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Endometrial Polyps

Endometrial polyps are pedunculated or sessile projections of the endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development that result from overgrowth of endometrial glands and stroma around a central vascular stalk. Endometrial polyps are a few millimeters to a few centimeters in size, can occur anywhere within the uterine cavity, and, while usually benign Benign Fibroadenoma, can be malignant, particularly in postmenopausal women. Endometrial polyps present with abnormal uterine or postmenopausal bleeding, although many are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. Endometrial polyps are best diagnosed with a saline-infusion sonogram Sonogram Chorioretinitis, and are usually treated with hysteroscopic resection.

Last updated: 11 Mar, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Endometrial polyps result from the usually benign Benign Fibroadenoma overgrowth of endometrial glands and stroma around a central vascular stalk forming a pedunculated or sessile projection Projection A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others. Defense Mechanisms from the endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development that can develop anywhere in the uterine cavity.

Epidemiology

  • Exact prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency difficult to establish (many patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are asymptomatic)
  • 10%–24% in women undergoing endometrial biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma or hysterectomy 
  • Prevalence of malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax in women with polyps:
    • Postmenopausal women: 4%–5% 
    • Premenopausal women: 1%–2%

Risk factors

  • Unopposed estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment
  • Tamoxifen Tamoxifen One of the selective estrogen receptor modulators with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the endometrium. Antiestrogens use
  • Postmenopausal hormone therapy
  • Advanced age
  • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity and metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that significantly increases the risk for several secondary diseases, notably cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver. In general, it is agreed that hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia, along with central obesity, are components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome ( hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, insulin resistance Insulin resistance Diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent hyperglycemia or ketosis. Diabetes Mellitus)
  • Lynch syndrome Lynch syndrome Lynch syndrome, also called hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome, and carries a significantly increased risk for endometrial cancer and other malignancies. Lynch syndrome has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern involving pathogenic variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes or epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Lynch syndrome
  • Cowden syndrome Cowden Syndrome Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited condition that presents with multiple, noncancerous growths on various parts of the body. The syndrome is classified as a phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome that is caused by mutations in the PTEN gene. Cowden Syndrome

Classification

  • By shape:
    • Pedunculated: elongated finger-like pedicle (more common)
    • Sessile: large, flat base
  • Endometrial polyps are 1 structural cause of abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym PALM-COEIN, with PALM representing the structural causes and COEIN indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding ( AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding) in the PALM-COEIN classification.
Causes of aub

Classification of abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym PALM-COEIN, with PALM representing the structural causes and COEIN indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and its causes

Image by Lecturio.

Pathophysiology

The exact mechanisms for pathogenesis are unknown, but estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy seems to play an important stimulating role.

  • Potential mechanism:
    • Monoclonal endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial Hyperplasia Benign proliferation of the endometrium in the uterus. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant. Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer
    • Overexpression of endometrial aromatase Aromatase An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring a of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the cyp19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase in the cytochrome p450 system. Adipose Tissue: Histology → ↑ local estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy production
    • Gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics mutations
  • Polyps (such as regular Regular Insulin endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development) are hormonal responsive:
    • Express both estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy and progesterone Progesterone The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone acts on the uterus, the mammary glands and the brain. It is required in embryo implantation; pregnancy maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for milk production. Progesterone, converted from pregnenolone, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and adrenal corticosteroids. Gonadal Hormones receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors:
      • Estrogen: stimulates proliferation
      • Progesterone: anti-proliferative
    • Tamoxifen Tamoxifen One of the selective estrogen receptor modulators with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the endometrium. Antiestrogens
      • Selective estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors modulator (SERM) that has estrogenic activity in endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development
      • Stimulates polyp proliferation (known risk factor)
  • Histopathology:
    • Hyperplastic Hyperplastic Colon Polyps overgrowth of endometrial glands and stroma occurs, surrounding the vascular core.
    • Smooth muscle may be present.
    • May develop anywhere within uterine cavity
    • Single or multiple lesions
Glandular cystic endometrial polyp

Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain of a glandular cystic Cystic Fibrocystic Change endometrial polyp

Image: “Glandular cystic Cystic Fibrocystic Change endometrial polyp” by Clinical Hospital ‘Pheophania’ of State Affairs Department, Zabolotny str,, 21, Kyiv 03680, Ukraine. License: CC BY 2.0

Clinical Presentation

Most common presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor of symptomatic polyps involves bleeding:

  • AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding may include:
    • Intermenstrual bleeding (most common)
    • Heavy menstrual bleeding Heavy menstrual bleeding Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding 
  • Postcoital/contact bleeding (if prolapsing through cervix Cervix The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Externally, the cervix is lined by stratified squamous cells; however, the cervical canal is lined by columnar epithelium. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy)
  • Postmenopausal bleeding
  • Fertility challenges:
    • Recurrent pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care loss
    • Infertility Infertility Infertility is the inability to conceive in the context of regular intercourse. The most common causes of infertility in women are related to ovulatory dysfunction or tubal obstruction, whereas, in men, abnormal sperm is a common cause. Infertility
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways is less commonly associated.
  • Often asymptomatic

Diagnosis

Imaging

  • Transvaginal ultrasound Transvaginal Ultrasound Obstetric Imaging:
    • 1st-line imaging modality for AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
    • Finding: thickened endometrial lining
  • Saline infusion sonogram Sonogram Chorioretinitis ( SIS SIS Infertility):
    • Best test for diagnosis of polyps
    • Process:
      • Sonography Sonography The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1. 6 to 10 megahertz. Diagnostic Procedures in Gynecology while uterine cavity is distended with injection of saline 
      • Distension allows visualization of intracavitary pathology.
    • Helpful in distinguishing between: 
    • Findings: mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast arising from endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development protruding into uterine cavity
  • Hysteroscopy Hysteroscopy Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus. Diagnostic Procedures in Gynecology:
    • Surgical alternative to SIS SIS Infertility
    • Allows for simultaneous diagnosis (visually and with biopsies) and treatment of most intrauterine pathology

Tissue sampling

Tissue sampling is required to rule out malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax within polyps.

  • Hysteroscopic polypectomy:
    • Preferred test 
    • Excisional biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma with endoscopic guide
    • Diagnostic and therapeutic
  • Dilation and curettage Curettage A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. Benign Bone Tumors (without hysteroscopy) 
  • Office pipelle endometrial biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma
    • 1st-line test for evaluating AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding or postmenopausal bleeding
    • Low sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques for polyps (inadequate for diagnosis)
    • Polyps identified: 
  • Indicated in high-risk patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship:
    • All postmenopausal women 
    • Women > 45 years of age with AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
    • Women < 45 years of age with AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and other risk factors: 
      • Unopposed estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment: obesity, ≥ 6 months of ovulatory dysfunction (e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women, affecting nearly 5%-10% of women in the age group. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation leading to oligomenorrhea (or amenorrhea), and metabolic dysfunction. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)
      • Tamoxifen Tamoxifen One of the selective estrogen receptor modulators with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the endometrium. Antiestrogens use
      • Lynch or Cowden syndromes

Management

  • Hysteroscopic polypectomy:
    • Gold standard treatment
    • Preferred treatment in:
      • Postmenopausal women
      • Symptomatic women
      • Asymptomatic patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with risk factors
    • Preferred treatment for polyps that are:
      • > 1.5 cm in size
      • Multiple 
      • Prolapsing through cervix Cervix The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Externally, the cervix is lined by stratified squamous cells; however, the cervical canal is lined by columnar epithelium. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy
    • Used in infertility patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship undergoing treatment
  • Observation:
  • Options for recurrent polyps:
    • Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (norgestrel). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis. Hormonal Contraceptives-containing intrauterine device ( IUD IUD Inhalant use disorder is a substance use disorder defined by pathologic consumption of inhalant substances (such as glue, paint, or lighter fluid) in order to reach a euphoric feeling. Individuals administer inhalers through the mouth (commonly known as huffing) or sniff them through the nose. The effect lasts for only several minutes. Inhalant Use Disorder)
    • Endometrial ablation ( patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who have completed childbearing)

Differential Diagnosis

  • Leiomyomas: benign Benign Fibroadenoma tumors arising from smooth muscle cells in uterine myometrium. Similar to polyps, both conditions often present with abnormal bleeding, especially when fibroids Fibroids A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the uterus and the gastrointestinal tract but can occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues. Infertility are submucosal. Diagnosis is made with pelvic imaging: fibroids Fibroids A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the uterus and the gastrointestinal tract but can occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues. Infertility are identified as hypoechoic Hypoechoic A structure that produces a low-amplitude echo (darker grays) Ultrasound (Sonography), well-circumscribed, round mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast; SIS SIS Infertility will help differentiate polyps from submucosal fibroids Fibroids A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the uterus and the gastrointestinal tract but can occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues. Infertility. Treatment may include surgical resection or medical options to reduce bleeding or bulk.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia or malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax: abnormal growth of endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development, which may progress to adenocarcinoma. Caused by excess estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy unopposed by progesterone Progesterone The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone acts on the uterus, the mammary glands and the brain. It is required in embryo implantation; pregnancy maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for milk production. Progesterone, converted from pregnenolone, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and adrenal corticosteroids. Gonadal Hormones, similar to polyps. Typically presents with heavy menstrual and/or intermenstrual bleeding in reproductive years, and postmenopausal bleeding when older. Diagnosis is made on biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Hysterectomy is usually the recommended treatment.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS PCOS Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women, affecting nearly 5%-10% of women in the age group. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation leading to oligomenorrhea (or amenorrhea), and metabolic dysfunction. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome): most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, characterized by hyperandrogenism Hyperandrogenism A condition caused by the excessive secretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex; the ovaries; or the testes. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are hirsutism and virilism as seen in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and adrenocortical hyperfunction. Potassium-sparing Diuretics, chronic anovulation Anovulation Suspension or cessation of ovulation in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (ovarian follicle). Depending on the etiology, ovulation may be induced with appropriate therapy. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome leading to oligomenorrhea Oligomenorrhea Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, and metabolic dysfunction. Bleeding is usually irregular, but when it occurs, may be quite heavy. Diagnosis of exclusion, so other causes of AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and hirsutism Hirsutism A condition observed in women and children when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated androgens from the ovaries, the adrenal glands, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include hypertrichosis, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome should be ruled out with imaging and lab work. Management includes restoring normal ovulation Ovulation The discharge of an ovum from a rupturing follicle in the ovary. Menstrual Cycle through weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, oral contraceptive Oral contraceptive Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both. Benign Liver Tumors pills, and assistance with fertility.

References

  1. Stewart EA. (2021). Endometrial polyps. In A. Chakrabarti, A. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/endometrial-polyps
  2. Mansour T. (2020). Endometrial polyp. In Chowdhury, Y. (Ed.), StatPearls. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from https://www.statpearls.com/articlelibrary/viewarticle/21105/ 
  3. American College of Obstetric and Gynecology Committee on Gynecology. (2012). Practice Bulletin No. 128: Diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women. ACOG Vol. 120, No. 1, pp. 197-203.

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