Strabismus is the misalignment of the eyes while fixating the gaze on an object. Strabismus can be idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis, but it may also be caused by cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of conditions resulting in motor impairment affecting tone and posture and limiting physical activity. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood disability. It is caused by a nonprogressive CNS injury to the fetal or infant brain. Cerebral Palsy, uncorrected refractive errors Refractive errors By refraction, the light that enters the eye is focused onto a particular point of the retina. The main refractive components of the eye are the cornea and the lens. When the corneal curvature, the refractive power of the lens, does not match the size of the eye, ametropia or a refractive error occurs. Refractive Errors, and extraocular muscle or cranial nerve dysfunction. Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor may include vertical or horizontal diplopia Diplopia A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include refractive errors; strabismus; oculomotor nerve diseases; trochlear nerve diseases; abducens nerve diseases; and diseases of the brain stem and occipital lobe. Myasthenia Gravis (double vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam). Diagnosis of strabismus is established clinically with the eye cover–uncover test. Management includes therapy with cycloplegic eye drops, eye patching, or surgery. Untreated strabismus can lead to amblyopia, which is cortical blindness Blindness The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of eye diseases; optic nerve diseases; optic chiasm diseases; or brain diseases affecting the visual pathways or occipital lobe. Retinopathy of Prematurity with no structural defect.
Last updated: 22 Jun, 2021
Strabismus is the misalignment of the eyes in any direction (vertical, horizontal). Colloquially, it is referred to as “crossed eyes.”
Strabismus can be classified as:
Medical terminology describes the direction of eye deviation:
Most strabismus results from an abnormality of the neuromuscular control of eye movement. Less commonly, there is a problem with the extraocular muscles.
Strabismus presents as:
There are several historical factors to consider in determining the cause and treatment of strabismus.
Abnormal eye examination or strabismus noted on testing in a child should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist.
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