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Adult Health Maintenance

Health care maintenance is the examination of asymptomatic individuals and screening Screening Preoperative Care for any occult disease. The process provides an opportunity for disease prevention and early diagnosis and the possibility of preventing progression and complications. During a health care maintenance examination, the primary physician conducts a thorough personal, social, and family history with a comprehensive systematic review to uncover any relevant risk factors. A physical examination is performed, and relevant screening Screening Preoperative Care exams are recommended. Screening Screening Preoperative Care tests cover malignancies (breast, prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate, Seminal, and Bulbourethral Glands: Anatomy – BROKEN, colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy, lung) and other conditions, including diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Immunizations are administered if indicated. Different interventions are discussed to help reduce health risk factors, and health goals are set to determine future follow-up and monitoring.

Last updated: 25 Aug, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

General Assessment

History

  • Obtain information on any patient concerns.
  • Past medical history: Include any conditions being treated currently or in the past. 
  • Past surgical history: Include inpatient and outpatient procedures.
  • Allergies Allergies A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder. Selective IgA Deficiency: Note the allergy Allergy An abnormal adaptive immune response that may or may not involve antigen-specific IgE Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction and reaction.
  • Current medications: 
    • Dose, frequency, and reason for taking
    • Ask about supplements and over-the-counter medications. 
  • Family history: 
    • Any known conditions in both 1st-degree (parent, child, sibling) and 2nd-degree relatives (grandparents, uncles/aunts, cousins)
    • If deceased, include cause of death if known.
  • Social history:
    • Marital status and number of children
    • Household/home environment (of everyone who lives in the home)
    • Use of alcohol, tobacco, and recreational drugs
    • Employment/occupation
    • Diet and physical activity 
    • Sexual activity: orientation Orientation Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person. Psychiatric Assessment, number of partners, use of protection
  • Review of systems: questions regarding possible symptoms (past or present) in every organ system

Physical exam

  • Vital signs: BP, heart rate Heart rate The number of times the heart ventricles contract per unit of time, usually per minute. Cardiac Physiology, temperature, respiratory rate Respiratory rate The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (respiration) per unit time, usually per minute. Pulmonary Examination + oxygen saturation Oxygen Saturation Basic Procedures
  • General measurements:
    • Height
    • Weight
    • BMI BMI An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of body weight to body height. Bmi=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). Bmi correlates with body fat (adipose tissue). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, bmi falls into these categories: below 18. 5 (underweight); 18. 5-24. 9 (normal); 25. 0-29. 9 (overweight); 30. 0 and above (obese). Obesity (calculated as kg/m²):
      • Below normal: < 18.5
      • Normal: ≥ 18.5 to < 25
      • Overweight: ≥ 25 and < 30
      • Obese: ≥ 30
    • Waist circumference Waist circumference Measure of abdominal obesity and is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. Obesity (in some instances)
  • Constitutional: 
    • Alertness
    • Appearance (e.g., well nourished, thin, ill appearing, unkempt)
  • Head, eyes, ears, nose Nose The nose is the human body’s primary organ of smell and functions as part of the upper respiratory system. The nose may be best known for inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide, but it also contributes to other important functions, such as tasting. The anatomy of the nose can be divided into the external nose and the nasal cavity. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Anatomy, throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy (HEENT): 
    • Head lesions
    • Conjunctiva Conjunctiva The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball. Eye: Anatomy, eye motility Motility The motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal Motility, and reactivity
    • External ear and otoscopic exam, including gross hearing
    • Oral mucosa Oral mucosa Lining of the oral cavity, including mucosa on the gums; the palate; the lip; the cheek; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations. Stomatitis, throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy, dental features
    • Nasal appearance, presence of lesions or congestion
  • Neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess: lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy, thyromegaly, and ease of mobility Mobility Examination of the Breast 
  • Cardiovascular: any murmurs, abnormalities in heart rate Heart rate The number of times the heart ventricles contract per unit of time, usually per minute. Cardiac Physiology or rhythm, extremity edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema, and weakened or absent peripheral pulses
  • Respiratory: respiratory effort and any abnormalities on auscultation
  • Breasts Breasts The breasts are found on the anterior thoracic wall and consist of mammary glands surrounded by connective tissue. The mammary glands are modified apocrine sweat glands that produce milk, which serves as nutrition for infants. Breasts are rudimentary and usually nonfunctioning in men. Breasts: Anatomy: any lumps/masses, tenderness, abnormal coloration, or nipple Nipple The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands. Examination of the Breast discharge; include axillary findings
  • Gastrointestinal: bowel sounds, masses, tenderness, liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy/ spleen Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, superior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach at the level of the 9th-11th ribs just below the diaphragm. The spleen is highly vascular and acts as an important blood filter, cleansing the blood of pathogens and damaged erythrocytes. Spleen: Anatomy enlargement, swelling Swelling Inflammation/distension, and hernias; include rectal exam
  • Genitourinary: bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess, pelvic exam
  • Musculoskeletal: Assess mobility Mobility Examination of the Breast of joints in upper and lower extremities as well as the spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy.
  • Neurologic: Assess cranial nerve function, strength/weakness in extremities, and deep tendon reflexes Deep Tendon Reflexes Neurological Examination.
  • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions: Assess for any new or changing lesions or rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Psychiatric: Assess orientation Orientation Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person. Psychiatric Assessment to place and time, mood, temperament, and judgment Judgment The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation. Psychiatric Assessment.

Screening for Metabolic Disorders

Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension

  • The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends BP measurement in all adults ≥ 18 years of age.
  • Ensure appropriate cuff size for accurate measurement.
  • Normal BP: < 120/80 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg
  • Check BP at least every 2 years or with each visit.
  • Annual screening Screening Preoperative Care is recommended for the following individuals:
    • Age ≥ 40 years of age 
    • High-risk factors such as being African American or overweight/obese
    • BP of 120–139/80–89 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg
  • Confirm measurements outside the clinical setting before initiating medication.
Table: Categories of high BP
Category Systolic BP Diastolic BP
Elevated BP 120–129 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg AND < 80 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg
Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension stage 1 Stage 1 Trypanosoma brucei/African trypanosomiasis 130–139 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg OR 80–89 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg
Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension stage 2 ≥ 140 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg OR ≥ 90 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg
If there is a disparity between the stages of systolic and diastolic BP, the higher number determines the stage.
A healthcare professional performing blood pressure monitoring on a patient

Blood pressure check by a health care professional

Image: “A healthcare professional performing blood pressure monitoring on a patient” by rawpixel.com. License: CC0

Dyslipidemia

Dyslipidemia is defined as lipid values associated with an increased risk of and/or presence of disease for which the initiation of lipid-lowering therapy will be of benefit.

  • USPSTF recommendations for lipid screening Screening Preoperative Care:
    • Screen individuals between 40 and 75 years of age.
    • No recommendations for or against screening Screening Preoperative Care for dyslipidemia in individuals < 35 years of age
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism testing at age ≥ 20 years.
  • It is still recommended to obtain baseline lipid testing in young adults at initiation of care with an adult primary care provider. Repeat screening Screening Preoperative Care is guided by the patient’s cardiovascular disease risk:
    • In high-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship (history of diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, smoker, obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity, family history of premature Premature Childbirth before 37 weeks of pregnancy (259 days from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period, or 245 days after fertilization). Necrotizing Enterocolitis heart disease):
      • Follow-up lipid in men between the ages of 25 and 30 years
      • Follow-up lipid in women between the ages of 30 and 35 years
    • In low-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship:
      • Follow-up lipid in men at age 35 years
      • Follow-up lipid in women at age 45 years
  • Assessment of cardiovascular disease risk and lipid levels are recommended to be repeated:
    • Generally every 5 years 
    • Every 3 years if near the threshold Threshold Minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential (an all-or-none response) Skeletal Muscle Contraction for treatment

Cardiovascular disease risk

  • Statin for primary prevention:
    • Addition of statins Statins Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition results in lowered intrahepatocytic cholesterol formation, resulting in up-regulation of LDL receptors and, ultimately, lowering levels of serum LDL and triglycerides. Statins for primary prevention is influenced by the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, which is calculated as a percentage based on:
      • Patient age
      • Systolic BP
      • Total cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism and high-density lipoprotein High-density lipoprotein A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1. 063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is apolipoprotein A-I. HDL also shuttle apolipoproteins C and apolipoproteins E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. Hdl plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol Metabolism cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism
      • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension on medications
      • Cigarette smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
      • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Low-to-moderate-dose statin is recommended by the USPSTF for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults aged 40 to 75 years with:
      • ≥ 1 cardiovascular disease risk factor (dyslipidemia, diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, or smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases)
      • A 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk ≥ 10%
  • Aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) for primary prevention:
    • Low-dose daily aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) use is recommended by the USPSTF in adults 50–59 years of age to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with:
      •  > 10% 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk
      • No increased risk for bleeding
      • Life expectancy Life expectancy Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live. Population Pyramids ≥ 10 years
      • Willingness to take low-dose aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) daily for ≥ 10 years
    • After age 59 years, discussion with the clinician Clinician A physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or another health professional who is directly involved in patient care and has a professional relationship with patients. Clinician–Patient Relationship is recommended to determine if low-dose aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) is ideal way to begin preventing cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus

  • USPSTF recommends checking glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance levels in overweight or obese adults aged 40–70 years of age via 1 of the following tests:
    • Fasting glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance
    • HbA1c HbA1c Products of non-enzymatic reactions between glucose and hemoglobin a, occurring as a minor fraction of the hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes. Hemoglobin a1c is hemoglobin a with glucose covalently bound to the terminal valine of the beta chain. Glycated hemoglobin a is used as an index of the average blood sugar level over a lifetime of erythrocytes. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Oral glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics test 
  • Normal values:
    • Fasting glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance < 100 mg/dL
    • HbA1c HbA1c Products of non-enzymatic reactions between glucose and hemoglobin a, occurring as a minor fraction of the hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes. Hemoglobin a1c is hemoglobin a with glucose covalently bound to the terminal valine of the beta chain. Glycated hemoglobin a is used as an index of the average blood sugar level over a lifetime of erythrocytes. Diabetes Mellitus < 5.7%
    • Oral glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics test < 140 mg/dL
  • Impaired glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (prediabetes):
    • Fasting glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance: 100–125 mg/dL
    • HbA1c HbA1c Products of non-enzymatic reactions between glucose and hemoglobin a, occurring as a minor fraction of the hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes. Hemoglobin a1c is hemoglobin a with glucose covalently bound to the terminal valine of the beta chain. Glycated hemoglobin a is used as an index of the average blood sugar level over a lifetime of erythrocytes. Diabetes Mellitus: 5.7–6.4%
    • Oral glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics test: 140–199 mg/dL
  • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Fasting glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance ≥ 126 mg/dL
    • HbA1c HbA1c Products of non-enzymatic reactions between glucose and hemoglobin a, occurring as a minor fraction of the hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes. Hemoglobin a1c is hemoglobin a with glucose covalently bound to the terminal valine of the beta chain. Glycated hemoglobin a is used as an index of the average blood sugar level over a lifetime of erythrocytes. Diabetes Mellitus ≥ 6.5%
    • Oral glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics test ≥ 200 mg/dL
  • Optimal screening Screening Preoperative Care time is debatable, but suggested to re-screen at least every 3 years
  • Consider starting screening Screening Preoperative Care at an earlier age in persons with the following risk factors:
    • Family history of diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • History of gestational diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • History of other conditions associated with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus:
      • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
      • Acanthosis nigricans Acanthosis nigricans A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Diabetes Mellitus
      • Dyslipidemia
      • Polycystic ovarian syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women, affecting nearly 5%-10% of women in the age group. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation leading to oligomenorrhea (or amenorrhea), and metabolic dysfunction. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
    • Member of certain groups: 
      • Native Americans
      • Asian Americans 
      • Native Hawaiians/South Pacific Islanders
      • Hispanics
      • African Americans

Screening for Malignancies

Cervical cancer Cervical cancer Cervical cancer, or invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC), is the 3rd most common cancer in women in the world, with > 50% of the cases being fatal. In the United States, ICC is the 13th most common cancer and the cause of < 3% of all cancer deaths due to the slow progression of precursor lesions and, more importantly, effective cancer screening. Cervical Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care

USPSTF recommendations:

  • Routine cytology screening Screening Preoperative Care every 3 years starting at age 21 years, regardless of sexual history 
  • For ages 21–29 years: cytology alone every 3 years
  • For ages 30–65 years, options are:
    • Cervical cytology Cervical cytology A procedure in which ectocervical and endocervical cells are collected to evaluate the transformation zone (area at risk for cervical cancer). Cervical Cancer Screening alone every 3 years
    • High-risk HPV HPV Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a nonenveloped, circular, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Papillomaviridae family. Humans are the only reservoir, and transmission occurs through close skin-to-skin or sexual contact. Human papillomaviruses infect basal epithelial cells and can affect cell-regulatory proteins to result in cell proliferation. Papillomavirus (HPV) every 5 years
    • Cytology with high-risk HPV HPV Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a nonenveloped, circular, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Papillomaviridae family. Humans are the only reservoir, and transmission occurs through close skin-to-skin or sexual contact. Human papillomaviruses infect basal epithelial cells and can affect cell-regulatory proteins to result in cell proliferation. Papillomavirus (HPV) co-testing every 5 years 

Screening Screening Preoperative Care is not recommended in:

  •  Women < 21 years of age, regardless of sexual activity
  • Women > 65 years of age who have had adequate screening Screening Preoperative Care previously and are not high risk
Pap smear showing cervical cancer

Papanicolaou (Pap) smear showing cervical cancer Cervical cancer Cervical cancer, or invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC), is the 3rd most common cancer in women in the world, with > 50% of the cases being fatal. In the United States, ICC is the 13th most common cancer and the cause of < 3% of all cancer deaths due to the slow progression of precursor lesions and, more importantly, effective cancer screening. Cervical Cancer: Pap staining in a patient with squamous carcinoma, exhibiting clusters of cohesive cells with marked nuclear enlargement, pleomorphisms, hyperchromatism, and keratinization (X40)

Image: “ Pap smear Pap smear Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain. Cervical Cancer Screening showing cervical cancer Cervical cancer Cervical cancer, or invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC), is the 3rd most common cancer in women in the world, with > 50% of the cases being fatal. In the United States, ICC is the 13th most common cancer and the cause of < 3% of all cancer deaths due to the slow progression of precursor lesions and, more importantly, effective cancer screening. Cervical Cancer” by Department of Pathology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), P,O, Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. License: CC BY 2.0

Breast cancer Breast cancer Breast cancer is a disease characterized by malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the breast. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Breast Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care

USPSTF recommendations for average-risk individuals:

USPSTF recommendations for high-risk individuals:

  • High-risk individuals include women with:
    • Personal history of breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer
    • Ancestry (associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2)
  • Familial risk assessment Risk assessment The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. Preoperative Care tool is recommended.
  • If positive, a referral for genetic counseling Genetic Counseling An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered. Myotonic Dystrophies and possibly genetic testing Genetic Testing Detection of a mutation; genotype; karyotype; or specific alleles associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing. Myotonic Dystrophies should be provided.
  • Timing of screening Screening Preoperative Care modalities depend on the personal and family history of genetic mutations Genetic Mutations Carcinogenesis, high-risk syndromes, and history of chest radiotherapy.
  • Modalities include:
  • Risk reduction:
    • Chemoprevention: risk-reducing medications ( tamoxifen Tamoxifen One of the selective estrogen receptor modulators with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the endometrium. Antiestrogens or aromatase inhibitors Aromatase inhibitors Compounds that inhibit aromatase in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones. Antiestrogens) recommended for women ≥ 35 years of age
    • Prophylactic mastectomy Prophylactic mastectomy Surgical removal of one or both breasts to prevent or reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in persons who may be predisposed. Breast Cancer Screening: offered to those with high-risk genetic mutations Genetic Mutations Carcinogenesis (BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers Carriers The Cell: Cell Membrane)
Woman receiving mammogram

Woman having a mammogram Mammogram Fibrocystic Change

Image: “Woman Receives Mammogram Mammogram Fibrocystic Change” by Rhoda Baer. License: Public Domain

Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care

The USPSTF recommends screening Screening Preoperative Care for colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in adults to be initiated at age 45 years.

Screening Screening Preoperative Care methods include:

  • Annual high- sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques guaiac-based fecal occult blood test Fecal occult blood test Colorectal Cancer ( HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars-gFOBT)
  • Annual fecal immunochemical test Fecal immunochemical test Stool-based test – Measures hemoglobin in the stool Colorectal Cancer Screening (FIT)
  • Stool DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure-FIT test every 3 years
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure. Colorectal Cancer Screening every 5 years (limited to distal part of the colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy)
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure. Colorectal Cancer Screening every 10 years plus annual FIT
  • Colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening every 10 years
  • CT colonography CT colonography A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening every 5 years
  • A positive screening Screening Preoperative Care stool-based test, CT colonography CT colonography A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening, or sigmoidoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure. Colorectal Cancer Screening warrant a colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening.

Individuals requiring more frequent screening Screening Preoperative Care and before 45 years of age (depending on the condition):

  • Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer 
  • Individuals with hereditary colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, with influence from environmental factors. Colorectal Cancer syndrome
  • Personal history of inflammatory bowel disease
  • History of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma to the abdomen or pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles. The pelvic girdle, composed of 2 “hip” bones and the sacrum, is a ring-like bony structure of the axial skeleton that links the vertebral column with the lower extremities. Pelvis: Anatomy

The USPSTF recommends daily low-dose aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) for primary prevention of CRC (and cardiovascular disease) for individuals aged 50–59 years who have:

  • No bleeding risk 
  • At least 10 years of life expectancy Life expectancy Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live. Population Pyramids
  • ≥ 10% risk of 10-year cardiovascular disease risk
Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening: This colon Colon The large intestines constitute the last portion of the digestive system. The large intestine consists of the cecum, appendix, colon (with ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments), rectum, and anal canal. The primary function of the colon is to remove water and compact the stool prior to expulsion from the body via the rectum and anal canal. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care procedure is generally recommended to start at the age of 50 years (45 years based on American Cancer Society recommendations) for average-risk individuals.

Image: “ Colonoscopy Colonoscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon. Colorectal Cancer Screening procedure” by United States Navy. License: Public Domain

Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer is the malignant transformation of lung tissue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases are associated with long-term smoking. The disease is generally classified histologically as either small cell lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest discomfort. Lung Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care

  • Screening Screening Preoperative Care recommendation: annual low-dose CT of the lung
  • Patient selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions based on organization recommendations:
    • USPSTF 2020 recommends lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer is the malignant transformation of lung tissue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases are associated with long-term smoking. The disease is generally classified histologically as either small cell lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest discomfort. Lung Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care for (must meet all criteria):
      • Adults aged 50–80 years
      • 20 pack-year smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases history
      • Current smoker or has quit within the past 15 years
    • The American Cancer Society recommends screening Screening Preoperative Care for (must meet all criteria):
      • Adults aged 55–74 years
      • 30 pack-year smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases history
      • Current smoker or has quit within the past 15 years
    • Other organizations have similar recommendations, although there is variability in the age range.
Low-dose ct for lung cancer screening adenocarcinoma

Low-dose CT screening Screening Preoperative Care image (left) and follow-up diagnostic CT image (right) for a patient diagnosed with adenocarcinoma

Image: “Low-dose CT scan screening Screening Preoperative Care for lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer is the malignant transformation of lung tissue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The majority of cases are associated with long-term smoking. The disease is generally classified histologically as either small cell lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest discomfort. Lung Cancer: comparison of images and radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma doses between low-dose CT and follow-up standard diagnostic CT” by Ono K, Hiraoka T, Ono A, Komatsu E, Shigenaga T, Takaki H, Maeda T, Ogusu H, Yoshida S, Fukushima K, Kai M. License: CC BY 2.0

Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men. In the United States, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is approximately 11%, and the lifetime risk of death is 2.5%. Prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer that takes years, or even decades, to develop into advanced disease. Prostate Cancer screening Screening Preoperative Care

  • USPSTF recommendations:
    • Men aged 55–69 years should: 
      • Discuss potential benefits and harms with their clinician Clinician A physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or another health professional who is directly involved in patient care and has a professional relationship with patients. Clinician–Patient Relationship
      • Consider age, family history, race/ethnicity, comorbid conditions, and life expectancy Life expectancy Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live. Population Pyramids
      • Make an individual decision about screening Screening Preoperative Care
    • Men ≥ 70 years: 
      • Benefits do not outweigh the expected harms.
      • Should not be routinely screened for prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men. In the United States, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is approximately 11%, and the lifetime risk of death is 2.5%. Prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer that takes years, or even decades, to develop into advanced disease. Prostate Cancer
    • Men who do not express a preference for screening Screening Preoperative Care should not be screened.
  • PSA PSA A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer blood test alone recommended for screening Screening Preoperative Care, if elected, every 1–2 years
  • Digital rectal examination Digital Rectal Examination A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the rectum and may use the other hand to press on the lower abdomen or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the prostate gland in men, and the uterus and ovaries in women. Prostate Cancer Screening ( DRE DRE A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the rectum and may use the other hand to press on the lower abdomen or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the prostate gland in men, and the uterus and ovaries in women. Prostate Cancer Screening) is not recommended as a screening Screening Preoperative Care tool with or without PSA PSA A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer test.

Screening for Sexually Transmitted and Blood-borne Diseases

HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs screening Screening Preoperative Care and prevention

The USPSTF recommends screening Screening Preoperative Care for HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs in:

  • All individuals aged 15–65 years
  • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship < 15 years of age or > 65 years of age who are high risk 
  • Men who have sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria with men (screened annually or even more frequently depending on risks)
  • All pregnant women

An HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs pre- exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment prophylaxis Prophylaxis Cephalosporins (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is recommended for high-risk individuals.

Chlamydia Chlamydia Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria. They lack a peptidoglycan layer and are best visualized using Giemsa stain. The family of Chlamydiaceae comprises 3 pathogens that can infect humans: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Chlamydia and gonorrhea Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the gram-negative bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae). Gonorrhea may be asymptomatic but commonly manifests as cervicitis or urethritis with less common presentations such as proctitis, conjunctivitis, or pharyngitis. Gonorrhea screening Screening Preoperative Care

  • Recommended for all sexually active women ≤ 24 years of age
  • Recommended for older women who are considered higher risk (new sexual partner, multiple sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria partners, unprotected sex Unprotected sex HIV Infection and AIDS in non-monogamous relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship)

Other diseases

  • Syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis: recommended for persons in high-risk groups (history of previous sexually transmitted disease Sexually Transmitted Disease Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that spread either by vaginal intercourse, anal sex, or oral sex. Symptoms and signs may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, dysuria, skin lesions (e.g., warts, ulcers) on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. Some infections can lead to infertility and chronic debilitating disease. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), multiple sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria partners, men who have sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria with men)
  • Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, which belongs to the Orthohepadnavirus genus and the Hepadnaviridae family. Most individuals with acute HBV infection are asymptomatic or have mild, self-limiting symptoms. Chronic infection can be asymptomatic or create hepatic inflammation, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B Virus screening Screening Preoperative Care: recommended for those in high-risk groups (injection drug users, engagement in high-risk sexual activities)
  • Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus screening Screening Preoperative Care: all adults age 18–79 years

Miscellaneous Screenings

Alcohol and tobacco use

  • Tobacco/cigarette use:
    • Inquire about tobacco use in any form.
    • Discuss health risks, determine readiness for cessation, and offer interventions to aid in cessation.
  • Alcohol abuse/misuse:
    • Inquire about amounts and frequency of alcohol use in ≥ 18 years of age.
    • Further screening Screening Preoperative Care can be done via the CAGE questionnaire or similar screening Screening Preoperative Care tool:
      • Ever feel the need to Cut down on drinking?
      • Ever feel Annoyed by others criticizing your drinking?
      • Ever feel Guilty about your drinking?
      • Have you ever needed a drink first thing in the morning (Eye-opener) to steady yourself or combat a hangover?
    • If screen is positive, behavioral counseling interventions are recommended.

Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity

  • BMI BMI An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of body weight to body height. Bmi=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). Bmi correlates with body fat (adipose tissue). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, bmi falls into these categories: below 18. 5 (underweight); 18. 5-24. 9 (normal); 25. 0-29. 9 (overweight); 30. 0 and above (obese). Obesity should be a part of health maintenance examination.
  • Individuals with BMI BMI An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of body weight to body height. Bmi=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). Bmi correlates with body fat (adipose tissue). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, bmi falls into these categories: below 18. 5 (underweight); 18. 5-24. 9 (normal); 25. 0-29. 9 (overweight); 30. 0 and above (obese). Obesity > 30 should be offered behavior interventions (e.g., nutrition consult) and counseling to promote weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery.

Domestic violence and depression

  • Intimate partner violence Intimate partner violence A pattern of assaultive and coercive behavior by an individual against their partner or spouse that may include physical injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive isolation, stalking, deprivation, intimidation, and reproductive coercion. Sexual Abuse:
    • Screen all women of child-bearing age.
    • If screen is positive, referral to interventional services should be provided. 
  • Depression:
    • USPSTF recommends screening Screening Preoperative Care all adults (including pregnant and postpartum women) for depression using a validated tool.
    • If positive, assess for suicidality and provide further evaluation and management.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic aneurysm An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of aorta. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

  • Only in men aged 65–75 years who have any history of smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases tobacco 
  • 1-time ultrasonography
Ultrasonography of abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic aneurysm An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of aorta. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms screening Screening Preoperative Care: abdominal ultrasonography in the sagittal plane Sagittal plane Anterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy showing an abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic aneurysm An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of aorta. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms with axial Axial Computed Tomography (CT) plane diameter (red dashed line), and maximal diameter in the sagittal plane Sagittal plane Anterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy (dotted yellow line)

Image: “Ultrasonography of abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic aneurysm An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of aorta. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms” by Mikael Häggström, M.D. License: CC0

Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis refers to a decrease in bone mass and density leading to an increased number of fractures. There are 2 forms of osteoporosis: primary, which is commonly postmenopausal or senile; and secondary, which is a manifestation of immobilization, underlying medical disorders, or long-term use of certain medications. Osteoporosis

  • Recommended for women aged ≥ 65 years for prevention of osteoporotic fractures
  • Consider screening Screening Preoperative Care in postmenopausal women < 65 years of age if considered high risk (smoker, alcohol abuse).
  • Bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types mineral density screening Screening Preoperative Care using DEXA DEXA Osteoporosis scan
  • There are conflicting data regarding recommendations for men:
    • USPSTF states that there is not enough evidence to support screening Screening Preoperative Care in men.
    • Other organizations (such as the Endocrine Society) recommend screening Screening Preoperative Care:
      •  All men > 70 years of age
      • Men 50–70 years of age with risk factors (glucocorticoid therapy, androgen deprivation treatment for prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men. In the United States, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is approximately 11%, and the lifetime risk of death is 2.5%. Prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer that takes years, or even decades, to develop into advanced disease. Prostate Cancer, hypogonadism Hypogonadism Hypogonadism is a condition characterized by reduced or no sex hormone production by the testes or ovaries. Hypogonadism can result from primary (hypergonadotropic) or secondary (hypogonadotropic) failure. Symptoms include infertility, increased risk of osteoporosis, erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and regression (or absence) of secondary sexual characteristics. Hypogonadism, primary hyperparathyroidism Primary hyperparathyroidism A condition of abnormally elevated output of parathyroid hormone due to parathyroid hyperplasia or parathyroid neoplasms. It is characterized by the combination of hypercalcemia, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 synthesis, and increased bone resorption. Hyperparathyroidism)
Morbus fabry dexa

Dual-energy X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests absorptiometry assessment of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types mineral density of the femoral neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess (A) and the lumbar spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy (B):
T scores of –4.2 and –4.3 (consistent with osteoporosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis refers to a decrease in bone mass and density leading to an increased number of fractures. There are 2 forms of osteoporosis: primary, which is commonly postmenopausal or senile; and secondary, which is a manifestation of immobilization, underlying medical disorders, or long-term use of certain medications. Osteoporosis) were found at the hip (A) and lumbar spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy (B), respectively, in a 53-year-old man affected with Fabry disease Fabry disease Fabry disease (FD), also known as Anderson-Fabry disease, is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder and the 2nd most common of the lysosomal storage disorders. Fabry disease is caused by a deficiency in the alpha-galactosidase enzyme (alpha-Gal A), resulting in the accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in lysosomes. Fabry Disease.

Image: “ DEXA DEXA Osteoporosis” by Dr Caroline LEBRETON, CHU Raymond Poincaré, Garches, France. License: CC BY 2.0

Vaccinations

Influenza Influenza Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family and the causative organisms of influenza, a highly contagious febrile respiratory disease. There are 3 primary influenza viruses (A, B, and C) and various subtypes, which are classified based on their virulent surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza typically presents with a fever, myalgia, headache, and symptoms of an upper respiratory infection. Influenza Viruses/Influenza vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination

Vaccines:

  • Inactivated vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination
  • Live attenuated vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination (intranasal): 
    • Only approved for use in individuals 2–49 years of age
    • Should not be given to individuals who are pregnant, immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis, have functional or anatomic asplenia Anatomic Asplenia Asplenia, or have cochlear implants

Influenza Influenza Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family and the causative organisms of influenza, a highly contagious febrile respiratory disease. There are 3 primary influenza viruses (A, B, and C) and various subtypes, which are classified based on their virulent surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza typically presents with a fever, myalgia, headache, and symptoms of an upper respiratory infection. Influenza Viruses/Influenza vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination is recommended to be given annually to all adults ≥ 18 years of age unless they have a history of allergic reactions Allergic Reactions Type I hypersensitivity reaction against plasma proteins in donor blood Transfusion Reactions to components.

Tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus, diphtheria Diphtheria Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that most often results in respiratory disease with membranous inflammation of the pharynx, sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and weakness. The hallmark sign is a sheet of thick, gray material covering the back of the throat. Diphtheria, and pertussis Pertussis Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a potentially life-threatening highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. The disease has 3 clinical stages, the second and third of which are characterized by an intense paroxysmal cough, an inspiratory whoop, and post-tussive vomiting. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination

Vaccines:

  • Tdap
  • Td

In the United States:

  • Tdap or Td is given intramuscularly every 10 years to all adults with complete prior immunization to tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus and diphtheria Diphtheria Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that most often results in respiratory disease with membranous inflammation of the pharynx, sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and weakness. The hallmark sign is a sheet of thick, gray material covering the back of the throat. Diphtheria.
  • If the adult has not been vaccinated against tetanus Tetanus Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil that enters the body through a contaminated wound. C. tetani produces a neurotoxin that blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters and causes prolonged tonic muscle contractions. Tetanus and diphtheria Diphtheria Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that most often results in respiratory disease with membranous inflammation of the pharynx, sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and weakness. The hallmark sign is a sheet of thick, gray material covering the back of the throat. Diphtheria, a 3- vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination series is initiated with Tdap as the preferred 1st dose, followed by Td or Tdap.

Older adults:

  • Likely to have decreased antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions either from not having the initial vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination or from not receiving the subsequent booster doses
  • Thus, Tdap is important for all older adults, especially those in contact with children under 1 year of age: 
    • Tdap may be given 1 time, to replace the Td booster.
    • Tdap can be administered regardless of the interval since the last Td booster.

Special indications:

  • 1-dose Tdap is also given with each pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care.
  • 1-dose Td or Tdap is also given in the setting of severe wound or burn, if it has been at least 5 years since the last booster.

Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus, mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps, and rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination

Vaccines:

  • Live virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology vaccines against measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus, mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps, and rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus
  • 2 formulations:
    • Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus, mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps, rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus ( MMR MMR A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the base pair mismatch and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. Lynch syndrome)
    • Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus, mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps, rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus, varicella (MMRV)

General principles:

  • Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus and mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps component:
    • If born before 1957, individuals are generally considered immune to measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus and mumps Mumps Mumps is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is typically a disease of childhood, which manifests initially with fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and a general feeling of malaise, and is classically followed by parotitis. Mumps Virus/Mumps
    • This does not apply to health care personnel, who need documentation Documentation Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature. It often involves authenticating or validating information. Advance Directives of immunity.
  • Rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus component:  
    • Immunity in adulthood is not guaranteed.
    • Women of childbearing age should have lab testing for immunity.

Recommendations:

  • 1 dose is recommended for most adults if with no evidence of immunity and/or born after 1957.
  • 2 doses recommended for certain populations if with no evidence of immunity:
    • Health care personnel
    • Students in postsecondary educational institutions
    • International travellers
    • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs (without severe immunocompromise)
    • Hematopoietic cell transplant patients Transplant patients Individuals receiving tissues or organs transferred from another individual of the same or different species, or from within the same individual. Human Herpesvirus 8 2 years after transplant and without immunosuppressive therapy or active graft-versus-host disease Graft-versus-host disease The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the graft vs host reaction. Transfusion Reactions
  • Women of childbearing age:
    • Those with no evidence of immunity should get vaccinated while not pregnant.
    • Those who are pregnant and with no evidence of immunity should be vaccinated upon completion of pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care.

Human papillomavirus Human papillomavirus Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a nonenveloped, circular, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Papillomaviridae family. Humans are the only reservoir, and transmission occurs through close skin-to-skin or sexual contact. Human papillomaviruses infect basal epithelial cells and can affect cell-regulatory proteins to result in cell proliferation. Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination

  • In the United States, only Gardasil Gardasil Condylomata Acuminata (Genital Warts) 9 (9-valent vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination) is available.
  • Indicated for adults up to age 26 years: 
    • If received a single dose between ages 9–14 years and/or a 2nd dose was given less than 5 months apart, 1 more dose is needed.
    • If no previous vaccinations given before 15 years of age, 3 doses should be given at 0, 1–2, and 6 months of age. 
  • Shared decision-making recommended regarding vaccinating adults aged 27–45 years
  • Not approved for use in individuals > 45 years of age

Pneumococcal vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination

Vaccines:

  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination (PPSV) 23: contains 23 pneumococcal polysaccharides Polysaccharides Basics of Carbohydrates
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination (PCV): made of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides Polysaccharides Basics of Carbohydrates
    • PCV13: 13 capsular types
    • PCV7 (Prevnar7): 7 capsular types

In adults aged 19–64 years with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection and complications, a dose of PPSV 23 is indicated for those with:

  • Heart disease (not including hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension)
  • Chronic liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy disease
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Alcoholism Alcoholism A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome
  • Cigarette smoker

In adults aged 19–64 years of age, both PCV13 and PPSV23 are recommended for individuals:

  • Who have increased risk for meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis:
    • CSF leak Csf Leak Le Fort Fractures
    • Cochlear implant Cochlear implant Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the cochlea, the hair cells may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the cochlear nerve to create sound sensation. Hearing Loss
    • History of pneumococcal meningitis Meningitis Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes of the brain, and spinal cord. The causes of meningitis are varied, with the most common being bacterial or viral infection. The classic presentation of meningitis is a triad of fever, altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity. Meningitis
  • Schedule: PCV13 then 1 dose of PPSV23 ≥ 8 weeks after

In adults aged 19–64 years of age, PCV13 and 2 doses of PPSV23 are recommended in individuals with:

  • Impaired splenic function ( asplenia Asplenia Asplenia is the absence of splenic tissue or function and can stem from several factors ranging from congenital to iatrogenic. There is a distinction between anatomic asplenia, which is due to the surgical removal of the spleen, and functional asplenia, which is due to a condition that leads to splenic atrophy, infarct, congestion, or infiltrative disease. Asplenia, splenectomy Splenectomy Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen. Rupture of the Spleen, sick cell disease, hyposplenism Hyposplenism Asplenia)
  • Other immunocompromising diseases:
  • Schedule: PCV13, then 1st PPSV23 ≥ 8 weeks after; 2nd PPSV23 5 years after 1st PPSV23 dose

In all immunocompetent adults ≥ 65 years of age:

  • 1 dose of PPSV23 is recommended.
  • If PPSV23 was given before age 65 years, give due dose at least 5 years after the prior administration.

PCV13 in adults ≥ 65 years of age:

  • Recommended for those who have not received the vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination previously and if with immunocompromising diseases and impaired splenic function
  • PCV13-type of disease has declined significantly in the ≥ 65-year-old age group because of pediatric vaccinations.
  • Thus, for immunocompetent patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship, shared decision-making is recommended regarding PCV13 vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination.
  • If it is decided that PCV13 is to be administered, PCV13 is given 1st followed by PPSV23 after ≥ 1 year.

Varicella and herpes zoster Herpes Zoster Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus in the Herpesviridae family. Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) is more common in adults and occurs due to the reactivation of VZV. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination

Varicella vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination:

  • Formulations:
    • Single- antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination varicella vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination (live)
    • MMRV
  • Indicated for adults with no history of chickenpox Chickenpox A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox or evidence of immunity
  • Single- antigen Antigen Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. Vaccination vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination: 2 doses given, 1 to 2 months apart

Herpes zoster Herpes Zoster Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus in the Herpesviridae family. Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) is more common in adults and occurs due to the reactivation of VZV. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination:

  • Vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination
    • Shingrix (recombinant zoster vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination)
    • 2 doses, given 2 to 6 months apart
  • Indicated for adults ≥ 50 years of age to decrease risk of developing herpes zoster Herpes Zoster Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus in the Herpesviridae family. Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) is more common in adults and occurs due to the reactivation of VZV. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox ( shingles Shingles Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus in the Herpesviridae family. Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) is more common in adults and occurs due to the reactivation of VZV. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox) and postherpetic neuralgia Postherpetic neuralgia Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial skin, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus. The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are herpes zoster oticus; and herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists. Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
  • Vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination should be given irrespective of previous vaccination Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a substance to induce the immune system to develop protection against a disease. Unlike passive immunization, which involves the administration of pre-performed antibodies, active immunization constitutes the administration of a vaccine to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies. Vaccination or disease history.

Other vaccines

  • Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a nonenveloped virus of the Picornaviridae family with single-stranded RNA. HAV causes an acute, highly contagious hepatitis with unspecific prodromal symptoms such as fever and malaise followed by jaundice and elevated liver transaminases. Hepatitis A Virus vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination:
    • 2-dose series recommended for high-risk individuals
    • Indications: chronic liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy disease, IV drug user, travel to endemic areas
  • Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, which belongs to the Orthohepadnavirus genus and the Hepadnaviridae family. Most individuals with acute HBV infection are asymptomatic or have mild, self-limiting symptoms. Chronic infection can be asymptomatic or create hepatic inflammation, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B Virus vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination
    • 2 or 3 doses, depending on vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination, are recommended for high-risk individuals.
    • Indications: chronic liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy disease such as hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus infection, HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs infection, IV drug use, high-risk sexual behavior, health care personnel
  • Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus Influenzae A species of Haemophilus found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through viii. Haemophilus type b vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination
    • 1 dose (inactivated vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination)
    • Indications: anatomic or functional asplenia Functional Asplenia Asplenia or recipient of hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • Meningococcal vaccine Vaccine Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases. Vaccination:
    • In the United States: quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (inactivated)
    • Indicated for college students and military recruits living in residential housing if not previously vaccinated at age 16 years or older
  • Also indicated for those with anatomic or functional asplenia Functional Asplenia Asplenia

Additional Preventative Counseling

Lifestyle

  • Healthy diet and physical activity encouraged to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors:
    • At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week, or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week
    • Participation in strengthening exercises recommended at least twice per week
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment: Counsel adults, especially fair-skinned individuals, to minimize sun exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to decrease risk of skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions cancer.
  • Sleep Sleep A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility. Physiology of Sleep hygiene:
    • Recommendation is to obtain at least 7–8 hours sleep Sleep A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility. Physiology of Sleep per night
    • Maintain a regular Regular Insulin sleep Sleep A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility. Physiology of Sleep schedule.
    • Avoid stimulants Stimulants Stimulants are used by the general public to increase alertness and energy, decrease fatigue, and promote mental focus. Stimulants have medical uses for individuals with ADHD and sleep disorders, and are also used in combination with analgesics in pain management. Stimulants (e.g., caffeine Caffeine A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine’s most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling. Stimulants) and electronic screens (e.g., phones, laptops) before bed.

Sexual health and contraception

  • Counseling on safe sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria practices
  • If patient is interested in contraception, discuss contraceptive options, methods, effectiveness, risks/benefits, and possible side effects.
  • Folic acid supplementation recommended in women of child-bearing age to prevent neural tube Neural tube A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the central nervous system, including the spinal cord and the brain. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. Gastrulation and Neurulation defects in offspring

References

  1. American Cancer Society (2020). Guideline for colorectal cancer risk. American Cancer Society. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/colon-rectal-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/acs-recommendations.html
  2. American Academy of Family Physicians (2019). Adult preventative health care schedule: Recommendations from the USPSTF. Am Fam Physician. https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/journals/afp/USPSTFHealthCareSchedule2019.pdf
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Immunization schedules. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/adult.html
  4. Cox, J., Palefsky, J. (2020). Human papillomavirus vaccination. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/human-papillomavirus-vaccination
  5. Heidelbaugh, J. J. (2018). The adult well-male examination. Am Fam Physician. 98(12): 729-737. Retrieved March 1,  2021, from  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p729.html
  6. Hibberd, P. (2020). Measles, mumps, and rubella immunization in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/measles-mumps-and-rubella-immunization-in-adults
  7. Hibberd, P. (2021). Seasonal influenza vaccination in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-adults
  8. Musher, D. (2020). Pneumococcal vaccination in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pneumococcal-vaccination-in-adults
  9. Pignone, M. (2021). Management of elevated low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-elevated-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-ldl-c-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
  10. Riley, M., Dobson, M., Jones, E., & Kirst, N. (2013). Health maintenance in women. Am Fam Physician. 87(1):30-37. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p30.html
  11. USPSTF(NA) A and B recommendations. USPSTF. Retrieved March 1, 2021, from https://uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation-topics/uspstf-and-b-recommendations
  12. Vijan, S. (2020). Screening for lipid disorders in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 1, 2021, from  https://www.uptodate.com/contents/screening-for-lipid-disorders-in-adults

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