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Chronic Diabetic Complications

Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus ( DM DM Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Abnormally high blood glucose level. Diabetes Mellitus due to impaired insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies ( type 1 DM Type 1 DM A subtype of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by insulin deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence. Diabetes Mellitus), insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing ( type 2 DM Type 2 DM A subclass of diabetes mellitus that is not insulin-responsive or dependent (niddm). It is characterized initially by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia; and eventually by glucose intolerance; hyperglycemia; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop ketosis but often exhibit obesity. Diabetes Mellitus), or both (latent autoimmune diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus in adults ( LADA LADA Autoimmune diabetes in adults with slowly progressive pancreatic beta cell failure and the presence of circulating autoantibodies to pancreatic islets cell antigens. Diabetes Mellitus)). The goal of diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus management is to prevent chronic serious and potentially disabling complications due to damage to various organs. Adequate long-term control of blood glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance is crucial in the prevention of complications. Macrovascular complications include heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease in various stages, including end-stage renal disease that requires dialysis Dialysis Renal replacement therapy refers to dialysis and/or kidney transplantation. Dialysis is a procedure by which toxins and excess water are removed from the circulation. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are the two types of dialysis, and their primary difference is the location of the filtration process (external to the body in hemodialysis versus inside the body for PD). Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis. Microvascular disease can cause retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome, neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy, or symptomatic cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) disease, which are not seen during stress testing or angiogram that are used to diagnose large vessel diseases.

Last updated: Feb 20, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus ( DM DM Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus) is a common disease that can lead to multiple serious complications. Long-term glycemic control is imperative to prevent these complications.

  • Cardiovascular disease:
    • 60% of all individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus die from cardiovascular disease.
    • MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction:
      • Men: 3.7 times higher risk than nondiabetic individuals
      • Women: 5.9 times higher risk than nondiabetic individuals
  • Diabetic nephropathy/ CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease
    • The most common cause of renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome in the US
    • Affects 20%–30% of individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetic retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome:
    • Approximately 90% of cases with type 1 Type 1 Spinal Muscular Atrophy diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus and 25% of cases with type 2 Type 2 Spinal Muscular Atrophy diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus develop retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome after 15 years of the disease.
    • The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness Blindness The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of eye diseases; optic nerve diseases; optic chiasm diseases; or brain diseases affecting the visual pathways or occipital lobe. Retinopathy of Prematurity in individuals aged 25–74 years in the US
    • Classified as nonproliferative or proliferative based on retinal findings on examination
  • Neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy:
    • At the time of diagnosis, approximately 10%–20% of cases already have some extent of peripheral neuropathy Peripheral Neuropathy Neurofibromatosis Type 2.
    • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency after 10 years of diagnosis: approximately 41%
    • Classification:
      • Distal symmetric polyneuropathy Polyneuropathy Polyneuropathy is any disease process affecting the function of or causing damage to multiple nerves of the peripheral nervous system. There are numerous etiologies of polyneuropathy, most of which are systemic and the most common of which is diabetic neuropathy. Polyneuropathy (most common)
      • Autonomic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy
      • Mononeuropathy Mononeuropathy Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ischemia; traumatic injury; compression; connective tissue diseases; cumulative trauma disorders; and other conditions. Mononeuropathy and Plexopathy
      • Polyradiculopathy
      • Mononeuropathy multiplex Mononeuropathy Multiplex Polyneuropathy

Pathophysiology

Chronic complications of diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus have unique pathophysiological processes and are dependent on the organ system involved.

Cardiovascular

  • Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis:
    • Endothelial dysfunction:
      • Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Abnormally high blood glucose level. Diabetes Mellitus leads to increased production of mitochondrial free-radical species → reduced NO levels
      • Low NO leads to vasoconstriction Vasoconstriction The physiological narrowing of blood vessels by contraction of the vascular smooth muscle. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure and reduced blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure, leading to end-organ damage.
    • Increased inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus is a proinflammatory state → known risk for atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis
  • Peripheral artery disease Peripheral artery disease Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is obstruction of the arterial lumen resulting in decreased blood flow to the distal limbs. The disease can be a result of atherosclerosis or thrombosis. Patients may be asymptomatic or have progressive claudication, skin discoloration, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Peripheral Artery Disease: lipid accumulation in blood vessels → vasoconstriction Vasoconstriction The physiological narrowing of blood vessels by contraction of the vascular smooth muscle. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure and reduced blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure, leading to end-organ damage
  • Macrovascular disease:
    • Heart: MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction
    • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification: cerebrovascular accident Cerebrovascular accident An ischemic stroke (also known as cerebrovascular accident) is an acute neurologic injury that occurs as a result of brain ischemia; this condition may be due to cerebral blood vessel occlusion by thrombosis or embolism, or rarely due to systemic hypoperfusion. Ischemic Stroke/stroke, multi-infarct dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders
    • Kidney: diabetic nephropathy/ CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Microvascular disease:
    • Eyes: diabetic retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome
    • Feet: diabetic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy
    • Stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy: gastroparesis Gastroparesis Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of stomach muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Malabsorption and Maldigestion
    • Intestines: mesenteric ischemia Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a rare, life-threatening condition caused by inadequate blood flow through the mesenteric vessels, which results in ischemia and necrosis of the intestinal wall. Mesenteric ischemia can be either acute or chronic. Mesenteric Ischemia
    • Legs: peripheral vascular disease/ peripheral artery disease Peripheral artery disease Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is obstruction of the arterial lumen resulting in decreased blood flow to the distal limbs. The disease can be a result of atherosclerosis or thrombosis. Patients may be asymptomatic or have progressive claudication, skin discoloration, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Peripheral Artery Disease
    • Genitalia:  erectile dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection, resulting in difficulty to perform penetrative sexual intercourse. Local penile factors and systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiac disease, and neurological disorders, can cause ED. Erectile Dysfunction

Renal

There are various forms of kidney disease in diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, including nonclassical glomerular lesions and tubulointerstitial disease.

  • “Diabetic kidney disease” is a clinical diagnosis based on the severity of albuminuria Albuminuria The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of kidney diseases. Kidney Function Tests GFR GFR The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman’s capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to inulin clearance. Kidney Function Tests, or both, in individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus.
  • Kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy: Deposits in the capillary membrane cause hyaline arteriosclerosis.
  • Diabetic nephropathy/ CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease:
    • Mesangial changes: increased permeability and hyperfiltration Hyperfiltration Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Vascular lesions: arteriolosclerosis, especially in the efferent Efferent Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology
    • Glomerular lesions:
      • Diffuse capillary basement membrane Basement membrane A darkly stained mat-like extracellular matrix (ecm) that separates cell layers, such as epithelium from endothelium or a layer of connective tissue. The ecm layer that supports an overlying epithelium or endothelium is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (bm) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. Bm, composed mainly of type IV collagen; glycoprotein laminin; and proteoglycan, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers. Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy (TBMN) thickening is the earliest and most common finding.
      • Nodular: Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules are pathognomonic.
    • Tubular lesions: tubular glycogen deposition

Neurological

  • Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Abnormally high blood glucose level. Diabetes Mellitus causes glycation of axon proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis with subsequent development of neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy in the peripheral nerves Peripheral Nerves The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium. Nervous System: Histology.
  • Neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy:
    • Arteriolosclerosis of endoneurial arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology resulting in ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage and neuronal damage
    • Oxidative stress Oxidative stress A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products. Cell Injury and Death and osmotic damage

Clinical Presentation

Cardiovascular disease

  • In individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction may present atypically due to concurrent diabetic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy, instead of the typical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor with chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is one of the most common and challenging complaints that may present in an inpatient and outpatient setting. The differential diagnosis of chest pain is large and includes cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric etiologies. Chest Pain.
  • Other heart diseases:
    • Microvascular disease
    • Diabetic cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy refers to a group of myocardial diseases associated with structural changes of the heart muscles (myocardium) and impaired systolic and/or diastolic function in the absence of other heart disorders (coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease). Cardiomyopathy: Overview and Types
  • Carotid stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS):
    • Arteriosclerosis in the large arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology of the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess may present with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).
    • Physical exam: Carotid bruits may be heard.
  • Stroke/ TIA TIA Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia without infarction that resolves completely when blood supply is restored. Transient ischemic attack is a neurologic emergency that warrants urgent medical attention. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis in the cerebral arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology presents with focal neurologic deficits Neurologic Deficits High-Risk Headaches.
  • Peripheral arterial disease:
    • Presents as intermittent claudication Intermittent claudication A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in skeletal muscle group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial stenosis; muscle ischemia; and accumulation of lactate. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease) due to vascular occlusive disease in the legs
    • Decreased pedal pulses on physical exam

Diabetic nephropathy/ CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Usually asymptomatic
  • Affected individuals note “foamy urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat.”
  • May have hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension or increased creatinine on laboratory testing

Diabetic retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome

  • Usually asymptomatic and diagnosed by routine screening Screening Preoperative Care
  • Affected individuals may complain of decreased visual acuity Visual Acuity Clarity or sharpness of ocular vision or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of retina, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast. Ophthalmic Exam in advanced stages.
  • If complicated, individuals may present with:
  • Fundoscopic exam Fundoscopic Exam Head and Neck Examination:
    • Macular edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
    • Cotton wool spots
    • Dot and blot hemorrhages
  • Additional eye complications due to hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Abnormally high blood glucose level. Diabetes Mellitus:
    • Sorbitol Sorbitol A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications. Laxatives accumulation and increased osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Intravenous Fluids in the lens Lens A transparent, biconvex structure of the eye, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor (vitreous body). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the ciliary body is crucial for ocular accommodation. Eye: Anatomy of the eye
    • Increased risk of cataracts
  • Women with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus who are planning pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care:
    • Should be comprehensively evaluated and treated
    • Counseled about the risk of progression

Neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy

  • Often asymptomatic and found on screening Screening Preoperative Care exams
  • Can be generalized focal, multifocal Multifocal Retinoblastoma, or autonomic
  • Chronic distal symmetric polyneuropathy Polyneuropathy Polyneuropathy is any disease process affecting the function of or causing damage to multiple nerves of the peripheral nervous system. There are numerous etiologies of polyneuropathy, most of which are systemic and the most common of which is diabetic neuropathy. Polyneuropathy:
    • Presents with paresthesias Paresthesias Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation. Posterior Cord Syndrome in a “stocking glove” sensory-loss pattern
    • Affected individuals may complain of:
    • Decreased sensation to light touch Light touch Neurological Examination/monofilament on exam
    • Loss of pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment, leading to the potential for wounds
  • Autonomic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy:
    • Cardiovascular manifestations:
      • Resting tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children
      • Orthostatic hypotension Orthostatic hypotension A significant drop in blood pressure after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include dizziness, blurred vision, and syncope. Hypotension
    • Gastroparesis Gastroparesis Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of stomach muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Malabsorption and Maldigestion due to the vagus nerve Vagus nerve The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx). Pharynx: Anatomy being affected:
      • Delayed gastric emptying Gastric emptying The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum. Gastrointestinal Motility
      • Risk of postprandial hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia
      • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics
      • Bloating Bloating Constipation
      • Loss of appetite
      • Can result in excess weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery
    • Genitourinary involvement can lead to erectile dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection, resulting in difficulty to perform penetrative sexual intercourse. Local penile factors and systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiac disease, and neurological disorders, can cause ED. Erectile Dysfunction, although this condition is more likely due to a vascular etiology.
    • Cranial nerves Cranial nerves There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves (CNs), which run from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. The CNs can be sensory or motor or both. The CNs are named and numbered in Roman numerals according to their location, from the front to the back of the brain. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions:
      • Can lead to oculomotor nerve Oculomotor nerve The 3D cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions palsies
      • Ptosis Ptosis Cranial Nerve Palsies
      • Spared pupillary function
    • Peripheral mononeuropathy Mononeuropathy Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ischemia; traumatic injury; compression; connective tissue diseases; cumulative trauma disorders; and other conditions. Mononeuropathy and Plexopathy: nerve palsies, such as common peroneal nerve Peroneal nerve The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot. Popliteal Fossa: Anatomy causing foot drop Foot Drop Leprosy
    • Mononeuritis multiplex: asymmetric neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy involving multiple peripheral and cranial nerves Cranial nerves There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves (CNs), which run from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. The CNs can be sensory or motor or both. The CNs are named and numbered in Roman numerals according to their location, from the front to the back of the brain. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions
Diabetic foot injury

Foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy injury in an individual with peripheral neuropathy Peripheral Neuropathy Neurofibromatosis Type 2:
Peripheral neuropathy Peripheral Neuropathy Neurofibromatosis Type 2 causes affected individuals to not feel small injuries to the extremities, which are often then untended. Combined with reduced blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure to extremities, these injuries can lead to chronic foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy ulcers that may even require surgical debridement Debridement The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus.

Image: “Pre-operative view of chronic recurrent ulcer under the fifth MT head” by Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Assaf HaRofeh Medical Center, Zerrifin, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. License: CC BY 4.0

Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions manifestations

  • Acanthosis nigricans Acanthosis nigricans A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Diabetes Mellitus:
    • Dark, velvety plaques in the axillae or neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess
    • Seen in individuals with insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing
    • Can sometimes be a sign of underlying malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
  • Necrobiosis lipoidica:
    • Oval or irregular, indurated patches Patches Vitiligo of central atrophy Atrophy Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes. Cellular Adaptation with yellow pigmentation and red-brown margins
    • Often asymptomatic, found on the shins Shins Erythema Nodosum
Acanthosis nigricans grade 1

Acanthosis nigricans Acanthosis nigricans A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Diabetes Mellitus: a common finding in individuals with insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing (such as in diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus). Acanthosis nigricans Acanthosis nigricans A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Diabetes Mellitus is described as velvety, thickened, and darkened areas of the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions, often seen on the nape of the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess.

Image: “ Acanthosis nigricans Acanthosis nigricans A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Diabetes Mellitus Grade 1” by Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, The University of West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago, WI. License: CC BY 2.0

Diagnosis

Cardiovascular disease

Coronary artery Coronary Artery Truncus Arteriosus disease:

  • Medical history: inquiry about factors that impact cardiovascular risk:
    • Chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is one of the most common and challenging complaints that may present in an inpatient and outpatient setting. The differential diagnosis of chest pain is large and includes cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric etiologies. Chest Pain or symptoms similar to those experienced in angina
    • Past history of heart disease or treatment
    • Lifestyle factors:
      • Level of physical activity and overall fitness
      • Dietary choices
      • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
      • Intake of alcohol
      • Use of illicit drugs Illicit Drugs Drugs that are manufactured, obtained, or sold illegally. They include prescription drugs obtained or sold without prescription and non-prescription drugs. Illicit drugs are widely distributed, tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity. Delirium
      • Emotional stress
  • Screening Screening Preoperative Care tests:
    • Lab testing
    • ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • Stress testing
    • Note: Screening Screening Preoperative Care tests are not recommended for individuals who are asymptomatic or those with established cardiovascular disease or risk factors.
  • Testing is indicated for symptomatic individuals, and depends on the individual and the circumstances in which the test is being ordered.
    • Coronary calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes score: Due to false negatives, the test is not recommended for high-risk individuals.
    • Stress testing: exercise or pharmacologic, based on the ability of the individual:
    • CTA CTA A non-invasive method that uses a ct scanner for capturing images of blood vessels and tissues. A contrast material is injected, which helps produce detailed images that aid in diagnosing vascular diseases. Pulmonary Function Tests
    • Angiography Angiography Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium. Cardiac Surgery in individuals with abnormal stress test results

Peripheral arterial disease:

  • Ankle-brachial index Ankle-brachial index Comparison of the blood pressure between the brachial artery and the posterior tibial artery. It is a predictor of peripheral arterial disease. Cardiovascular Examination testing
  • Ultrasound
  • Angiogram

Carotid stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)ultrasound to evaluate the extent of occlusive disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is usually diagnosed during an annual screening Screening Preoperative Care urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat test for microalbuminuria.

  • Microalbuminuria (30–299 mg/24 hours) is the earliest sign of diabetic nephropathy.
  • CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease is diagnosed on laboratory testing for creatinine.

Diabetic retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome

Diagnosed during annual screening Screening Preoperative Care eye examinations with an eye specialist (ophthalmologist or optometrist)

  • Nonproliferative:
    • Microaneurysms
    • Soft exudates (cotton wool exudate Exudate Exudates are fluids, cells, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from blood vessels usually from inflamed tissues. Pleural Effusion representing infarction)
    • Intraretinal hemorrhage
    • Occluded, dilated, tortuous vessels
  • Proliferative:
    • Neovascularization from the disc and/or retinal vessels
    • Periretinal and vitreous hemorrhage Vitreous Hemorrhage Hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Diseases of the Vitreous Body
    • Subsequent fibrosis Fibrosis Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury. Bronchiolitis Obliterans and tractional retinal detachment Retinal detachment Retinal detachment is the separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium and choroid. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, the most common type, stems from a break in the retina, allowing fluid to accumulate in the subretinal space. Retinal Detachment
  • Macular edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema:
    • Retinal thickening and edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema involving the macula Macula An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. Eye: Anatomy
    • Can occur during proliferative and nonproliferative retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome

Diabetic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy

  • Physical exam:
    • Assess sensation using a monofilament.
    • Assess vibration Vibration A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. Neurological Examination sense using a 128-Hz tuning fork.
    • Deep tendon reflexes Deep Tendon Reflexes Neurological Examination
    • Check for neuropathic skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions ulcers or infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
  • Diabetic neuropathic arthropathy Arthropathy Osteoarthritis (Charcot foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy) is a severe complication:
    • Deformation of tarsometatarsal joints
    • Coexisting ulcers are common.
    • Presents as bony deformities with midfoot collapse

Management

All complications

With all diabetic complications, prevention is key, and glycemic control is the top priority.

  • Control comorbidities Comorbidities The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus ( hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia).
  • Lifestyle modifications:
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases cessation
    • Aggressive blood pressure control
    • Treatment of dyslipidemia
    • Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery if overweight or obese
    • Moderate alcohol intake:
      • 1 drink/day on average for women
      • 2 drinks/day on average for men

Coronary artery Coronary Artery Truncus Arteriosus disease

  • Low-dose aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) for secondary prevention (in individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus who have known macrovascular complications)
  • Colchicine Colchicine A major alkaloid from colchicum autumnale l. And found also in other colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout. Gout Drugs: new recommendation for individuals with chronic coronary disease receiving other secondary preventive strategies

Nephropathy

  • Control comorbidities Comorbidities The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus:
    • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension: The blood pressure goal for all individuals with diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus should be < 130/80 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg.
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases cessation
    • Hyperlipidemia management
  • ACE inhibitors ACE inhibitors Truncus Arteriosus or ARBs ARBs Agents that antagonize angiotensin receptors. Many drugs in this class specifically target the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Heart Failure and Angina Medication act on efferent Efferent Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology arterioles Arterioles The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. Arteries: Histology, which are the most affected.

Retinopathy Retinopathy Degenerative changes to the retina due to hypertension. Alport Syndrome

  • Nonproliferative type:
    • Usually untreated unless severe
    • Panretinal laser photocoagulation is the treatment of choice.
  • Proliferative type:
    • Panretinal laser photocoagulation
    • Medication: bevacizumab Bevacizumab An anti-vegf humanized murine monoclonal antibody. It inhibits vegf receptors and helps to prevent pathologic angiogenesis. Targeted and Other Nontraditional Antineoplastic Therapy:
      • Monoclonal antibody that functions as an angiogenesis Angiogenesis Bartonella inhibitor
      • Targets vascular endothelial growth factor Vascular endothelial growth factor A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to vascular endothelial growth factor a. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells. Wound Healing (VEGF)-A
      • Consider vitrectomy Vitrectomy Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma. Retinal Detachment.
  • Macular edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema:
  • Serious potential complications:

Neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy

  • Instruct affected individuals to perform daily foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy examinations.
  • Medications to alleviate neuropathic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways:
    • Anticonvulsants: gabapentin Gabapentin A cyclohexane-gamma-aminobutyric acid derivative that is used for the treatment of partial seizures; neuralgia; and restless legs syndrome. Second-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs or pregabalin Pregabalin A gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) derivative that functions as a calcium channel blocker and is used as an anticonvulsant as well as an anti-anxiety agent. It is also used as an analgesic in the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Second-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs
    • Tricyclic antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications used in the management of mood disorders, primarily depression. These agents, named after their 3-ring chemical structure, act via reuptake inhibition of neurotransmitters (particularly norepinephrine and serotonin) in the brain. Tricyclic Antidepressants: amitriptyline Amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Similar Antidepressants: duloxetine Duloxetine A thiophene derivative and selective neurotransmitter uptake inhibitor for serotonin and noradrenaline (SNRI). It is an antidepressant agent and anxiolytic, and is also used for the treatment of pain in patients with diabetes mellitus and fibromyalgia. Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Similar Antidepressants
    • Opioids Opioids Opiates are drugs that are derived from the sap of the opium poppy. Opiates have been used since antiquity for the relief of acute severe pain. Opioids are synthetic opiates with properties that are substantially similar to those of opiates. Opioid Analgesics are the last resort, but may be required for chronic pain Chronic pain Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain. Pain Management relief.
  • Gastroparesis Gastroparesis Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of stomach muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Malabsorption and Maldigestion:
    • Small, frequent meals
    • Prokinetic medication: metoclopramide Metoclopramide A dopamine d2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic. Antiemetics

Peripheral arterial disease

  • Periodic foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy examination
  • Care to not cause wounds to extremities, as healing is delayed
  • Surgical revascularization Revascularization Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease) in select cases
  • Amputation Amputation An amputation is the separation of a portion of the limb or the entire limb from the body, along with the bone. Amputations are generally indicated for conditions that compromise the viability of the limb or promote the spread of a local process that could manifest systemically. Amputation may be needed for some individuals with peripheral arterial disease.

Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions manifestations

  • Acanthosis nigricans Acanthosis nigricans A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder. Diabetes Mellitus does not require treatment and often resolves with glycemic control.
  • Necrobiosis lipoidica is treated using topical steroids Steroids A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to terpenes. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (sterols), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. Benign Liver Tumors.

References

  1. Aiello, L.M. (2003). Perspectives on diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 136, 122-35. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12834680/
  2. Frank, R.N. (2004). Diabetic retinopathy. N Engl J Med. 350, 48-58. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14702427/
  3. Mogensen, C.E., Christensen, C.K. (1984). Predicting diabetic nephropathy in insulin-dependent patients. N Engl J Med. 311, 89-93. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6738599/
  4. Perkins, B.A., Ficociello, L.H., Silva, K.H., Finkelstein, D.M., Warram, J.H., Krolewski, A.S. (2003). Regression of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 348, 2285-93. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12788992/
  5. Smith, S.C. Jr., et al. (2011). AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: A guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation endorsed by the World Heart Federation and the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. J Am Coll Cardiol. 58, 2432-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.10.824. Epub 2011 Nov 3. Erratum in: J Am Coll Cardiol. 65, 1495. Dosage error in article text. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22055990/
  6. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, Nathan, D., et al. (1993). The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 329, 977-86. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8366922/
  7. Ismail-Beigi, F., et al., ACCORD trial group. (2010). Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial. Lancet 376, 419-30. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60576-4. Erratum in: Lancet. (2010). 376, 1466. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20594588/

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