Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy characterized by typical visual field Visual Field The Visual Pathway and Related Disorders defects and optic nerve Optic nerve The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the retina to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the superior colliculi and the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the central nervous system. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions atrophy Atrophy Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes. Cellular Adaptation seen as optic disc Optic disc The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve. Eye: Anatomy cupping on examination. The acute form of glaucoma is a medical emergency. Glaucoma is often, but not always, caused by increased intraocular pressure Intraocular Pressure The pressure of the fluids in the eye. Ophthalmic Exam (IOP). Frequently, there is peripheral vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss that eventually leads to loss of central vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam. The 2 main types of glaucoma are open-angle and angle-closure. Overproduction or reduced excretion of the aqueous humor Humor Defense Mechanisms leads to open-angle glaucoma. Onset of symptoms is gradual. Angle-closure glaucoma results from blockage in the angle (of the iris Iris The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium. Eye: Anatomy and cornea Cornea The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous corneal epithelium; bowman membrane; corneal stroma; descemet membrane; and mesenchymal corneal endothelium. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. Eye: Anatomy), preventing drainage of the aqueous fluid. Diagnosis involves IOP determination (tonometry) and angle visualization with slit lamp Slit Lamp A microscope with a light source that can be projected into a linear beam. It allows cross-sectional viewing of the aqueous humor; conjuncteiva; cornea; eyelids; iris; and lens of the eye. Ophthalmic Exam (gonioscopy). Treatment includes topical medications that reduce IOP, and eye surgery.
Last updated: 8 Jan, 2021
The differential diagnoses of glaucoma include the following conditions:
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