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Coarctation of the Aorta

Coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy is a narrowing of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy between the aortic arch Aortic arch Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy and the iliac bifurcation commonly around the point of insertion of the ductus arteriosus Ductus arteriosus A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). Coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy is typically congenital Congenital Chorioretinitis and the clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor depends on the age of the patient. Neonates present with heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) upon the closure of the ductus arteriosus Ductus arteriosus A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), while children and adults present with hypoperfusion and/or hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension. Classic findings on physical exam include radio-/brachio-femoral delay and decreased blood pressure in the lower limbs. Diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiogram Echocardiogram Transposition of the Great Vessels. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship should be surgically managed as early as possible to avoid complications of hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension. Close follow-up is required as the risk of hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension and re-coarctation remain.

Last updated: 24 Feb, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy is a narrowing of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy caused by the thickening of the medial layer at a localized point, most commonly near the insertion of the ductus arteriosus Ductus arteriosus A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA).

Coarctation of the aorta-scr

Schematic representation of coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy

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Types

Illustration coarctation of aorta

Types of coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy

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Epidemiology

  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency in the United States: 4 per 10,000 live births
  • Accounts for approximately 6% of all congenital Congenital Chorioretinitis heart disease
  • More common in boys (2:1 men:women ratio)
  • Associated conditions:
    • Up to 15% of girls with coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy have Turner syndrome Turner syndrome Turner syndrome is a genetic condition affecting women, in which 1 X chromosome is partly or completely missing. The classic result is the karyotype 45,XO with a female phenotype. Turner syndrome is associated with decreased sex hormone levels and is the most common cause of primary amenorrhea. Turner Syndrome.
    • Accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve Aortic valve The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle. Heart: Anatomy in over 70% of cases

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • In utero and in neonates, the presence of the foramen ovale Foramen ovale An opening in the wall between the right and the left upper chambers (heart atria) of a fetal heart. Oval foramen normally closes soon after birth; when it fails to close the condition is called patent oval foramen. Patent Foramen Ovale and the ductus arteriosus Ductus arteriosus A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) provide a physiological aortic bypass.
  • Heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) begins to develop when the structures close after birth and the neonate Neonate An infant during the first 28 days after birth. Physical Examination of the Newborn begins to depend on the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy for systemic circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment.
  • The narrowing of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy causes increased afterload Afterload Afterload is the resistance in the aorta that prevents blood from leaving the heart. Afterload represents the pressure the LV needs to overcome to eject blood into the aorta. Cardiac Mechanics increasing systolic pressure in the LV and the proximal aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy.
  • In contrast, there is hypoperfusion of the tissues distal to the narrowing.
  • To compensate, the LV undergoes hypertrophy Hypertrophy General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to cell enlargement and accumulation of fluids and secretions, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia). Cellular Adaptation to maintain the ejection fraction Ejection fraction Cardiac Cycle.
  • To bypass the narrowing, collateral blood flow Blood flow Blood flow refers to the movement of a certain volume of blood through the vasculature over a given unit of time (e.g., mL per minute). Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure develops through the inferior intercostal, internal mammary, and scapular arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology.
Collateral circulation in coarctation of the aorta

Collateral circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment composed of the inferior intercostal vessels develops to bypass the coarctation, which results in rib notching.

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Clinical Presentation

Neonates

  • Asymptomatic while there is a patent ductus arteriosus Patent ductus arteriosus The ductus arteriosus (DA) allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation. After birth, the DA remains open for up to 72 hours and then constricts and involutes, becoming the ligamentum arteriosum. Failure of this process to occur results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a condition that causes up to 10% of congenital heart defects. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) ( PDA PDA The ductus arteriosus (DA) allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation. After birth, the DA remains open for up to 72 hours and then constricts and involutes, becoming the ligamentum arteriosum. Failure of this process to occur results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a condition that causes up to 10% of congenital heart defects. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  • When the PDA PDA The ductus arteriosus (DA) allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation. After birth, the DA remains open for up to 72 hours and then constricts and involutes, becoming the ligamentum arteriosum. Failure of this process to occur results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a condition that causes up to 10% of congenital heart defects. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) closes, the patient presents with signs of heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) ( cyanosis Cyanosis A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule. Pulmonary Examination, dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, diaphoresis, shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock).
  • In the physical exam:
    • Delayed or absent femoral pulses
    • Cyanotic and/or cold lower extremities
    • Systolic ejection murmur at the left sternal border due to an underlying bicuspid aortic valve Aortic valve The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle. Heart: Anatomy 
    • Continuous machinery-like murmur of the infraclavicular location due to PDA PDA The ductus arteriosus (DA) allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation. After birth, the DA remains open for up to 72 hours and then constricts and involutes, becoming the ligamentum arteriosum. Failure of this process to occur results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a condition that causes up to 10% of congenital heart defects. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) or collateral circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment

Children

  • Fainting or near-fainting
  • Claudication, weakness, or chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is one of the most common and challenging complaints that may present in an inpatient and outpatient setting. The differential diagnosis of chest pain is large and includes cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric etiologies. Chest Pain on exertion
  • Failure to thrive Failure to Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT), or faltering growth, describes suboptimal weight gain and growth in children. The majority of cases are due to inadequate caloric intake; however, genetic, infectious, and oncological etiologies are also common. Failure to Thrive
  • In the physical exam: 
    • Radio-femoral delay/brachio-femoral delay: Femoral pulses are delayed compared to radial or brachial pulses.
    • Higher blood pressure in the upper vs. the lower extremities (difference of > 20 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg)
    • Presence of continuous murmur due to collateral circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment 
    • Presence of systolic ejection murmur due to a bicuspid aortic valve Aortic valve The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle. Heart: Anatomy

Adults

  • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
  • Stroke secondary to intracranial aneurysm Intracranial aneurysm Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in circle of willis at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhages. Giant aneurysms (>2. 5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the oculomotor nerve. Brain Aneurysms
  • Weak pulses of the lower extremities
  • Higher blood pressure in the upper vs. the lower extremities (difference of > 20 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg)

Diagnosis

Diagnostic test of choice: echocardiogram Echocardiogram Transposition of the Great Vessels

Findings:

  • Narrowing of the lumen
  • Any additional cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) lesions (e.g., bicuspid aortic valve Aortic valve The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle. Heart: Anatomy)
  • Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography): increased velocity and turbulence of blood flow Blood flow Blood flow refers to the movement of a certain volume of blood through the vasculature over a given unit of time (e.g., mL per minute). Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure through the narrowing

Supportive noninvasive workup

  • Chest X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests:
    • Neonates: cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0. 50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both heart ventricles or heart atria. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (heart failure) or several forms of cardiomyopathies. Ebstein’s Anomaly with pulmonary congestion
    • Older children:
      • Figure 3 sign: formed by the indentation at the coarctation point along the dilated aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy
      • Rib notching: erosion Erosion Partial-thickness loss of the epidermis Generalized and Localized Rashes of the lower surface of the ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy due to increased blood flow Blood flow Blood flow refers to the movement of a certain volume of blood through the vasculature over a given unit of time (e.g., mL per minute). Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure through the collateral intercostal arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology
  • ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) shows LV hypertrophy Hypertrophy General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to cell enlargement and accumulation of fluids and secretions, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia). Cellular Adaptation.
  • CT and MRI can be helpful when echocardiogram Echocardiogram Transposition of the Great Vessels results are deficient or unclear.

Comorbidity screening Screening Preoperative Care

  • Genetic testing Genetic Testing Detection of a mutation; genotype; karyotype; or specific alleles associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing. Myotonic Dystrophies for women suspected of having Turner syndrome Turner syndrome Turner syndrome is a genetic condition affecting women, in which 1 X chromosome is partly or completely missing. The classic result is the karyotype 45,XO with a female phenotype. Turner syndrome is associated with decreased sex hormone levels and is the most common cause of primary amenorrhea. Turner Syndrome
  • For adults, CT angiography Angiography Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium. Cardiac Surgery to screen for intracranial aneurysms, abdominal aortic aneurysms, and atherosclerotic changes to the coronary arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology

Management and Complications

Management

Neonates: 

  • Prostaglandin E1 E1 An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from androstenedione directly, or from testosterone via estradiol. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, placenta, and the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. Noncontraceptive Estrogen and Progestins IV to keep the ductus arteriosus Ductus arteriosus A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) open
  • Surgical management for patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship dependent on PDA PDA The ductus arteriosus (DA) allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation. After birth, the DA remains open for up to 72 hours and then constricts and involutes, becoming the ligamentum arteriosum. Failure of this process to occur results in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a condition that causes up to 10% of congenital heart defects. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Children and adults:

  • Surgical treatment is indicated in the case of:
    • Heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)
    • > 20 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg gradient across the coarctation
    • Presence of collateral blood flow Blood flow Blood flow refers to the movement of a certain volume of blood through the vasculature over a given unit of time (e.g., mL per minute). Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure
  • Therapeutic procedures include balloon angioplasty Angioplasty Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (balloon angioplasty) to compress an atheroma. Except for endarterectomy, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive endovascular procedures. Cardiac Surgery, stent placement, or patch Patch Nonpalpable lesion > 1 cm in diameter Generalized and Localized Rashes aortoplasty.

Complications

A few long-term complications can develop postsurgical repair:

  • Rebound hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
    • Most common in adults
    • Re-coarctation must be ruled out.
    • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension must be medically managed to reduce the risk of coronary or cerebrovascular disease.
  • Re-coarctation: 
    • Most commonly seen in neonates and children
    • Due to inadequate wall growth
    • Should be suspected in cases where symptoms resurge
  • Aortic aneurysm Aortic aneurysm An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of aorta. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and dissection: mainly in adults at the site of repair

Postoperative follow-up: Annual consult and imaging, such as an echocardiogram Echocardiogram Transposition of the Great Vessels, is required to detect complications.

Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

  • When detected in childhood and not treated, death occurs by 20–40 years old due to hypertensive complications such as coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease (CHD), or ischemic heart disease, describes a situation in which an inadequate supply of blood to the myocardium exists due to a stenosis of the coronary arteries, typically from atherosclerosis. Coronary Heart Disease or stroke.
  • If surgery performed prior to age 20, 10-year postrepair survival estimate is 90%.
  • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may resume all forms of exercise within a year of uncomplicated repair.

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries. Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy must be considered depending on the age group of the patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.

Neonates

Since patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present in shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock, other causes such as septic shock Septic shock Sepsis associated with hypotension or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to lactic acidosis; oliguria; or acute alteration in mental status. Sepsis and Septic Shock or hypovolemic shock Hypovolemic Shock Types of Shock must be ruled out.

  • Septic shock Septic shock Sepsis associated with hypotension or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to lactic acidosis; oliguria; or acute alteration in mental status. Sepsis and Septic Shock: organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated systemic host response to infection. The etiology is mainly bacterial; pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia is the most commonly known source. Presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor includes fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, tachypnea Tachypnea Increased respiratory rate. Pulmonary Examination, hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension, and/or altered mentation. Diagnosis is confirmed during the treatment when vasopressors Vasopressors Sepsis in Children are necessary to control hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension
  • Hypovolemic shock Hypovolemic Shock Types of Shock: a life-threatening condition of organ dysfunction resulting from decreased cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) output due to reduced preload Preload Cardiac Mechanics secondary to hemorrhage, gastrointestinal losses, burns Burns A burn is a type of injury to the skin and deeper tissues caused by exposure to heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Burns are classified according to their depth as superficial (1st-degree), partial-thickness (2nd-degree), full-thickness (3rd-degree), and 4th-degree burns. Burns, or polyuria Polyuria Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes. Renal Potassium Regulation. Presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor includes tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, tachypnea Tachypnea Increased respiratory rate. Pulmonary Examination, hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension, decreased capillary refill time Capillary Refill Time Cardiovascular Examination, and cold/clammy skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions in the case of compensated shock Compensated Shock Types of Shock. Treatment is based on volume resuscitation Resuscitation The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. . Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Children

If a young girl is diagnosed with coarctation, karyotyping Karyotyping Mapping of the karyotype of a cell. Chromosome Testing for Turner syndrome Turner syndrome Turner syndrome is a genetic condition affecting women, in which 1 X chromosome is partly or completely missing. The classic result is the karyotype 45,XO with a female phenotype. Turner syndrome is associated with decreased sex hormone levels and is the most common cause of primary amenorrhea. Turner Syndrome must be performed as it accounts for 15% of cases.

Turner syndrome Turner syndrome Turner syndrome is a genetic condition affecting women, in which 1 X chromosome is partly or completely missing. The classic result is the karyotype 45,XO with a female phenotype. Turner syndrome is associated with decreased sex hormone levels and is the most common cause of primary amenorrhea. Turner Syndrome: a genetic condition in which 1 X chromosome X chromosome The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species. Basic Terms of Genetics is partly or completely missing, resulting in karyotype Karyotype The full set of chromosomes presented as a systematized array of metaphase chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single cell nucleus arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the centromere. Congenital Malformations of the Female Reproductive System 45,X0. Presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor includes primary amenorrhea Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation. Congenital Malformations of the Female Reproductive System (characteristic of a woman with short stature), webbed neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, broad chest, and widely spaced nipples. Genetic testing Genetic Testing Detection of a mutation; genotype; karyotype; or specific alleles associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing. Myotonic Dystrophies confirms the diagnosis, and treatment is based on hormone replacement.

Adults

A delay in pulse may also be seen in peripheral arterial disease and aortic dissection Aortic dissection Aortic dissection occurs due to shearing stress from pulsatile pressure causing a tear in the tunica intima of the aortic wall. This tear allows blood to flow into the media, creating a “false lumen.” Aortic dissection is most commonly caused by uncontrolled hypertension. Aortic Dissection.

  • Peripheral arterial disease: obstruction of the arterial lumen resulting in decreased blood flow to the distal limbs caused by atherosclerosis or thrombosis. Patients may be asymptomatic, have progressive claudication, skin discoloration, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Diagnosis is confirmed with ankle-brachial index measurement and imaging studies to localize and assess the disease. Treatment varies depending on disease severity.
  • Aortic dissection: a tear in the tunica intima of the aortic wall allowing blood to flow into the media and create a “false lumen.” Aortic dissection results from pulsatile pressure shearing stress secondary to uncontrolled hypertension. Presentation includes acute “tearing” chest or back pain Back pain Back pain is a common complaint among the general population and is mostly self-limiting. Back pain can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic depending on the duration of symptoms. The wide variety of potential etiologies include degenerative, mechanical, malignant, infectious, rheumatologic, and extraspinal causes. Back Pain. Computed tomography is the diagnostic modality of choice. Type a dissections require surgery, while Type b dissections can be managed medically with impulse control using beta-blockers Beta-blockers Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety. Class 2 Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Beta Blockers) and calcium channel blockers Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications that inhibit voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells. The inhibition of these channels produces vasodilation and myocardial depression. There are 2 major classes of CCBs: dihydropyridines and non-dihydropyridines. Class 4 Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Calcium Channel Blockers).

References

  1. Hoffman, J.I.E. & Kaplan, S. (2002). The incidence of congenital heart disease. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01886-7
  2. Kliegman, R.M., St. Geme, J.W., Blum, N.J., Shah, S.S., Tasker, R.C., & Wilson, K.M. (2020). Acyanotic congenital heart disease: Obstructive lesions. Nelson textbook of pediatrics (pp. 238-2393.e1). https://www.clinicalkey.es/#!/content/3-s2.0-B9780323529501004545
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