Bipolar Bipolar Nervous System: Histology disorder is a highly recurrent psychiatric illness characterized by periods of manic/hypomanic features (distractibility, impulsivity Impulsivity Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, increased activity, decreased sleep Sleep A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility. Physiology of Sleep, talkativeness, grandiosity, flight of ideas) with or without depressive symptoms. The etiology is unknown but is believed to be a complex interplay of different factors: genetic, neurobiologic, and environmental. Diagnosis is clinical, with the help of screening Screening Preoperative Care tools to determine mood and depression symptoms. Underlying substance use or medical conditions need to be ruled out with laboratory and imaging tests if indicated. Treatment of bipolar Bipolar Nervous System: Histology disorder varies based on the presenting features but usually involves pharmacotherapy with lithium Lithium An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6. 938; 6. 997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating bipolar disorder. Ebstein’s Anomaly, valproic acid Valproic acid A fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anti-manic properties that is used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. First-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs, and/or antipsychotic Antipsychotic Antipsychotics, also called neuroleptics, are used to treat psychotic disorders and alleviate agitation, mania, and aggression. Antipsychotics are notable for their use in treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and are divided into 1st-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and atypical or 2nd-generation antipsychotics. First-Generation Antipsychotics medications. Other methods include psychotherapy Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is interpersonal treatment based on the understanding of psychological principles and mechanisms of mental disease. The treatment approach is often individualized, depending on the psychiatric condition(s) or circumstance. Psychotherapy and somatic therapies. Acute severe mania is a medical emergency and generally requires hospitalization Hospitalization The confinement of a patient in a hospital. Delirium. Maintenance therapy is typically necessary to reduce symptoms, prevent new mood episodes, decrease risk of suicide Suicide Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Patients with chronic medical conditions or psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicidal ideation, attempt, and/or completion. The patient assessment of suicide risk is very important as it may help to prevent a serious suicide attempt, which may result in death. Suicide, and improve overall psychosocial functioning.
Last updated: 27 Jul, 2021
Major depression (55%) is usually the most common 1st lifetime episode, followed by mania (22%).
Mania is a period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood Irritable mood Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience. Oppositional Defiant Disorder for ≥ 1 week, with symptoms for most of nearly every day.
Hypomania is a period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood Irritable mood Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience. Oppositional Defiant Disorder for > 4 consecutive days but < 1 week.
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