The abdominal cavity has a complex and intricate anatomy. A physician must know in which area of the abdomen every major structure is located to understand the clinical presentation of abdominal pathologies and/or in trauma situations to estimate which organs are most likely injured. The general surgeon, especially in emergency situations, uses this knowledge to execute the most advantageous surgical approach for a particular situation.
Last updated: Feb 21, 2023
The following divide the abdomen into its 9 regions:
Ventral herniorrhaphy: surgical repair of hernias of abdominal wall
The surgically relevant structures of the right hypochondrium Hypochondrium Anterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy include the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy and the biliary tree Biliary tree The bile ducts and the gallbladder. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy.
Gallbladder Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, located directly beneath the liver, that sits on top of the superior part of the duodenum. The primary functions of the gallbladder include concentrating and storing up to 50 mL of bile. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract: Anatomy:
The epigastrium contains the transverse colon Transverse colon The segment of large intestine between ascending colon and descending colon. It passes from the right colic flexure across the abdomen, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon. Colon, Cecum, and Appendix: Anatomy, the duodenum Duodenum The shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers. Small Intestine: Anatomy, and the pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy.
The most important structures of the left hypochondrium Hypochondrium Anterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy are the spleen Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, superior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach at the level of the 9th-11th ribs just below the diaphragm. The spleen is highly vascular and acts as an important blood filter, cleansing the blood of pathogens and damaged erythrocytes. Spleen: Anatomy and the stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy.
Blood supply: splenic artery and vein
Accessory glandular structures:
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