Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PanNETs)

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors Neuroendocrine tumors Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via apud cells), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition. Gastrinoma (PanNETs) arise from the endocrine pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy (islet cells) and represent 2%–5% of primary pancreatic neoplasms Neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. Benign Bone Tumors; the other 95%–98% of pancreatic neoplasms Neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. Benign Bone Tumors are from the exocrine pancreas Exocrine pancreas The major component (about 80%) of the pancreas composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as trypsinogen; lipase; amylase; and ribonuclease. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the duodenum. Pancreas: Anatomy. The majority of PanNETs are nonfunctional (50%–75%), while others that are functional may be benign Benign Fibroadenoma or malignant. Benign Benign Fibroadenoma or malignant PanNETs include insulinomas Insulinomas An insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor that manifests with hypoglycemia due to autologous secretion of insulin. It more commonly presents as a solitary benign tumor but can sometimes be associated with MEN type 1 (MEN1). Patients present with fasting hypoglycemia, which may manifest as episodes of diaphoresis, palpitations, tremor, and confusion. Insulinomas, gastrinomas, malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas, and very rare tumors named glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and VIPomas, after the hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types they secrete. Diagnosis is made clinically, with lab testing for hormone secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies, as well as imaging or upper endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Management is surgical or with newer molecularly targeted therapies.

Last updated: Apr 22, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Epidemiology

  • Rare; annual incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: ≤ 1 case/100,000 
  • 2%–3% of all pancreatic tumors arise from the endocrine pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy and are called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors Neuroendocrine tumors Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via apud cells), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition. Gastrinoma (PanNETs):
    • Resemble neuroendocrine tumors Neuroendocrine tumors Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via apud cells), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition. Gastrinoma (NETs) elsewhere in the alimentary tract
    • Benign Benign Fibroadenoma and malignant tumors
    • May produce pancreatic hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types (e.g., insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin, glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions, gastrin Gastrin A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of gastric juice. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters. Gastrointestinal Secretions) or be nonfunctional
  • Most commonly diagnosed between ages 30 and 50
  • Also called islet cell tumors

Etiology

  • Most PanNETs are sporadic Sporadic Selective IgA Deficiency.
  • 50%–75% are nonfunctioning (i.e., not associated with a hormonal syndrome).
  • In hereditary endocrinopathies:
    • Tumors have a more indolent course.
    • Syndromes that can be involved and percentage that develop PanNET in their lifetime 
      • MEN 1: 80%–100% 
      • Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) syndrome: 20%
      • Neurofibromatosis type I ( NF1 NF1 Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as phakomatosis, is a neurocutaneous disorder that is most commonly of autosomal dominant inheritance due to mutations in the NF1 gene. Neurofibromatosis type 1 presents a range of clinical manifestations with the most prominent features being various pigmented skin lesions called café au lait macules (CALMs), neurofibromas, freckling of the inguinal and axillary regions, and iris hamartomas. Neurofibromatosis Type 1): 10%
      • Tuberous sclerosis Sclerosis A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve. Wilms Tumor: 1%
  • Other potential risk factors, with weaker scientific evidence than hereditary causes:
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
    • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Chronic pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is due to persistent inflammation, fibrosis, and irreversible cell damage to the pancreas, resulting in a loss of endocrine and exocrine gland function. The most common etiologies are alcohol abuse and pancreatic duct obstruction. Patients often present with recurrent epigastric abdominal pain, nausea, and features of malabsorption syndrome (diarrhea, steatorrhea, and weight loss). Chronic Pancreatitis
    • Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder Alcohol is one of the most commonly used addictive substances in the world. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is defined as pathologic consumption of alcohol leading to impaired daily functioning. Acute alcohol intoxication presents with impairment in speech and motor functions and can be managed in most cases with supportive care. Alcohol Use Disorder

Pathology and Pathophysiology

Pathology

  • Except for insulinomas Insulinomas An insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor that manifests with hypoglycemia due to autologous secretion of insulin. It more commonly presents as a solitary benign tumor but can sometimes be associated with MEN type 1 (MEN1). Patients present with fasting hypoglycemia, which may manifest as episodes of diaphoresis, palpitations, tremor, and confusion. Insulinomas, > 50% are malignant.
  • Morphology resembles neuroendocrine tumors Neuroendocrine tumors Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via apud cells), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition. Gastrinoma found elsewhere in the alimentary tract:
    • Sites: 
      • Anywhere in the pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy or in immediate peripancreatic tissues
      • May be single or multiple
      • Gastrinoma Gastrinoma A gastrinoma is a tumor that secretes excessive levels of the hormone gastrin and is responsible for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Gastrinomas are frequently associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) and can arise from the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and/or even from the lymph nodes. Gastrinoma triangle (most gastrinomas): duodenum Duodenum The shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers. Small Intestine: Anatomy > pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy > extrapancreatic tissues
    • Microscopic features of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors Neuroendocrine tumors Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via apud cells), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition. Gastrinoma:
      • Architecture: solid nests, trabeculae, glandular, acinar
      • Cytology: small-to-medium cells, round nuclei with “salt-and-pepper” (finely stippled) chromatin Chromatin The material of chromosomes. It is a complex of dna; histones; and nonhistone proteins found within the nucleus of a cell. DNA Types and Structure, low mitotic index
    • Microscopic features of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas:
      • Architecture: sheets or nests of atypical cells
      • Cytology: pleomorphic Pleomorphic Bacteroides, hyperchromatic nuclei, mitotic figures
      • Higher proliferation index (more mitoses or ≥ 3% nuclei expressing Ki-67): tend to be aggressive
      • The only valid criteria for malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax are metastases, vascular invasion, and local infiltration.

Pathophysiology

3 of the most common somatic mutations:

  • MEN 1 (the same mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations seen in hereditary MEN 1, remembered as the “3 Ps PS Invasive Mechanical Ventilation”): 
    • Parathyroid Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are 2 pairs of small endocrine glands found in close proximity to the thyroid gland. The superior parathyroid glands are lodged within the parenchyma of the upper poles of the right and left thyroid lobes; the inferior parathyroid glands are close to the inferior tips or poles of the lobes. Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy hyperplasia Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from hypertrophy, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells. Cellular Adaptation or adenoma
    • Pituitary Pituitary A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk which is called the infundibulum. Hormones: Overview and Types adenoma from anterior pituitary Pituitary A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk which is called the infundibulum. Hormones: Overview and Types (usually prolactinoma Prolactinoma A pituitary adenoma which secretes prolactin, leading to hyperprolactinemia. Clinical manifestations include amenorrhea; galactorrhea; impotence; headache; visual disturbances; and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia)
    • PanNETs ( gastrinoma Gastrinoma A gastrinoma is a tumor that secretes excessive levels of the hormone gastrin and is responsible for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Gastrinomas are frequently associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) and can arise from the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and/or even from the lymph nodes. Gastrinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma Glucagonoma A glucagonoma is a glucagon-secreting neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the β-cells in the pancreatic islets. Most glucagonomas are malignant, and many of them are part of the autosomal dominant condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN 1). Elevated levels of glucagon lead to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glucagonoma, VIPoma VIPoma A VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising primarily in the pancreas that releases large amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This process leads to chronic watery diarrhea with concomitant hypokalemia and dehydration, as well as wheezing and flushing (known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome). VIPoma)
  • PTEN, TSC2: tumor Tumor Inflammation suppressor genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure that cause activation of the oncogenic mTOR mTOR Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome signaling pathway
  • ATRX, DAXX: allow telomeres to be maintained in neoplastic cells

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

  • If nonfunctional (50%–75%) → diagnosis made by mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast effect or presence of metastases
  • If functional (hormone secreting) → characteristics of the syndrome related to the elevated hormone produced
  • The 4 most common and distinctive functional PanNETs:
    • Insulinoma (beta cell tumors): the most common functional PanNET
      • Hyperinsulinism and recurrent hypoglycemic episodes
      • Most insulinomas Insulinomas An insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor that manifests with hypoglycemia due to autologous secretion of insulin. It more commonly presents as a solitary benign tumor but can sometimes be associated with MEN type 1 (MEN1). Patients present with fasting hypoglycemia, which may manifest as episodes of diaphoresis, palpitations, tremor, and confusion. Insulinomas are solitary.
      • 10% associated with MEN 1
      • 90% benign Benign Fibroadenoma
    • Gastrinoma Gastrinoma A gastrinoma is a tumor that secretes excessive levels of the hormone gastrin and is responsible for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Gastrinomas are frequently associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) and can arise from the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and/or even from the lymph nodes. Gastrinoma
      • Fasting hypergastrinemia and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome (ZES)
      • Usually multiple and located in the duodenal wall
      • Hypersecretion of gastric acid Gastric acid Hydrochloric acid present in gastric juice. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and peptic ulcers (in stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy, duodenum Duodenum The shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers. Small Intestine: Anatomy)
      • 25% associated with MEN 1
      • 60%–90% are malignant.
      • EGD shows multiple ulcers and thick gastric folds.
    • Glucagonoma Glucagonoma A glucagonoma is a glucagon-secreting neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the β-cells in the pancreatic islets. Most glucagonomas are malignant, and many of them are part of the autosomal dominant condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN 1). Elevated levels of glucagon lead to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glucagonoma (alpha cell tumor Tumor Inflammation):
      • Excess glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions is associated with necrolytic migratory erythema Necrolytic migratory erythema Recurrent cutaneous manifestation of glucagonoma characterized by necrolytic polycyclic migratory lesions with scaling borders. It is associated with elevated secretion of glucagon by the tumor. Other conditions with elevated serum glucagon levels such as hepatic cirrhosis may also result in similar skin lesions, which are referred to as pseudoglucagonoma syndrome. Glucagonoma, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance intolerance/ diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, stomatitis Stomatitis Stomatitis is a general term referring to inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, which may include sores. Stomatitis can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, allergic reactions, or exposure to irritants. The typical presentation may be either solitary or a group of painful oral lesions. Stomatitis, and a high rate of venous thromboembolism Venous thromboembolism Obstruction of a vein or veins (embolism) by a blood clot (thrombus) in the bloodstream. Hypercoagulable States.
      • Most glucagonomas present with hepatic metastases.
    • VIPoma VIPoma A VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising primarily in the pancreas that releases large amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This process leads to chronic watery diarrhea with concomitant hypokalemia and dehydration, as well as wheezing and flushing (known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome). VIPoma:
      • Produce excess vasoactive intestinal peptide Vasoactive intestinal peptide A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling ( VIP VIP A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling), which can cause watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria (WDHA syndrome)
      • Most are solitary.
      • Approximately 50% have hepatic metastases.
    • Rare functional PanNETs: 
      • Somatostatinomas: cause diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus, cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are cholesterol stones, while the rest are composed of bilirubin (pigment stones) and other mixed components. Patients are commonly asymptomatic but may present with biliary colic (intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant). Cholelithiasis, steatorrhea Steatorrhea A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty diarrhea, a result of abnormal digestion and/or intestinal absorption of fats. Diarrhea, and hypochlorhydria
      • Carcinoid tumors Carcinoid tumors Carcinoid tumors are small, well-differentiated, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Carcinoid syndrome describes the signs and symptoms associated with unregulated vasoactive hormone production by neuroendocrine tumors. Carcinoid tumors are most commonly found in the GI and bronchopulmonary tracts. Carcinoid Tumors and Syndrome: produce serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS and carcinoid syndrome Carcinoid syndrome A symptom complex associated with carcinoid tumor and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute carcinoid heart disease. Carcinoid Tumors and Syndrome 
      • 2 or more hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types secreted: Besides insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin, glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions, and gastrin Gastrin A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of gastric juice. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters. Gastrointestinal Secretions, PanNETs may produce adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex and its production of corticosteroids. Acth is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the n-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotropic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, acth can yield alpha-msh and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (clip). Adrenal Hormones (ACTH), antidiuretic hormone Antidiuretic hormone Antidiuretic hormones released by the neurohypophysis of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and osmolarity. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a cystine. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the kidney collecting ducts to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure. Hypernatremia (ADH), serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS, and norepinephrine Norepinephrine Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers, and of the diffuse projection system in the brain that arises from the locus ceruleus. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS.

Diagnosis

Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may present with metastatic disease in the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy, which is then confirmed with biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. The diagnostic approach focuses on identifying both the extent of disease spread and the likely primary site of disease. 

  • Imaging: 
    • Multiphasic CT or MRI of the abdomen
    • Nuclear medicine Nuclear medicine A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds. Nuclear Imaging imaging using radiolabeled somatostatin Somatostatin A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary growth hormone release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone; prolactin; insulin; and glucagon besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, srif-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the n-terminal. Gastrointestinal Secretions analogs
    • If available, functional imaging with gallium PET scan PET scan Ewing Sarcoma
    • Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) if not found on other imaging
    • An octreotide Octreotide A potent, long-acting synthetic somatostatin octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of growth hormone and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; diabetes mellitus; hypotension, orthostatic; hyperinsulinism; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula. Antidiarrheal Drugs scan (mimics natural somatostatin Somatostatin A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary growth hormone release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone; prolactin; insulin; and glucagon besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, srif-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the n-terminal. Gastrointestinal Secretions pharmacologically) detects somatostatin Somatostatin A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary growth hormone release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone; prolactin; insulin; and glucagon besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, srif-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the n-terminal. Gastrointestinal Secretions receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors expression.
  • Lab testing:
    • Hormone secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies for PanNETs:
      • Insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin
      • Glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions
      • Gastrin Gastrin A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of gastric juice. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters. Gastrointestinal Secretions
      • VIP VIP A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling
      • ACTH
      • ADH
      • Serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS
      • Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers, and of the diffuse projection system in the brain that arises from the locus ceruleus. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS
    • Peptide markers may be used in the follow-up of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with pancreatic NETs:
      • Chromogranin A ( CgA CgA A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions. Serum Tumor Markers)
      • Pancreatic polypeptide Pancreatic polypeptide A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the islets of langerhans and adjacent to cells containing somatostatin and glucagon. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of PP has been associated with obesity in rats and mice. Pancreatic Parameters (PP)
Solitary insulinoma in the head of the pancreas ct

Contrast-enhanced CT (transverse section) showing a solitary insulinoma in the head of the pancreas Pancreas The pancreas lies mostly posterior to the stomach and extends across the posterior abdominal wall from the duodenum on the right to the spleen on the left. This organ has both exocrine and endocrine tissue. Pancreas: Anatomy (arrow)

Image: “Insulinoma presenting as refractory seizure disorder” by Correia P, Panchani R, Ranjan R, Agrawal C. License: CC BY 3.0, edited by Lecturio.

Management

In general, management is surgical if the neoplasm is resectable.

  • Malignant or unresectable PanNETs: various treatments
    • Long-acting analogs of somatostatin Somatostatin A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary growth hormone release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone; prolactin; insulin; and glucagon besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, srif-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the n-terminal. Gastrointestinal Secretions:
      • Octreotide Octreotide A potent, long-acting synthetic somatostatin octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of growth hormone and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; diabetes mellitus; hypotension, orthostatic; hyperinsulinism; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula. Antidiarrheal Drugs
      • Lanreotide 
    • Debulking/resection of local and metastatic tumors
    • Radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma therapy (RT) and radiolabeled peptide receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors radionuclide therapy 
    • Hepatic artery Hepatic artery A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum. Liver: Anatomy embolization Embolization A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and intracranial arteriovenous malformations, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal Bleeding
    • Radiofrequency ablation Radiofrequency ablation Removal of tissue using heat generated from electrodes delivering an alternating electrical current in the frequency of radio waves. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases (RFA) and cryoablation Cryoablation Fibroadenoma
    • Radioembolization
    • Liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy transplantation
    • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma
  • Insulinoma:
    • Surgery if resectable tumor Tumor Inflammation (90%)
    • Only 10% of insulinomas Insulinomas An insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor that manifests with hypoglycemia due to autologous secretion of insulin. It more commonly presents as a solitary benign tumor but can sometimes be associated with MEN type 1 (MEN1). Patients present with fasting hypoglycemia, which may manifest as episodes of diaphoresis, palpitations, tremor, and confusion. Insulinomas are malignant; most other PanNETs are malignant.
    • Unresectable tumors: diazoxide (inhibits insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology
  • Gastrinoma Gastrinoma A gastrinoma is a tumor that secretes excessive levels of the hormone gastrin and is responsible for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Gastrinomas are frequently associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) and can arise from the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and/or even from the lymph nodes. Gastrinoma
  • VIPoma VIPoma A VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising primarily in the pancreas that releases large amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This process leads to chronic watery diarrhea with concomitant hypokalemia and dehydration, as well as wheezing and flushing (known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome). VIPoma:
    • Correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities ( dehydration Dehydration The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism. Volume Depletion and Dehydration, hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is defined as plasma potassium (K+) concentration < 3.5 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain plasma concentration between 3.5-5.2 mEq/L despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hypokalemia can be due to renal losses, GI losses, transcellular shifts, or poor dietary intake. Hypokalemia)
    • Surgery is possible in only approximately ½ of the cases.
  • Glucagonoma Glucagonoma A glucagonoma is a glucagon-secreting neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the β-cells in the pancreatic islets. Most glucagonomas are malignant, and many of them are part of the autosomal dominant condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN 1). Elevated levels of glucagon lead to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glucagonoma:
    • Nutritional support for patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery and nutritional deficiency
    • Octreotide Octreotide A potent, long-acting synthetic somatostatin octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of growth hormone and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; diabetes mellitus; hypotension, orthostatic; hyperinsulinism; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula. Antidiarrheal Drugs/lanreotide can improve skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, and diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea.

Differential Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses

  • Invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer ( PDAC PDAC Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer): arises from the ductal cells Ductal cells Gastrointestinal Secretions of the exocrine pancreas Exocrine pancreas The major component (about 80%) of the pancreas composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as trypsinogen; lipase; amylase; and ribonuclease. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the duodenum. Pancreas: Anatomy. Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor includes symptoms of abdominal pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, and weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery. Diagnosis is made by CT, MRI, and EUS. Management by surgical resection, usually with neoadjuvant or adjuvant Adjuvant Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (freund’s adjuvant, bcg, corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity. Vaccination chemotherapy Chemotherapy Osteosarcoma, provides the only chance for a cure in the 15%–20% of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who have resectable disease at the time of diagnosis. Other rare malignant tumors arising from the exocrine pancreas Exocrine pancreas The major component (about 80%) of the pancreas composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as trypsinogen; lipase; amylase; and ribonuclease. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the duodenum. Pancreas: Anatomy are acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.
  • Acinar cell carcinoma: a rare primary malignant exocrine gland tumor Tumor Inflammation that produces exocrine enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes such as trypsin Trypsin A serine endopeptidase that is formed from trypsinogen in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by enteropeptidase in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. Proteins and Peptides and lipase Lipase An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. Malabsorption and Maldigestion. Acinar cell carcinomas can cause a metastatic fat necrosis Fat necrosis A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol. Cell Injury and Death syndrome due to lipase Lipase An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. Malabsorption and Maldigestion release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology in the circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment. Such malignancies can occur in children, and there is a better prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas than with PDAC PDAC Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer.
  • Pancreatoblastoma: a rare primary malignant exocrine gland tumor Tumor Inflammation seen mostly in children. The histology shows multiple lines of differentiation (acinar, ductal, mesenchymal, neuroendocrine) and squamoid nests mixed with acinar cells Acinar cells Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs. Gastrointestinal Secretions. The prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas is relatively good.

Differential diagnosis of insulinoma

  • Factitious hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia: may result from exogenous self-administration of insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin. Factitious hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia is often seen with healthcare workers who present with symptoms of hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia. Unlike with insulinomas Insulinomas An insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor that manifests with hypoglycemia due to autologous secretion of insulin. It more commonly presents as a solitary benign tumor but can sometimes be associated with MEN type 1 (MEN1). Patients present with fasting hypoglycemia, which may manifest as episodes of diaphoresis, palpitations, tremor, and confusion. Insulinomas, a laboratory evaluation will reveal low C peptide and proinsulin levels despite high insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin levels. Management includes psychiatric therapy and correcting hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia.
  • Sulfonylurea toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation: may occur in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who are not eating or have renal impairment. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship will present with hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia. Unlike with insulinomas Insulinomas An insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor that manifests with hypoglycemia due to autologous secretion of insulin. It more commonly presents as a solitary benign tumor but can sometimes be associated with MEN type 1 (MEN1). Patients present with fasting hypoglycemia, which may manifest as episodes of diaphoresis, palpitations, tremor, and confusion. Insulinomas, serum sulfonylurea testing will be positive. Management includes the withdrawal of the causative agent and treatment for hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia.

Differential diagnosis of gastrinoma Gastrinoma A gastrinoma is a tumor that secretes excessive levels of the hormone gastrin and is responsible for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Gastrinomas are frequently associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) and can arise from the pancreas, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and/or even from the lymph nodes. Gastrinoma and glucagonoma Glucagonoma A glucagonoma is a glucagon-secreting neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the β-cells in the pancreatic islets. Most glucagonomas are malignant, and many of them are part of the autosomal dominant condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN 1). Elevated levels of glucagon lead to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glucagonoma

  • Peptic ulcer disease Peptic ulcer disease Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) refers to the full-thickness ulcerations of duodenal or gastric mucosa. The ulcerations form when exposure to acid and digestive enzymes overcomes mucosal defense mechanisms. The most common etiologies include Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Peptic Ulcer Disease ( PUD PUD Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) refers to the full-thickness ulcerations of duodenal or gastric mucosa. The ulcerations form when exposure to acid and digestive enzymes overcomes mucosal defense mechanisms. The most common etiologies include Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Peptic Ulcer Disease): ulceration Ulceration Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers of the mucosal lining of the stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy or duodenum Duodenum The shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers. Small Intestine: Anatomy, most commonly due to infection with Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus campylobacter, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus Helicobacter. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. Helicobacter or use of NSAIDs NSAIDS Primary vs Secondary Headaches. The most common symptom of both duodenal and gastric ulcers is epigastric pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways. Diagnosis is made by endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Sporadic Sporadic Selective IgA Deficiency peptic ulcers usually respond well to treatment regimens with antibiotics and PPIs.
  • VIPoma VIPoma A VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising primarily in the pancreas that releases large amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This process leads to chronic watery diarrhea with concomitant hypokalemia and dehydration, as well as wheezing and flushing (known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome). VIPoma: neuroendocrine tumor Tumor Inflammation secreting VIP VIP A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling. VIPoma VIPoma A VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising primarily in the pancreas that releases large amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This process leads to chronic watery diarrhea with concomitant hypokalemia and dehydration, as well as wheezing and flushing (known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome). VIPoma is also associated with MEN 1. The tumor Tumor Inflammation causes chronic diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, flushing, and wheezing Wheezing Wheezing is an abnormal breath sound characterized by a whistling noise that can be relatively high-pitched and shrill (more common) or coarse. Wheezing is produced by the movement of air through narrowed or compressed small (intrathoracic) airways. Wheezing. Diagnosis is established by measuring blood and urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat levels of VIP VIP A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling. Treatment consists of surgical tumor Tumor Inflammation removal and symptom management.

References

  1. Strosberg, JR. (2021). Classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, localization, and staging of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. UpToDate. Retrieved July 19, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/classification-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-localization-and-staging-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
  2. Jensen, R. (2018). Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. In Jameson, J.L., et al. (Ed.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 20th ed. Vol 1. pp. 596–616. McGraw-Hill Education. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2129&sectionid=192104918
  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). (2019). Neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas: Risk factors. Cancer.Net. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/neuroendocrine-tumor-pancreas/risk-factors

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