Valvular disorders can arise from the pulmonary valve Pulmonary valve A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle. Heart: Anatomy, located between the right ventricle (RV) and the pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs. Lungs: Anatomy (PA). Valvular disorders are diagnosed by echocardiography Echocardiography Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic. Tricuspid Valve Atresia (TVA). Pulmonic regurgitation Regurgitation Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (PR) is the backflow of blood through the valve. Prior cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) surgeries can lead to PR. Graham-Steell murmur, a high-pitched decrescendo murmur at the left sternal border, is a hallmark finding. Pulmonic regurgitation Regurgitation Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) results in RV volume overload, from which RV failure eventually develops. Severe PR is also treated with surgical valve replacement.
Last updated: 10 Mar, 2022
Pulmonary or pulmonic valve:
|Pulmonary stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)||Pulmonary regurgitation Regurgitation Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)|
|Etiology||Mostly congenital Congenital Chorioretinitis||Mostly acquired|
|Murmur||Systolic murmur, left upper sternal border (preceded by a systolic click that decreases with inspiration Inspiration Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing)||Diastolic murmur, left upper sternal border, increases with inspiration Inspiration Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing|
|S2 S2 Heart Sounds||Split S2 S2 Heart Sounds with soft and delayed P2||Split S2 S2 Heart Sounds with a loud P2|
|Echocardiographic findings||Thick and domed leaflets, with increased systolic velocity across the valve, right ventricular hypertrophy Ventricular Hypertrophy Tetralogy of Fallot (RVH)||Valvular abnormalities (depending on etiology), RV enlargement, and regurgitant jet in the right ventricular outflow tract|
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