Cystoisospora and Cyclospora are genera within the Coccidia subclass of protozoans Protozoans Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic. These single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites cause intestinal infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease in humans. Humans are the only host for these species, and they are both transmitted through the fecal–oral route. The symptoms of cystoisosporiasis and cyclosporiasis are watery diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever. Severe cystoisosporiasis can occur in immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals, particularly those with HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs/ AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS, and can lead to malabsorption Malabsorption General term for a group of malnutrition syndromes caused by failure of normal intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption and Maldigestion, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, and dehydration Dehydration The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism. Volume Depletion and Dehydration. Both diseases are self-limited in immunocompetent individuals, though cyclosporiasis has a longer course. Diagnosis is made by identifying the oocysts in stool samples. Antimicrobial therapy, such as trimethoprim Trimethoprim The sulfonamides are a class of antimicrobial drugs inhibiting folic acid synthesize in pathogens. The prototypical drug in the class is sulfamethoxazole. Although not technically sulfonamides, trimethoprim, dapsone, and pyrimethamine are also important antimicrobial agents inhibiting folic acid synthesis. The agents are often combined with sulfonamides, resulting in a synergistic effect. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim– sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethoxazole A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim, can be used (particularly in immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals).
Last updated: 23 May, 2022
Both organisms cause intestinal disease in humans.
Both species are found only in humans.
Cystoisospora (severe disease):
Both species are transmitted via the fecal–oral route (ingestion of contaminated food and water).
Cystoisosporiasis has an incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period of 7–14 days. Presentation of the disease can vary depending on the individual’s immune status.
Antimicrobials used for the treatment of cyclosporiasis include:
Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.
Lecturio Premium gives you full access to all content & features
Verify your email now to get a free trial.
Lecturio Premium gives you full access to all contents and features—including Lecturio’s Qbank with up-to-date board-style questions.