Human cells are reliant on aerobic metabolism. Obtaining O2 from the environment and transporting it to the tissues while excreting the byproduct of cellular respiration Respiration The act of breathing with the lungs, consisting of inhalation, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of exhalation, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more carbon dioxide than the air taken in. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Anatomy (CO2) are processes key to survival and must be closely regulated. Chemoreceptors in the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy and tissues sense changes in the concentration of respiratory gasses and send messages to the CNS, which, in turn, modifies breathing parameters such as the respiratory rate Respiratory rate The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (respiration) per unit time, usually per minute. Pulmonary Examination or tidal volume Tidal volume The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are tv or V with subscript t. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing to compensate for any imbalance. Disruption of this control mechanism can be caused by severe disease and also result in severe disease.
Last updated: 26 May, 2021
Respiratory centers are specialized neuron clusters located in the medulla oblongata Medulla Oblongata The lower portion of the brain stem. It is inferior to the pons and anterior to the cerebellum. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities. Brain Stem: Anatomy. They regulate 2 respiratory parameters in response to changing demands:
Respiratory centers set the rate and depth of breathing. Changes in O₂, CO₂, and H+ concentrations are sensed by central and peripheral chemoreceptors, which regulate the activity of the respiratory centers to match metabolic and situational needs.
Central chemoreceptors are located in the medulla oblongata Medulla Oblongata The lower portion of the brain stem. It is inferior to the pons and anterior to the cerebellum. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities. Brain Stem: Anatomy and regulate respiratory center activity based on changes in blood gases.
Peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies and are more responsive to blood gases than central chemoreceptors.
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