Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis refers to a decrease in bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mass and density leading to an increased number of fractures. There are 2 forms of osteoporosis: primary, which is commonly postmenopausal or senile; and secondary, which is a manifestation of immobilization, underlying medical disorders, or long-term use of certain medications. Osteoporosis most often presents clinically with frequent fractures and loss of vertebral height. Diagnosis is established by measuring bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mineral density. Management includes lifestyle modifications, maintaining adequate levels of calcium and vitamin D, and the use of bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs most well-known for treating osteoporosis by preventing bone loss. Bisphosphonates end in the suffix "-dronate" or "-dronic acid" (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, pamidronate) and bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone, inhibiting osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Bisphosphonates.

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Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

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Overview

Definition

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones disorder characterized by low bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mass and increased bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones fragility.

Epidemiology

  • Most common metabolic bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones disease
  • Affects 200,000 million people worldwide
  • More common in the elderly (> 50 years of age)
  • More common in women than in men, ratio of 4:1
  • Most common in postmenoupasal women

Classification

  • Primary osteoporosis:
    • Idiopathic:
      • Type 1: postmenopausal
      • Type 2: senile (age-related)
    • Juvenile: usually between 8 and 14 years of age
  • Secondary osteoporosis:
    • Can occur at any age
    • Caused by disease, deficiency, or drugs

Etiology

Primary osteoporosis:

  • Type I: estrogen deficiency
  • Type II: age-related loss of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mineral density (BMD)
  • Risk factors:
    • Age
    • Female gender
    • White or Asian ethnicity
    • Family history
    • Small stature/thin build
    • Amenorrhea
    • Late menarche
    • Early menopause Menopause Menopause is a physiologic process in women characterized by the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity. Menopause can only be diagnosed retrospectively, after 12 months without menstrual bleeding. Menopause
    • Physical inactivity
    • Alcohol or tobacco use

Secondary osteoporosis:

  • Endocrine disorders ( hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism Thyrotoxicosis refers to the classic physiologic manifestations of excess thyroid hormones and is not synonymous with hyperthyroidism, which is caused by sustained overproduction and release of T3 and/or T4. Graves' disease is the most common cause of primary hyperthyroidism, followed by toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Thyrotoxicosis and Hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism is a condition associated with elevated blood levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Depending on the pathogenesis of this condition, hyperparathyroidism can be defined as primary, secondary or tertiary. Hyperparathyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, hypogonadism Hypogonadism Hypogonadism is a condition characterized by reduced or no sex hormone production by the testes or ovaries. Hypogonadism can result from primary (hypergonadotropic) or secondary (hypogonadotropic) failure. Symptoms include infertility, increased risk of osteoporosis, erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and regression (or absence) of secondary sexual characteristics. Hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency/resistance)
  • Bone marrow Bone marrow Bone marrow, the primary site of hematopoiesis, is found in the cavities of cancellous bones and the medullary canals of long bones. There are 2 types: red marrow (hematopoietic with abundant blood cells) and yellow marrow (predominantly filled with adipocytes). Composition of Bone Marrow disorders ( multiple myeloma Multiple myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma)
  • GI disorders (gastrectomy, malabsorption Malabsorption Malabsorption involves many disorders in which there is an inability of the gut to absorb nutrients from dietary intake, potentially including water and/or electrolytes. A closely related term, maldigestion is the inability to break down large molecules of food into their smaller constituents. Malabsorption and maldigestion can affect macronutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), or both. Malabsorption and Maldigestion syndromes, Crohn’s disease)
  • Connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue disorders ( rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a symmetric, inflammatory polyarthritis and chronic, progressive, autoimmune disorder. Presentation occurs most commonly in middle-aged women with joint swelling, pain, and morning stiffness (often in the hands). Rheumatoid Arthritis, osteogenesis imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or "brittle bone disease," is a rare genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by severe bone fragility. Although OI is considered a single disease, OI includes over 16 genotypes and clinical phenotypes with differing symptom severity. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders that are characterized by hyperextensible skin, hypermobile joints, and fragility of the skin and connective tissue. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome is a genetic condition with autosomal dominant inheritance. Marfan syndrome affects the elasticity of connective tissues throughout the body, most notably in the cardiovascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal systems. Marfan Syndrome)
  • Drug induced ( glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs. Glucocorticoids, anticonvulsants, cyclosporine, heparin, antiretroviral therapy Antiretroviral therapy Antiretroviral therapy (ART) targets the replication cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is classified based on the viral enzyme or mechanism that is inhibited. The goal of therapy is to suppress viral replication to reach the outcome of undetected viral load. Anti-HIV Drugs, aromatase inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors, lithium, calcineurin inhibitors)

Pathophysiology

Normal bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones physiology

  • Bone undergoes continuous remodeling throughout life.
  • Bone resorption (by osteoclasts) is followed by bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones formation (by osteoblasts).
  • Resorption usually takes weeks, while formation can take months.
  • During active remodeling, bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones is at an increased risk of fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures:
    • New bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones is less densely mineralized.
    • Collagen maturation is impaired.
  • Remodeling rate doubles by the age of menopause Menopause Menopause is a physiologic process in women characterized by the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity. Menopause can only be diagnosed retrospectively, after 12 months without menstrual bleeding. Menopause and triples 13 years later.
  • Bone mass peaks during the 3rd decade of life and then gradually decreases.

Pathogenesis of osteoporosis

  • Multifactorial
  • Generally caused by imbalance between bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones resorption and bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones formation
  • If bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones resorption dominates compared with bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones formation, osteoporosis may result.
  • Role of estrogen deficiency:
    • Increases number of osteoclasts
    • Decreases number of osteoblasts
    • Increases cytokines critical to osteoclast recruitment:
      • Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
      • Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
      • Tumor necrosis factor Tumor necrosis factor Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine, released primarily by macrophages in response to stimuli. The presence of microbial products and dead cells and injury are among the stimulating factors. This protein belongs to the TNF superfamily, a group of ligands and receptors performing functions in inflammatory response, morphogenesis, and cell proliferation. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) ( TNF TNF Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine, released primarily by macrophages in response to stimuli. The presence of microbial products and dead cells and injury are among the stimulating factors. This protein belongs to the TNF superfamily, a group of ligands and receptors performing functions in inflammatory response, morphogenesis, and cell proliferation. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF))-α
      • Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)
    • Decreases OPG (osteoprotegerin), which is released by preosteoblasts, binds to RANKL, and serves as an endogenous suppressor of osteoclast function
Role of estrogen deficiency in osteoclast activation (1)

Role of estrogen deficiency in osteoclast activation

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical Presentation

  • Clinically silent, until fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures occurs
  • Vertebral fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures:
    • Most common
    • Commonly asymptomatic
    • Can lead to loss in height
    • Angular kyphosis (may lead to restrictive lung disease and dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea)
    • Diffuse back pain Back pain Back pain is a common complaint among the general population and is mostly self-limiting. Back pain can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic depending on the duration of symptoms. The wide variety of potential etiologies include degenerative, mechanical, malignant, infectious, rheumatologic, and extraspinal causes. Back Pain
  • Hip fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures: affects up to 15% of women and 5% of men by 80 years of age
  • Distal radius fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures (Colles’ fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures)
  • Other fractures:
    • Ribs
    • Humerus
    • Pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles. The pelvic girdle, composed of 2 "hip" bones and the sacrum, is a ring-like bony structure of the axial skeleton that links the vertebral column with the lower extremities. Pelvis

Diagnosis

History

  • Smoking/alcohol
  • Poor nutrition
  • Physical activity
  • Family history
  • Presence of certain diseases (e.g., Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a symmetric, inflammatory polyarthritis and chronic, progressive, autoimmune disorder. Presentation occurs most commonly in middle-aged women with joint swelling, pain, and morning stiffness (often in the hands). Rheumatoid Arthritis)
  • Medications (e.g., steroids)

Physical exam

  • Height and weight measurements
  • Short stature + kyphosis

Clinical criteria

  • Presence of fragility fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures
  • FRAX ( fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures risk assessment tool):
    • Computer-based calculator
    • Estimates 10-year risk of hip fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures and major osteoporotic fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures
    • For untreated patients between 40 and 90 years of age based on risk factors

Laboratory studies

  • Calcium/phosphorus
  • Total protein/albumin
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Creatinine
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • CBC

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

  • Method of choice for assessing bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mass density in postmenopausal women 
  • Criteria applicable to post-menopausal women and men > 50 years of age:
    • T-score:
      • Standard deviation difference between the patient’s BMD and the reference BMD of a young population
      • Normal bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mass density is < 1 standard deviation below the mean.
      • T-score of –1 to –2.5 standard deviation indicates osteopenia.
      • T-score of < –2.5 standard deviation indicates osteoporosis.
    • Z-score: 
      • SD difference between patient’s BMD and that of age-matched population
      • < –2.0 indicates osteoporosis.
  • Indications for screening:
    • Postmenopausal women should begin screening by 65 years of age.
    • Postmenopausal women with risk factors should begin screening at 50 years of age:
      • Tobacco smoking
      • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Hip fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures in a parent
      • BMI < 21 kg/m2
      • Fracture after menopause Menopause Menopause is a physiologic process in women characterized by the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity. Menopause can only be diagnosed retrospectively, after 12 months without menstrual bleeding. Menopause

Management

Prevention/lifestyle modifications

  • Regular weight-bearing exercise
  • Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake
  • Smoking cessation
  • Avoidance of heavy alcohol consumption
  • Fall prevention

Indications for pharmacologic treatment in postmenopausal women

  • History of fragility fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures
  • DEXA T-score < –1
  • Elevated 10-year fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures risk using the FRAX online risk calculator

Indications for treatment in men and younger patients

  • Less well defined
  • Fragility fractures
  • FRAX estimations and BMD measurements can be used.

Medications

  • Calcium and vitamin D levels should be normalized prior to starting. medications
  • Bisphosphonates: 1st choice (alendronate, risedronate)
  • Hormonal replacement: 
    • Estrogen + progesterone in postmenopausal women:
      • Not routinely indicated because of associated risks
      • Can be used in women with perimenopausal symptoms
    • Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men
  • Other therapies:
    • Anabolic agents (teriparatide, romosozumab)
    • Selective estrogen receptor modulators
    • Denosumab (monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of RANKL)
    • Calcitonin

Prognosis

  • Good with appropriate treatments that prevent BMD loss
  • Osteoporotic fractures decrease quality of life, longevity, and independence in the elderly population.
  • 50% of previously independent patients sustaining a hip fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures become at least partially dependent.
  • One osteoporotic fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures increases the risk of subsequent fractures.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Osteomalacia Osteomalacia Rickets and osteomalacia are disorders of decreased bone mineralization. Osteomalacia affects the sites of bone turnover in children and adults. Although most cases are due to vitamin D deficiency, other genetic and nutritional disorders as well as medications can cause these disorders. Osteomalacia can present with bone pain, difficulty with ambulation and pathologic fractures. Osteomalacia and Rickets: the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism Bone metabolism Bone is the primary storage site of calcium in the body; thus, bone metabolism plays a critical role in maintaining normal calcium levels. Bone metabolism (and thus calcium levels) are primarily regulated by 3 hormones, namely, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D. Bone Metabolism primarily due to inadequate levels of available phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, or because of resorption of calcium. The impairment of bone metabolism Bone metabolism Bone is the primary storage site of calcium in the body; thus, bone metabolism plays a critical role in maintaining normal calcium levels. Bone metabolism (and thus calcium levels) are primarily regulated by 3 hormones, namely, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D. Bone Metabolism causes inadequate bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones mineralization. Usually presents with bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain and fractures. Treated with calcium and vitamin D supplementation.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: conditions of pathologically elevated parathyroid hormone levels. Depending on the pathogenesis, distinctions can be made between 3 forms: primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism is a condition associated with elevated blood levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Depending on the pathogenesis of this condition, hyperparathyroidism can be defined as primary, secondary or tertiary. Hyperparathyroidism. In advanced cases, hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism is a condition associated with elevated blood levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Depending on the pathogenesis of this condition, hyperparathyroidism can be defined as primary, secondary or tertiary. Hyperparathyroidism can present with osteitis fibrosa cystica characterized by pathologic bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones fractures. Diagnosis is based on elevated PTH levels, and management depends on the underlying cause.
  • Malignant bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones tumors: cancerous tumors involving bones or bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones marrow. Can present with pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain and pathologic bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones fractures. Diagnosis is established with imaging and biopsies. Management can involve surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Paget’s disease of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones: a disorder of bone metabolism Bone metabolism Bone is the primary storage site of calcium in the body; thus, bone metabolism plays a critical role in maintaining normal calcium levels. Bone metabolism (and thus calcium levels) are primarily regulated by 3 hormones, namely, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D. Bone Metabolism. Most common in patients over 55 years of age. This disorder is usually asymptomatic but can include manifestations such as arthritis, bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, and fractures. Diagnosis is established with imaging. Treatment includes bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs most well-known for treating osteoporosis by preventing bone loss. Bisphosphonates end in the suffix "-dronate" or "-dronic acid" (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, pamidronate) and bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone, inhibiting osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Bisphosphonates and calcitonin.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta: a genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Structure of Bones fragility. Manifests in infancy and early childhood. Multiple fractures can occur and, in some cases, these fractures can occur before birth. There are different types of this disease that vary in severity and prognosis. Diagnosis is established clinically and confirmed with genetic testing. Management involves bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs most well-known for treating osteoporosis by preventing bone loss. Bisphosphonates end in the suffix "-dronate" or "-dronic acid" (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, pamidronate) and bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone, inhibiting osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Bisphosphonates and supportive measures.
  • Physical abuse: should be ruled out in any patient presenting with multiple fractures, especially vulnerable populations such as the elderly, young children, and patients with mental illness or delay.

References

  1. Finkelstein J.S., Yu E.W. (2019). Treatment of osteoporosis in men. Retrieved February 11, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-men
  2. Johnston CB, Dagar M. (2020). Osteoporosis in Older Adults. Med Clin North Am. 2020 Sep. 104 (5):873-884.
  3. Porter J.L., Varacallo M. (2020). Osteoporosis. Retrieved February 11, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441901/#article-26408.s1
  4. Rosen H. N., Dresner M. K. (2020). Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and evaluation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Retrieved February 11, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women
  5. Rosen H. N., Dresner M. K. (2020). Overview of the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Retrieved February 11, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-management-of-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women
  6. Svedbom A., Hernlund E., Ivergård M., Compston J., Cooper C., Stenmark J., McCloskey E.V., Jönsson B., Kanis J.A., EU Review Panel of IOF. (2013). Osteoporosis in the European Union: a compendium of country-specific reports. Arch Osteoporos. 2013;8(1-2):137. Epub 2013 Oct 11. 
  7. Whitaker Elam R.E. (2021). Osteoporosis. Retrieved February 11, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/330598-overview

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