderly and after cataract Cataract Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). Neurofibromatosis Type 2 surgery
  • Exogenous endophthalmitis is the most common form:
    • 60% of exogenous cases occur after intraocular surgery.
    • Occurs in 0.1%–0.3% of cataract Cataract Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). Neurofibromatosis Type 2 operations (most common etiology in the United States)
    • 25%–30% of cases are posttraumatic.
  • Endogenous endophthalmitis:
    • More common in immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals
    • In unilateral cases, the right eye Right Eye Refractive Errors is more commonly involved than left due to preferential right-sided arterial blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure.
    • Candidal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease are increasing in IV drug users.
    • Rare (2%–15% of all cases)

Etiology

Sterile Sterile Basic Procedures endophthalmitis

  • Complication of intravitreal injection ( triamcinolone Triamcinolone A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Glucocorticoids, anti- vascular endothelial growth factor Vascular endothelial growth factor A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to vascular endothelial growth factor a. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells. Wound Healing (anti-VEGF), methotrexate Methotrexate An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA. Antimetabolite Chemotherapy)
  • Retained native lens Lens A transparent, biconvex structure of the eye, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor (vitreous body). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the ciliary body is crucial for ocular accommodation. Eye: Anatomy after an operation

Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant endophthalmitis

Exogenous: 

  • Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis:
    • Occurs within 6 weeks of an ocular procedure
    • Cataract Cataract Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). Neurofibromatosis Type 2 surgery is the most common cause.
    • Organism:
      • Coagulase Coagulase Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human prothrombin. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococcus and yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen. Staphylococcus-negative Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci. These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus (most common) 
      • Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Brain Abscess
      • Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus
  • Delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis:
    • Less common than the acute-onset variety
    • Occurs more than 6 weeks after surgery
    • Organisms:
      • Propionibacterium Propionibacterium A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections. Dog and Cat Bites acnes (predominant)
      • Coagulase Coagulase Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human prothrombin. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococcus and yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen. Staphylococcus-negative Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci. These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus
      • Fungal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (16%–27% of cases)
  • Bleb-associated endophthalmitis:
    • Following trabeculectomy Trabeculectomy Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation. Glaucoma
    • Organisms:
      • Coagulase Coagulase Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human prothrombin. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococcus and yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen. Staphylococcus-negative Staphylococcus
      • Haemophilus Haemophilus Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative coccobacilli, all of whose strains require at least 1 of 2 factors for growth (factor V [NAD] and factor X [heme]); therefore, it is most often isolated on chocolate agar, which can supply both factors. The pathogenic species are H. influenzae and H. ducreyi. Haemophilus influenzae
      • Moraxella catarrhalis Moraxella catarrhalis Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause meningitis; bacteremia; empyema; pericarditis; and pneumonia. Moraxella 
      • Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Brain Abscess
  • Post-intravitreal injection endophthalmitis:
    • Occurs following injection of anti-VEGF medications (e.g., bevacizumab Bevacizumab An anti-vegf humanized murine monoclonal antibody. It inhibits vegf receptors and helps to prevent pathologic angiogenesis. Targeted and Other Nontraditional Antineoplastic Therapy) or corticosteroids Corticosteroids Chorioretinitis
    • Organisms:
      • Coagulase Coagulase Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human prothrombin. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococcus and yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen. Staphylococcus-negative Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci. These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus
      • Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus 
  • Posttraumatic endophthalmitis:
    • Occurs following penetrating trauma to the eye
    • Organisms:
      • Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning. Bacillus (one of the most common organisms) 
      • Gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins cocci Cocci Bacteriology 
      • Gram-negative organisms

Endogenous:

  • Hematogenous Hematogenous Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases spread of bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology/ fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology from a distant source (e.g., endocarditis Endocarditis Endocarditis is an inflammatory disease involving the inner lining (endometrium) of the heart, most commonly affecting the cardiac valves. Both infectious and noninfectious etiologies lead to vegetations on the valve leaflets. Patients may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fever and fatigue. Endocarditis, indwelling catheter Indwelling catheter Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time. Urinary tract infections (UTIs))
  • Caused by:
    • Gram-positive Gram-Positive Penicillins organisms (in the United States)
    • Fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology: Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis albicans is the most common, followed by Aspergillus Aspergillus A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family trichocomaceae. Echinocandins and Fusarium.

Pathogenesis

Normally, the ocular-blood barrier naturally resists invasive organisms.

Exogenous endophthalmitis

Pathophysiology:

  • Disruption of globe integrity:
    • Cataract Cataract Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). Neurofibromatosis Type 2 operations
    • Radial keratotomy
    • Intravitreal injections
    • Retinal or glaucoma Glaucoma Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by typical visual field defects and optic nerve atrophy seen as optic disc cupping on examination. The acute form of glaucoma is a medical emergency. Glaucoma is often, but not always, caused by increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma operations
    • Penetrating foreign bodies
  • Introduction of causative organisms

Risk factors:

  • Blepharitis Blepharitis Blepharitis is an ocular condition characterized by eyelid inflammation. Anterior blepharitis involves the eyelid skin and eyelashes, while the posterior type affects the meibomian glands. Often, these conditions overlap. Blepharitis
  • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus
  • Older age
  • Wound contamination
  • Traumatic lens Lens A transparent, biconvex structure of the eye, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor (vitreous body). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the ciliary body is crucial for ocular accommodation. Eye: Anatomy rupture
  • Delayed wound closure
  • Compounded medication usage

Endogenous endophthalmitis

Pathophysiology:

In unilateral cases, the right eye Right Eye Refractive Errors is twice as likely as the left eye Left Eye Refractive Errors to become infected.

Risk factors: 

  • Immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis conditions
  • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus
  • Malignancies
  • IV drug use
  • Indwelling catheters Indwelling catheters Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time. Pseudomonas
  • Urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract: Anatomy infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Organ transplant
  • End-stage liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy or renal disease

Clinical Presentation

Exogenous

Acute:

  • Usually bacterial
  • Occurs within days after an inciting event
  • Presents with: 
    • Decreased visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam
    • Eye pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
    • Eyelid edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
    • Conjunctival injection
    • Hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea (WBCs in the anterior chamber Anterior chamber The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. Eye: Anatomy)
    • Corneal-ring ulcer (traumatic)
    • Absent red reflex Red Reflex Cataracts in Children

Chronic:

  • Usually from fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology or less-virulent bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology
  • Gradual onset
  • Visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam may be preserved until late in the presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor
  • Corneal infiltrates with fuzzy or feathery borders
Hypopyon and track of pus with endophthalmitis associated with glaucoma shunt intraluminal stent exposure

Hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea and track of pus with endophthalmitis associated with glaucoma Glaucoma Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by typical visual field defects and optic nerve atrophy seen as optic disc cupping on examination. The acute form of glaucoma is a medical emergency. Glaucoma is often, but not always, caused by increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma shunt intraluminal stent exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment

Image: “ Hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea and track of pus from tube at presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor with endophthalmitis” by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. License: CC BY 3.0

Endogenous

  • Subacute onset
  • Signs of a systemic infection may be present (e.g., fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever).
  • Presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor may include:
    • Decreased vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam
    • Eye pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
    • Hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea
    • Subconjunctival hemorrhage
    • Conjunctival injection
    • Corneal edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
    • Reduced or absent red reflex Red Reflex Cataracts in Children

Related videos

Diagnosis

Endophthalmitis diagnosis is based on clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor with confirmation by laboratory testing of aqueous and/or vitreous humor Vitreous humor The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the eye and in front of the retina. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe. Eye: Anatomy.

History

  • Focus Focus Area of enhancement measuring < 5 mm in diameter Imaging of the Breast on risk-increasing practices or procedures:
    • Recent ocular procedures
    • Trauma
    • IV drug use
    • Immunosuppression
    • Sepsis Sepsis Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by hypotension despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called septic shock. Sepsis and Septic Shock risk
  • Ocular symptoms:
    • Pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways and irritation
    • Photophobia Photophobia Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. Migraine Headache
    • Headache Headache The symptom of pain in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of headache disorders. Brain Abscess
    • Redness Redness Inflammation
    • Decreased visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam
  • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever

Physical exam

Fundoscopy Fundoscopy Cranial Nerve Palsies:

  • Reduced fundal view
  • Loss of red reflex Red Reflex Cataracts in Children
  • Roth spots Roth spots Endocarditis:
    • Retinal hemorrhages
    • Occurs in endocarditis Endocarditis Endocarditis is an inflammatory disease involving the inner lining (endometrium) of the heart, most commonly affecting the cardiac valves. Both infectious and noninfectious etiologies lead to vegetations on the valve leaflets. Patients may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fever and fatigue. Endocarditis
A fundoscopic examination of a patient with endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

A fundoscopic examination of a patient with endogenous fungal endophthalmitis demonstrates a yellow retinal lesion medial to the optic nerve Optic nerve The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the retina to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the superior colliculi and the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the central nervous system. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions.

Image: “Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis: risk factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes in mold Mold Mycology and yeast Yeast A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers’ and bakers’ yeasts are saccharomyces cerevisiae; therapeutic dried yeast is yeast, dried. Mycology infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.” by Sridhar J, Flynn HW, Kuriyan AE, Miller D, Albini T. License: CC BY 2.0

Slit-lamp examination Slit-Lamp Examination Blepharitis:

  • Inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation in the anterior chamber Anterior chamber The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. Eye: Anatomy:
  • Hazy corneal outline
  • Infiltrates in the vitreous cavity:
    • Thick, clumpy material in aqueous humor Aqueous humor The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. Eye: Anatomy (fungal)
    • Puff–ball-like lesions in the vitreous cavity (fungal)

Diagnostic testing

  • Ultrasound-B scan:
    • Use when the posterior segment is not visualized.
    • Findings: vitreous debris, retinochoroidal thickening
  • CT scan: cases of orbital trauma (avoid MRI due to potential of foreign bodies of metal)
  • Collection of ocular fluid (vitreous/aqueous) for microbiological study: 
    • Real-time PCR PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that amplifies DNA fragments exponentially for analysis. The process is highly specific, allowing for the targeting of specific genomic sequences, even with minuscule sample amounts. The PCR cycles multiple times through 3 phases: denaturation of the template DNA, annealing of a specific primer to the individual DNA strands, and synthesis/elongation of new DNA molecules. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):
      •  Identify both bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology and fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology
      •  Preferred over Gram stain Gram stain Klebsiella
    • Gram stain Gram stain Klebsiella 
    • Culture
  • Culture of the penetrating object if traumatic injury

Workup support by diagnostic testing

Diagnostic testing supports workup to search for the source of endogenous endophthalmitis:

Management

Management depends on the underlying cause and outcome is extremely dependent on timely diagnosis and treatment. 

Sterile Sterile Basic Procedures endophthalmitis

  • Usually resolves without further treatment
  • Topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors may be used.
  • Treat with antibiotics in severe disease.

Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant endophthalmitis

Fungal:

  • Intravitreal antifungal Antifungal Azoles injections: 
    • Achieves a high concentration of the drug in the vitreous cavity without systemic side effects
    • Options: amphotericin B Amphotericin B Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the orinoco river region of venezuela. Polyenes or voriconazole Voriconazole A triazole antifungal agent that specifically inhibits sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and cytochrome p-450 cyp3a. Azoles
  • Systemic therapy: 
    • Used in all cases of endogenous endophthalmitis (part of systemic infection)
    • Used in addition to intravitreal injections for exogenous endophthalmitis
    • Options: IV fluconazole Fluconazole Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis and cryptococcal meningitis in aids. Azoles or voriconazole Voriconazole A triazole antifungal agent that specifically inhibits sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and cytochrome p-450 cyp3a. Azoles
  • Pars plana vitrectomy Vitrectomy Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma. Retinal Detachment ( PPV PPV The positive predictive value is the percentage of people with a positive test result who actually have the disease among all people with a positive result, regardless of whether or not they have the disease. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests): 
    • For severe disease 
    • Removes the vitreous humor Vitreous humor The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the eye and in front of the retina. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe. Eye: Anatomy 

Bacterial:

  • Hospital admission
  • Intravitreal injections:
    • Vancomycin Vancomycin Antibacterial obtained from streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to ristocetin that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear. Glycopeptides plus ceftazidime Ceftazidime Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from cephaloridine and used especially for pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients. Cephalosporins 
    • Amikacin is an alternative (may cause retinal toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation).
  • IV antibiotics: 
  • Topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors
  • PPV PPV The positive predictive value is the percentage of people with a positive test result who actually have the disease among all people with a positive result, regardless of whether or not they have the disease. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests

Traumatic endophthalmitis

  • Hospital admission
  • Treat ruptured globe (if present).
  • Intravitreal antibiotics
  • Systemic antibiotics:
    • Vancomycin Vancomycin Antibacterial obtained from streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to ristocetin that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear. Glycopeptides plus ceftazidime Ceftazidime Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from cephaloridine and used especially for pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients. Cephalosporins
    • Consider clindamycin Clindamycin An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of lincomycin. Lincosamides if soil contamination (covers Bacillus Bacillus Bacillus are aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli. Two pathogenic species are Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) and B. cereus. Bacillus).
  • PPV PPV The positive predictive value is the percentage of people with a positive test result who actually have the disease among all people with a positive result, regardless of whether or not they have the disease. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests

Differential Diagnosis

  • Uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea: inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the uvea Uvea The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the choroid; ciliary body; and iris, which are continuous with each other. Eye: Anatomy. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship usually present with decreased visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam, photophobia Photophobia Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of eye diseases; migraine; subarachnoid hemorrhage; meningitis; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with depression and other mental disorders. Migraine Headache, and periocular pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways. Uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea is often idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis but may be caused by genetic, immune, traumatic, or infectious Infectious Febrile Infant etiologies. An examination may show hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea and vitritis, or macular edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema. Management depends on the etiology. Steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors are used in idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea. Infectious Infectious Febrile Infant uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented middle layer of the eye, which comprises the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The condition is categorized based on the site of disease; anterior uveitis is the most common. Diseases of the Uvea is treated with antibiotics or antiviral Antiviral Antivirals for Hepatitis B therapy.
  • Vitreous hemorrhage Vitreous Hemorrhage Hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Diseases of the Vitreous Body: the leakage of blood into the vitreous body Vitreous body The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the eye and in front of the retina. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe. Eye: Anatomy. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with dramatic vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss, floaters Floaters Chorioretinitis, visual haze Visual Haze Diseases of the Vitreous Body, and blurring. Slit-lamp examination Slit-Lamp Examination Blepharitis shows blood floating in the vitreous cavity. Management is based on the disease severity and the underlying etiology. Photocoagulation or PPV PPV The positive predictive value is the percentage of people with a positive test result who actually have the disease among all people with a positive result, regardless of whether or not they have the disease. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests may be performed.
  • Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS): a sterile Sterile Basic Procedures inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the anterior segment occurring 12–24 hours after ocular surgery, resulting as a reaction to a sterile Sterile Basic Procedures toxin or contaminant of surgery. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with ocular pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways and mildly decreased visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam. Slit-lamp examination Slit-Lamp Examination Blepharitis shows conjunctival injection, corneal edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema, and fibrin Fibrin A protein derived from fibrinogen in the presence of thrombin, which forms part of the blood clot. Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis deposition in the anterior segment. Hypopyon Hypopyon Diseases of the Uvea and intravitreal inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation are not present. Management includes the administration of topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors.
  • Corneal ulcer Corneal ulcer Corneal ulcers are classified as corneal epithelial defects. These defects are differentiated from other corneal lesions according to their depth: ulcers extend into the underlying stroma. Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers: an epithelial defect commonly associated with corneal inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation. Most corneal ulcers Corneal Ulcers Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection. Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers are infectious Infectious Febrile Infant (bacterial and viral causes). Noninfectious Noninfectious Febrile Infant ulcers may be autoimmune or due to toxins/chemical burns Burns A burn is a type of injury to the skin and deeper tissues caused by exposure to heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Burns are classified according to their depth as superficial (1st-degree), partial-thickness (2nd-degree), full-thickness (3rd-degree), and 4th-degree burns. Burns. The presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor includes conjunctival erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion, discharge, foreign-body sensation, and decreased vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam. Slit-lamp evaluation is mandatory, and the condition is considered an ocular emergency. Management is with antibiotic topical agents.

References

  1. Vaziri, K., et al. (2015). Endophthalmitis: state of the art. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.). 9, 95–108. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S76406
  2. Sheu, S. J. (2017). Endophthalmitis. Korean journal of ophthalmology. 31(4), 283–289. https://doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2017.0036
  3. Kernt, M., & Kampik, A. (2010). Endophthalmitis: Pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management, and perspectives. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.). 4, 121–135. https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s6461
  4. Relhan, N., et al. (2018). Endophthalmitis: Then and Now. American journal of ophthalmology. 187, xx–xxvii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2017.11.021
  5. Durand, M. (2021). Bacterial endophthalmitis. UpToDate. Retrieved April 25, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/bacterial-endophthalmitis
  6. Egan, D. (2018). Endophthalmitis. Medscape. Retrieved April 25, 2021, from https://reference.medscape.com/article/799431-overview
  7. Simakurthy, S., and Tripathy, K. (2021). Endophthalmitis. StatPearls. Retrieved June 2, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559079/
  8. Lowth, M. (2014). Endophthalmitis. In Tidy, C. (Ed.), Patient. Retrieved June 2, 2021, from https://patient.info/doctor/endophthalmitis

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Study on the Go

Lecturio Medical complements your studies with evidence-based learning strategies, video lectures, quiz questions, and more – all combined in one easy-to-use resource.

Learn even more with Lecturio:

Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.

User Reviews

¡Hola!

Esta página está disponible en Español.

🍪 Lecturio is using cookies to improve your user experience. By continuing use of our service you agree upon our Data Privacy Statement.

Details