Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is visual impairment due to changes in the macula Macula An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. Eye: Anatomy, the area responsible for high-acuity vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam. It is marked by central vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss with peripheral vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam relatively spared. Risk factors include advanced age, smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases, family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance, and cardiovascular disease. The 2 types of AMD are exudative (wet) or non-exudative (dry). The difference between these 2 types is the presence of choroidal neovascularization in wet AMD, which manifests as visual distortion Distortion Defense Mechanisms or loss. The more frequently occurring dry AMD is usually asymptomatic but in a minority of cases leads to vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss. There is no treatment for early dry AMD but Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS 2) supplements are recommended for advanced disease. Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor Vascular endothelial growth factor A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to vascular endothelial growth factor a. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells. Wound Healing are used for wet AMD.
Last updated: Nov 10, 2022
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD):
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