Achieve Mastery of Medical Concepts

Study for medical school and boards with Lecturio

General Principles of Toxidromes

A toxidrome is a group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with a toxic ingestion or exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment. There are 5 traditional toxidromes: anticholinergic Anticholinergic Anticholinergic drugs block the effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Anticholinergic agents inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in effects on the smooth muscle in the respiratory tract, vascular system, urinary tract, GI tract, and pupils of the eyes. Anticholinergic Drugs, cholinergic, opioid Opioid Compounds with activity like opiate alkaloids, acting at opioid receptors. Properties include induction of analgesia or narcosis. Constipation, sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic drugs, also known as adrenergic agonists, mimic the action of the stimulators (α, β, or dopamine receptors) of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Sympathomimetic drugs are classified based on the type of receptors the drugs act on (some agents act on several receptors but 1 is predominate). Sympathomimetic Drugs, and sedative-hypnotic. Toxidromes often arise from ingestion of overdose amounts, accumulation of medications with resultant elevated serum levels, adverse drug reactions, or interactions between 2 or more medications. Rapid recognition of a toxidrome can help determine the specific poison or class of toxin that was ingested. On presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor of a suspected toxidrome, appropriate airway Airway ABCDE Assessment, breathing, and circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment assessment is initiated. Decontamination is performed, and the patient is stabilized. Diagnosis is accomplished with clinical findings based on medication and exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment history, vital signs, mental status, and physical examination. Testing generally includes toxicology and drug levels, electrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes are mineral salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions, which can be either be positively (cations) or negatively (anions) charged. Electrolytes are distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments in different concentrations. Electrolytes are essential for various basic life-sustaining functions. Electrolytes, and ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG). Management consists of supportive care and antidote Antidote An antidote is a substance that counteracts poisoning or toxicity. Substances that can cause poisoning include heavy metals (from occupation, treatments, or diet), alcohols, environmental toxins, and medications. Antidotes of Common Poisonings administration if indicated.

Last updated: Mar 6, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

A toxidrome describes a group of signs, symptoms, and/or characteristic effects associated with exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to a particular substance or class of substances.

Epidemiology

  • In the United States:
    • By 2008, poisonings surpassed motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology vehicle collisions as the leading cause of injury-related death.
    • In 2017: 
      • > 70,000 drug overdose-related deaths 
      • 68% involving opioid Opioid Compounds with activity like opiate alkaloids, acting at opioid receptors. Properties include induction of analgesia or narcosis. Constipation(s)
  • Most cases involving children < 6 years old involved non-intentional ingestion, whereas most fatalities in adults were suicidal attempts.
  • Suicidal poisoning varies by region:
    • Suicide Suicide Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Patients with chronic medical conditions or psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicidal ideation, attempt, and/or completion. The patient assessment of suicide risk is very important as it may help to prevent a serious suicide attempt, which may result in death. Suicide cases are prevalent in the United Kingdom and Scandinavian nations.
    • Generally fewer cases in Eastern Europe and Central and South America

Approach to the poisoned patient

  • Initial evaluation:
    • Utilize the airway Airway ABCDE Assessment, breathing, and circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment (ABC) assessment to secure the airway Airway ABCDE Assessment and begin resuscitation Resuscitation The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. . Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the patient.
    • Vital signs, Glasgow Coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma Scale Scale Dermatologic Examination, pulse oximetry
    • ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and continuous cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) monitoring
    • Capillary glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance measurement
  • Additional examination:
    • Pupil Pupil The pupil is the space within the eye that permits light to project onto the retina. Anatomically located in front of the lens, the pupil’s size is controlled by the surrounding iris. The pupil provides insight into the function of the central and autonomic nervous systems. Pupil: Physiology and Abnormalities size
    • Characteristic odors
    • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions findings
    • Neuromuscular abnormalities
  • Assess for occult trauma.
  • If a toxidrome is suspected:
    • Decontamination (e.g., GI, skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions, eye)
    • Utilize an antidote Antidote An antidote is a substance that counteracts poisoning or toxicity. Substances that can cause poisoning include heavy metals (from occupation, treatments, or diet), alcohols, environmental toxins, and medications. Antidotes of Common Poisonings if needed (e.g., naloxone Naloxone A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. Opioid Analgesics administration in suspected opioid Opioid Compounds with activity like opiate alkaloids, acting at opioid receptors. Properties include induction of analgesia or narcosis. Constipation toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation can prevent intubation Intubation Peritonsillar Abscess).
    • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are most commonly poisoned by oral ingestion, but other routes have to be considered:
      • Inhalation
      • Insufflation
      • Cutaneous
      • Mucous membrane Mucous membrane An epithelium with mucus-secreting cells, such as goblet cells. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose connective tissue, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of smooth muscle cells that separates the mucosa from submucosa. Barrett’s Esophagus exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment
      • Injection
    • Attempt to obtain information about exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment or ingestion: 
      • Check pill bottles, confirming dosing and amount left.
      • Ask about supplements and recent environmental exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment(s).
      • Check for drug-related equipment or a medical alert bracelet.
    • Utilize your local toxicology center for information.

Testing

Tests depend on the clinical situation and should not delay initiation of supportive care. These include but are not limited to:

  • Drug levels (e.g., acetaminophen Acetaminophen Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter nonopioid analgesic and antipyretic medication and the most commonly used analgesic worldwide. Despite the widespread use of acetaminophen, its mechanism of action is not entirely understood. Acetaminophen, salicylates)
  • Toxicology screen: 
    • Some substances are not detected.
    • A number of substances also give false-positive results.
  • Electrolyte, renal, and hepatic panel
  • Serum osmolality Osmolality Plasma osmolality refers to the combined concentration of all solutes in the blood. Renal Sodium and Water Regulation, ketones Ketones Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group =C=O bonded to two hydrocarbon groups. Basics of Carbohydrates, creatine kinase Creatine kinase A transferase that catalyzes formation of phosphocreatine from ATP + creatine. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic isoenzymes have been identified in human tissues: the mm type from skeletal muscle, the mb type from myocardial tissue and the bb type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins. Skeletal Muscle Contraction, lactate, lipase Lipase An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. Malabsorption and Maldigestion
  • Blood gas, co-oximetry (for carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning poisoning)
  • Pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care test in all women of childbearing age
  • Radiologic imaging (evaluate radiopaque Radiopaque An object of high density that blocks X-rays (looks white) X-rays toxins, drug packets, and other possible effects, including pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid within the lung parenchyma and alveoli as a consequence of a disease process. Based on etiology, pulmonary edema is classified as cardiogenic or noncardiogenic. Patients may present with progressive dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, or respiratory failure. Pulmonary Edema)

Anticholinergic Toxicity

Etiology

  • Drugs: 
    • Antihistamines Antihistamines Antihistamines are drugs that target histamine receptors, particularly H1 and H2 receptors. H1 antagonists are competitive and reversible inhibitors of H1 receptors. First-generation antihistamines cross the blood-brain barrier and can cause sedation. Antihistamines ( diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine A histamine h1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects. Antihistamines, hydroxyzine Hydroxyzine A histamine h1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite cetirizine, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative. Antihistamines)
    • Tricyclic antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications used in the management of mood disorders, primarily depression. These agents, named after their 3-ring chemical structure, act via reuptake inhibition of neurotransmitters (particularly norepinephrine and serotonin) in the brain. Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) (e.g., amitriptyline Amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines. Tricyclic Antidepressants)
    • Antimuscarinic for overactive bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess ( oxybutynin Oxybutynin Anticholinergic Drugs)
    • Belladonna alkaloids ( atropine Atropine An alkaloid, originally from atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae. Hyoscyamine is the 3(s)-endo isomer of atropine. Anticholinergic Drugs, scopolamine Scopolamine An alkaloid from solanaceae, especially datura and scopolia. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like atropine, but may have more central nervous system effects. Its many uses include an anesthetic premedication, the treatment of urinary incontinence and motion sickness, an antispasmodic, and a mydriatic and cycloplegic. Antiemetics)
    • Muscle relaxant ( cyclobenzaprine Cyclobenzaprine Spasmolytics)
    • Cyclopentolate Cyclopentolate A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia. Anticholinergic Drugs (eye drops)
    • Antipsychotics ( chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine’s antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking dopamine receptors. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup. First-Generation Antipsychotics, quetiapine Quetiapine A dibenzothiazepine and antipsychotic agent that targets the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor; histamine h1 receptor, adrenergic alpha1 and alpha2 receptors, as well as the dopamine d1 receptor and dopamine D2 receptor. It is used in the treatment of schizophrenia; bipolar disorder and depressive disorder. Second-Generation Antipsychotics, olanzapine Olanzapine A benzodiazepine derivative that binds serotonin receptors; muscarinic receptors; histamine h1 receptors; adrenergic alpha-1 receptors; and dopamine receptors. It is an antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; and major depressive disorder; it may also reduce nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Second-Generation Antipsychotics)
  • Plants Plants Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic
    • Deadly nightshade or belladonna
    • Jimson weed
Atropa belladonna

Berries of Atropa belladonna Atropa belladonna A plant species of the genus atropa, family solanaceae that contains atropine; scopolamine; belladonna alkaloids and other solanaceous alkaloids. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for solanum. Toxicology of Plants

Image: “Berries of Atropa belladonna Atropa belladonna A plant species of the genus atropa, family solanaceae that contains atropine; scopolamine; belladonna alkaloids and other solanaceous alkaloids. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for solanum. Toxicology of Plants” by Intensive Care Unit, Mother and Child Hospital, University Hospital Hassan II, Fes, Morrocco. License: CC BY 2.0

Pathophysiology

  • Inhibition of muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission Neurotransmission The communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across electrical synapses. Synapses and Neurotransmission → blocking acetylcholine Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS from binding to receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors
  • Muscarinic receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors are located on:
    • Smooth muscle in the GI tract, bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess, bronchi Bronchi The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the trachea. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into bronchioles and pulmonary alveoli. Bronchial Tree: Anatomy, heart
    • Salivary glands Salivary glands The salivary glands are exocrine glands positioned in and around the oral cavity. These glands are responsible for secreting saliva into the mouth, which aids in digestion. There are 3 major paired salivary glands: the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands. Salivary Glands: Anatomy
    • Sweat glands Sweat glands Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the dermis. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct. Soft Tissue Abscess
    • Ciliary body Ciliary body A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the retina. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion. Eye: Anatomy of the eye
    • CNS

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor and diagnosis

Signs and symptoms:

  • “Red as a beet”: cutaneous vasodilation Vasodilation The physiological widening of blood vessels by relaxing the underlying vascular smooth muscle. Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs
  • “Dry as a bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types”: anhidrosis or inhibition of sweat glands Sweat glands Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the dermis. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct. Soft Tissue Abscess, dry axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy and groin Groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh. Male Genitourinary Examination, dry mouth (can cause a muffled voice)
  • “Hot as a hare”: lack of sweating and ↑ stimulation causes hyperthermia
  • “Blind as a bat”: mydriasis Mydriasis Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in adie syndrome. Glaucoma or blurry vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam due to inability to constrict pupils and accommodate (blown pupils)
  • “Mad as a hatter”: central muscarinic blockade → delirium Delirium Delirium is a medical condition characterized by acute disturbances in attention and awareness. Symptoms may fluctuate during the course of a day and involve memory deficits and disorientation. Delirium, hallucinations Hallucinations Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with mental disorders. Schizophrenia, psychosis, seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures, skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions picking
  • “Full as a flask”: urinary retention Urinary retention Inability to empty the urinary bladder with voiding (urination). Delirium because detrusor muscle Detrusor muscle Urinary Incontinence and urethral sphincter unable to relax
  • Other:
    • Tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children: earliest and most reliable sign of anticholinergic Anticholinergic Anticholinergic drugs block the effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Anticholinergic agents inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in effects on the smooth muscle in the respiratory tract, vascular system, urinary tract, GI tract, and pupils of the eyes. Anticholinergic Drugs toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation
    • Decreased or absent bowel sounds

Diagnostic approach:

Suspect in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with above features.

Management

  • ABC assessment
  • Decontamination:
    • Poisoning usually by ingestion
    • In patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with intact mental status, administer activated charcoal Charcoal An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. Antidotes of Common Poisonings (AC).
  • Supportive care: IV fluids IV fluids Intravenous fluids are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids. Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Intravenous Fluids, cooling, sedation, intubation Intubation Peritonsillar Abscess
  • Cardiotoxicity:
    • Arrhythmias or long QT interval QT interval Electrocardiogram (ECG) on ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) (e.g., TCA ingestion): Administer sodium Sodium A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. Hyponatremia bicarbonate Bicarbonate Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the ph of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity. Electrolytes or urinary alkalinization.
    • Tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children: supportive care, as this eventually resolves
  • Agitation Agitation A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures: Give benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines work on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor to produce inhibitory effects on the CNS. Benzodiazepines do not mimic GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans, but instead potentiate GABA activity. Benzodiazepines.
  • Antidotal therapy: physostigmine Physostigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity. Cholinomimetic Drugs 
    • Inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reversibly, thus increasing acetylcholine Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS
    • Used in severe anticholinergic Anticholinergic Anticholinergic drugs block the effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Anticholinergic agents inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in effects on the smooth muscle in the respiratory tract, vascular system, urinary tract, GI tract, and pupils of the eyes. Anticholinergic Drugs toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation (patient is agitated and delirious)
    • 0.5–2 mg IV push slowly over 5 minutes

Cholinergic Toxicity

Etiology

  • Pesticides resulting in field workers exposed (dermal, inhalation) to sprayed chemicals
  • Organophosphates: 
    • Cause inhibition of AChE enzyme irreversibly
    • Malathion Malathion A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes. Cholinomimetic Drugs, parathion Parathion A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide. Insecticide Poisoning, fenthion Fenthion Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide. Insecticide Poisoning
  • Carbamates:
    • Cause transient inhibition of AChE enzyme
    • Aldicarb, methomyl
  • Donepezil Donepezil An indan and piperidine derivative that acts as a selective and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. Donepezil is highly selective for the central nervous system and is used in the management of mild to moderate dementia in alzheimer disease. Cholinomimetic Drugs: used in Alzheimer therapy
  • Reversal of neuromuscular blockade Neuromuscular Blockade The intentional interruption of transmission at the neuromuscular junction by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from nerve block in which nerve conduction (neural conduction) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce muscle relaxation as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here. Aminoglycosides ( neostigmine Neostigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike physostigmine, does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Cholinomimetic Drugs, pyridostigmine Pyridostigmine A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than neostigmine. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants. Cholinomimetic Drugs, edrophonium Edrophonium A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles. Myasthenia Gravis)

Pathophysiology

  • Inhibition or binding of AChE causes ↑ levels of acetylcholine Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS in synaptic clefts
  • Symptoms arise from areas where receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors are found:
    • Primary effect is on the RBC AChE.
    • Smooth muscle in the GI tract
    • Bronchi Bronchi The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the trachea. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into bronchioles and pulmonary alveoli. Bronchial Tree: Anatomy
    • Heart
    • Salivary and sweat glands Sweat glands Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the dermis. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct. Soft Tissue Abscess
    • Ciliary body Ciliary body A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the retina. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion. Eye: Anatomy of the eye

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor and diagnosis

Signs and symptoms:

  • Dominant features:
    • Miosis Miosis Pupil: Physiology and Abnormalities, lacrimation, salivation
    • Bradycardia Bradycardia Bradyarrhythmia is a rhythm in which the heart rate is less than 60/min. Bradyarrhythmia can be physiologic, without symptoms or hemodynamic change. Pathologic bradyarrhythmia results in reduced cardiac output and hemodynamic instability causing syncope, dizziness, or dyspnea. Bradyarrhythmias
    • Bronchorrhea, bronchospasm Bronchospasm Asthma Drugs
    • Urination, emesis, and diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea
    • Diaphoresis 
  • CNS: 
    • CNS depression or coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma
    • Seizure 
    • Neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy
  • Cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation (aside from bradycardia Bradycardia Bradyarrhythmia is a rhythm in which the heart rate is less than 60/min. Bradyarrhythmia can be physiologic, without symptoms or hemodynamic change. Pathologic bradyarrhythmia results in reduced cardiac output and hemodynamic instability causing syncope, dizziness, or dyspnea. Bradyarrhythmias):

Diagnostic approach:

  • Take note of medication and occupational/ exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment history.
  • Presenting symptoms
  • Some organophosphorus agents have a distinct petroleum- or garlic-like odor.

Management

  • ABC assessment
  • Decontamination:
    • Removal of clothes, irrigation or washing of exposed areas
    • AC (within an hour of ingestion)
  • Supportive care: 
    • IV fluids IV fluids Intravenous fluids are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids. Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Intravenous Fluids
    • Intubation Intubation Peritonsillar Abscess (avoid succinylcholine Succinylcholine A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for. Cholinomimetic Drugs because succinylcholine Succinylcholine A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for. Cholinomimetic Drugs is metabolized by AChE)
  • Seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures: Give benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines work on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor to produce inhibitory effects on the CNS. Benzodiazepines do not mimic GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans, but instead potentiate GABA activity. Benzodiazepines.
  • Antidotal therapy:
    • Atropine Atropine An alkaloid, originally from atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae. Hyoscyamine is the 3(s)-endo isomer of atropine. Anticholinergic Drugs
      • Binds to muscarinic receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors, temporarily blocking them and reducing cholinergic effect(s)
      • Dosing titrated to clearance of respiratory secretions and cessation of bronchoconstriction
    • Pralidoxime (2PAM): 
      • Effective in both muscarinic and nicotinic effects
      • Reactivates AChE but has a transient inhibition effect on the enzyme, so should be given in conjunction with atropine Atropine An alkaloid, originally from atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae. Hyoscyamine is the 3(s)-endo isomer of atropine. Anticholinergic Drugs

Mnemonic

SLUDGE BBB BBB Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined endothelial cells with tight junctions that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the brain tissue. Nervous System: Histology” (muscarinic effects):

  • Salivation
  • Lacrimation (crying—key feature)
  • Urination
  • Defecation ( diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea)
  • GI cramping (distress)
  • Emesis
  • Bronchospasm
  • Bronchorrhea
  • Bradycardia

“DUMBELS” (muscarinic effects):

  • Defecation
  • Urination
  • Miosis,
  • Bronchorrhea/Bronchospasm/Bradycardia
  • Emesis
  • Lacrimation
  • Salivation 

“MTWTF” (nicotinic effects):

Opioid Toxicity

Etiology

  • Natural opiate derivatives: opium, codeine Codeine An opioid analgesic related to morphine but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough. Opioid Analgesics, morphine Morphine The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. Opioid Analgesics
  • Semi-synthetic opiate derivatives: heroin Heroin A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of federal regulations, title 21 parts 329. 1, 1308. 11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by federal statute. Nephrotic Syndrome, oxycodone Oxycodone A semisynthetic derivative of codeine. Opioid Analgesics, hydromorphone Hydromorphone An opioid analgesic made from morphine and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine. Opioid Analgesics, hydrocodone Hydrocodone Opioid Analgesics
  • Synthetic opiate derivatives: buprenorphine Buprenorphine A derivative of the opioid alkaloid thebaine that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than morphine. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use. Opioid Analgesics, fentanyl Fentanyl A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. Opioid Analgesics, methadone Methadone A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Opioid Analgesics, meperidine

Pathophysiology

  • Stimulation of 3 receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors:
    • Mu 
    • Kappa 
    • Sigma 
  • Receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors are found throughout the central and peripheral nervous system Nervous system The nervous system is a small and complex system that consists of an intricate network of neural cells (or neurons) and even more glial cells (for support and insulation). It is divided according to its anatomical components as well as its functional characteristics. The brain and spinal cord are referred to as the central nervous system, and the branches of nerves from these structures are referred to as the peripheral nervous system. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, producing multiple effects:
    • Analgesia Analgesia Methods of pain relief that may be used with or in place of analgesics. Anesthesiology: History and Basic Concepts: Nociceptive information is inhibited at multiple points in the nervous system Nervous system The nervous system is a small and complex system that consists of an intricate network of neural cells (or neurons) and even more glial cells (for support and insulation). It is divided according to its anatomical components as well as its functional characteristics. The brain and spinal cord are referred to as the central nervous system, and the branches of nerves from these structures are referred to as the peripheral nervous system. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, preventing transmission to the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification.
    • Euphoria Euphoria An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states. Hepatic Encephalopathy: ↑ dopamine Dopamine One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology from the mesolimbic system
    • Anxiolysis: noradrenergic effect in locus Locus Specific regions that are mapped within a genome. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of chromosome 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or hereditary disease. Basic Terms of Genetics ceruleus

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor and diagnosis

Features:

  • Respiratory:
  • Bradycardia Bradycardia Bradyarrhythmia is a rhythm in which the heart rate is less than 60/min. Bradyarrhythmia can be physiologic, without symptoms or hemodynamic change. Pathologic bradyarrhythmia results in reduced cardiac output and hemodynamic instability causing syncope, dizziness, or dyspnea. Bradyarrhythmias
  • Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension
  • CNS depression, coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma
  • Seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures (can be from meperidine, tramadol Tramadol A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating. Opioid Analgesics)
  • Pinpoint or constricted pupils
  • QT interval QT interval Electrocardiogram (ECG) prolongation ( methadone Methadone A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Opioid Analgesics)
  • Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Edema ( heroin Heroin A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of federal regulations, title 21 parts 329. 1, 1308. 11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by federal statute. Nephrotic Syndrome)
  • Bowel obstruction Bowel obstruction Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of intestinal contents toward the anal canal. Ascaris/Ascariasis or decreased bowel sounds

Diagnostic approach:

  • History, medication(s), and presenting features
  • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may be hiding drugs:
    • With consent, perform vaginal and/or rectal exam.
    • Imaging as indicated
  • Examine for track marks, skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (from injection sites).
  • Check for medication patches Patches Vitiligo.
  • Immediately check glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance ( hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia can present similarly).

Management

  • ABC assessment
  • Supportive measures, focusing on respiratory support
  • Naloxone Naloxone A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. Opioid Analgesics (narcan):
    •  0.4 to 2 mg IV, and up to 10 mg, every 3 minutes
    • Can be given nasally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly if IV access is delayed
    • Naloxone Naloxone A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. Opioid Analgesics infusion if the patient continually needs more naloxone Naloxone A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. Opioid Analgesics pushes
    • Withdrawal possible in opioid-dependent individuals
  • GI decontamination: generally not indicated, as opioid-intoxicated patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are at risk of aspiration

Related videos

Sympathomimetic

Etiology

  • Amphetamines Amphetamines Analogs or derivatives of amphetamine. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation. Stimulants (ephedrine)
  • Bath salts (mephedrone)
  • Cocaine Cocaine An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. Local Anesthetics
  • Ecstasy Ecstasy An n-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as mdma or ecstasy. Stimulants (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine ( MDMA MDMA An n-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as mdma or ecstasy. Stimulants))
  • α1-adrenergic agonists or decongestants ( phenylephrine Phenylephrine An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent. Sympathomimetic Drugs, phenylpropanolamine)

Pathophysiology

Sympathetic nervous stimulation by:

  • ↑ Circulating levels of catecholamines Catecholamines A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine. Adrenal Hormones ( epinephrine Epinephrine The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. Sympathomimetic Drugs, norepinephrine Norepinephrine Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers, and of the diffuse projection system in the brain that arises from the locus ceruleus. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS, and dopamine Dopamine One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS
  • Reducing catecholamine reuptake at the preganglionic synapse Synapse The junction between 2 neurons is called a synapse. The synapse allows a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or target effector cell. Synapses and Neurotransmission
  • Some lead to serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology.

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor and diagnosis

Features (signs of sympathetic excess):

  • Diaphoresis
  • Hyperthermia (can lead to rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of toxic intracellular contents, especially myoglobin, into the circulation. Rhabdomyolysis, brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification injury, acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition characterized by systemic bodywide activation of the coagulation cascade. This cascade results in both widespread microvascular thrombi contributing to multiple organ dysfunction and consumption of clotting factors and platelets, leading to hemorrhage. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation)
  • Tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children
  • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
  • Agitation Agitation A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus/psychosis
  • Seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures
  • Dilated pupils (but will react to light)

Common causes of death:

  • Arrhythmia
  • Hyperthermia 
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage Intracerebral Hemorrhage Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) refers to a spontaneous or traumatic bleed into the brain parenchyma and is the 2nd-most common cause of cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), commonly known as stroke, after ischemic CVAs. Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Diagnosis:

  • History and clinical features
  • Injection of a substance can show skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions changes (infection/ cellulitis Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common infection caused by bacteria that affects the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the skin. It is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The skin infection presents as an erythematous and edematous area with warmth and tenderness. Cellulitis).
  • Historical details often accompanied by other substances (e.g., alcohol, cannabis)

Management

  • Initial approach:
    • ABC assessment
    • Avoid ketamine Ketamine A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (n-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) and may interact with sigma receptors. Intravenous Anesthetics in intubation Intubation Peritonsillar Abscess (due to dissociative effects).
    • Supportive care: IV fluids IV fluids Intravenous fluids are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids. Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Intravenous Fluids, cooling
  • Medication(s):
    • Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines work on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor to produce inhibitory effects on the CNS. Benzodiazepines do not mimic GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans, but instead potentiate GABA activity. Benzodiazepines for hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, hyperthermia, seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures, and agitation Agitation A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus
    • Nitroprusside Nitroprusside A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Nitrates or phentolamine Phentolamine A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of raynaud disease and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease. Antiadrenergic Drugs for hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, especially if refractory to sedatives
    • Avoid succinylcholine Succinylcholine A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for. Cholinomimetic Drugs (potential for hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum potassium (K+) concentration >5.2 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the serum K+ concentration between 3.5 and 5.2 mEq/L, despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hyperkalemia can be due to a variety of causes, which include transcellular shifts, tissue breakdown, inadequate renal excretion, and drugs. Hyperkalemia).
    • Avoid pure beta blockers (paradoxical ↑ BP elevation due to unopposed alpha stimulation).
    • In general, antipyretics are not effective for hyperthermia, as there is hypothalamic dysregulation.

Sedative-Hypnotic

Etiology

  • Barbiturates Barbiturates A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are gaba modulators used as hypnotics and sedatives, as anesthetics, or as anticonvulsants. Intravenous Anesthetics
  • Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines work on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor to produce inhibitory effects on the CNS. Benzodiazepines do not mimic GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans, but instead potentiate GABA activity. Benzodiazepines
  • Chloral hydrate
  • Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Muscle relaxants ( baclofen Baclofen A gamma-aminobutyric acid derivative that is a specific agonist of gaba-b receptors. It is used in the treatment of muscle spasticity, especially that due to spinal cord injuries. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission. Spasmolytics, carisoprodol Carisoprodol A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. Spasmolytics, cyclobenzaprine Cyclobenzaprine Spasmolytics)

Pathophysiology

  • CNS depressants: typically ↑ gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA GABA The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS) neurotransmission Neurotransmission The communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across electrical synapses. Synapses and Neurotransmission
  • Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines work on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor to produce inhibitory effects on the CNS. Benzodiazepines do not mimic GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans, but instead potentiate GABA activity. Benzodiazepines: enhance the effect of GABA GABA The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS at the GABA GABA The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNSA receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor and diagnosis

  • Effects secondary to depression of CNS, cardiovascular and respiratory centers Respiratory Centers Part of the brain located in the medulla oblongata and pons. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles. Respiratory Regulation
    • Hypothermia Hypothermia Hypothermia can be defined as a drop in the core body temperature below 35°C (95°F) and is classified into mild, moderate, severe, and profound forms based on the degree of temperature decrease. Hypothermia
    • Bradypnea
    • Bradycardia Bradycardia Bradyarrhythmia is a rhythm in which the heart rate is less than 60/min. Bradyarrhythmia can be physiologic, without symptoms or hemodynamic change. Pathologic bradyarrhythmia results in reduced cardiac output and hemodynamic instability causing syncope, dizziness, or dyspnea. Bradyarrhythmias
    • Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension
    • Lethargy Lethargy A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to depression or drug addiction. Hyponatremia/ coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma
  • Isolated benzodiazepine overdose Benzodiazepine Overdose Benzodiazepines usually has CNS depression with stable vital signs (“ coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma with normal vitals”).
  • Diagnosis by history, especially medication intake

Management

  • ABC
  • Supportive care, especially respiratory support
  • Flumazenil Flumazenil A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses. Benzodiazepines: benzodiazepine antagonist
    • Should not be used routinely
    • Can induce seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures (from withdrawal) in chronic benzodiazepine users 
  • Dialysis Dialysis Renal replacement therapy refers to dialysis and/or kidney transplantation. Dialysis is a procedure by which toxins and excess water are removed from the circulation. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are the two types of dialysis, and their primary difference is the location of the filtration process (external to the body in hemodialysis versus inside the body for PD). Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis (utilized in some severe poisonings such as carbamazepine Carbamazepine A dibenzazepine that acts as a sodium channel blocker. It is used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. It may also be used in the management of bipolar disorder, and has analgesic properties. First-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs)

Toxidrome Comparison

  • As patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with possible multiple drug or substance intake, isolating the offending toxin is difficult.
  • Knowledge of the toxidromes helps determine the diagnosis and the appropriate management.
  • Signs and symptoms associated with the different toxins are generally grouped into findings in the following:
    • Vital signs
    • Eyes
    • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions
    • Secretions
    • Mental status
Table: Toxidrome comparative chart
Sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic drugs, also known as adrenergic agonists, mimic the action of the stimulators (α, β, or dopamine receptors) of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Sympathomimetic drugs are classified based on the type of receptors the drugs act on (some agents act on several receptors but 1 is predominate). Sympathomimetic Drugs Anticholinergic Anticholinergic Anticholinergic drugs block the effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Anticholinergic agents inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in effects on the smooth muscle in the respiratory tract, vascular system, urinary tract, GI tract, and pupils of the eyes. Anticholinergic Drugs Cholinergic Sedative-hypnotic Opioids Opioids Opiates are drugs that are derived from the sap of the opium poppy. Opiates have been used since antiquity for the relief of acute severe pain. Opioids are synthetic opiates with properties that are substantially similar to those of opiates. Opioid Analgesics
Heart rate Heart rate The number of times the heart ventricles contract per unit of time, usually per minute. Cardiac Physiology/blood pressure ↑↑ ↑↑ ↓↓
Respiratory rate Respiratory rate The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (respiration) per unit time, usually per minute. Pulmonary Examination – or ↓ ↓↓
Temperature ↑↑
Eyes Mydriasis Mydriasis Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in adie syndrome. Glaucoma Mydriasis Mydriasis Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in adie syndrome. Glaucoma Miosis Miosis Pupil: Physiology and Abnormalities Miosis Miosis Pupil: Physiology and Abnormalities
Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions/secretions Diaphoretic Dry Copiously wet Normal
Mental status Agitated Agitated Somnolent Somnolent-coma Somnolent-coma

Differential Diagnosis

  • Acetaminophen Acetaminophen Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter nonopioid analgesic and antipyretic medication and the most commonly used analgesic worldwide. Despite the widespread use of acetaminophen, its mechanism of action is not entirely understood. Acetaminophen overdose: a major cause of overdose and liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy injury. The medication is found in combination with other drugs (e.g., opioids Opioids Opiates are drugs that are derived from the sap of the opium poppy. Opiates have been used since antiquity for the relief of acute severe pain. Opioids are synthetic opiates with properties that are substantially similar to those of opiates. Opioid Analgesics), so overdose effects can occur concurrently with another toxidromes. Symptoms of overdose can be nonspecific in the first 24 hours ( vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, diaphoresis, lethargy Lethargy A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to depression or drug addiction. Hyponatremia). Within 72–96 hours, evidence of hepatotoxicity Hepatotoxicity Acetaminophen (mental status changes such as confusion, abnormal liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, bleeding) is present. N-acetylcysteine N-Acetylcysteine Acetaminophen Overdose is the antidote Antidote An antidote is a substance that counteracts poisoning or toxicity. Substances that can cause poisoning include heavy metals (from occupation, treatments, or diet), alcohols, environmental toxins, and medications. Antidotes of Common Poisonings and is given to patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with significant risk of hepatotoxicity Hepatotoxicity Acetaminophen.
  • Serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS syndrome ( serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation): potentially life-threatening condition usually caused by use of selective serotonin Serotonin A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid l-tryptophan. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS reuptake inhibitors (e.g., citalopram Citalopram A furancarbonitrile that is one of the serotonin uptake inhibitors used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate dyskinesia. Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Similar Antidepressants, sertraline Sertraline A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression. Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Similar Antidepressants). Effects are from increased serotonergic activity Serotonergic Activity Serotonin Syndrome. Most cases present within 24 hours of initiating or changing a drug. Typical features in these patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship include tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, hyperthermia, dilated pupils, dry mucous membranes, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, diarrhea Diarrhea Diarrhea is defined as ≥ 3 watery or loose stools in a 24-hour period. There are a multitude of etiologies, which can be classified based on the underlying mechanism of disease. The duration of symptoms (acute or chronic) and characteristics of the stools (e.g., watery, bloody, steatorrheic, mucoid) can help guide further diagnostic evaluation. Diarrhea, rigidity Rigidity Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of basal ganglia diseases. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from muscle spasticity. Megacolon, shivering Shivering Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals. Body Temperature Regulation, hyperreflexia, and myoclonus Myoclonus Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some central nervous system diseases; (e.g., epilepsy-myoclonic). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the nocturnal myoclonus syndrome. Neurological Examination. Management involves discontinuation of the drug and supportive care.
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, idiosyncratic, and potentially life-threatening reaction to antipsychotic drugs. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome presents with ≥ 2 of the following cardinal symptoms: fever, altered mental status, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: a medical emergency that stems from intake of antipsychotic Antipsychotic Antipsychotics, also called neuroleptics, are used to treat psychotic disorders and alleviate agitation, mania, and aggression. Antipsychotics are notable for their use in treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and are divided into 1st-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and atypical or 2nd-generation antipsychotics. First-Generation Antipsychotics agents. Features include dysautonomia, altered mental status Altered Mental Status Sepsis in Children, rigidity Rigidity Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of basal ganglia diseases. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from muscle spasticity. Megacolon, and fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever. Symptoms usually occur within 2 weeks of intake, but association with the drug is idiosyncratic. Withdrawal of medication and supportive care are part of the management.
  • Alcohol intoxication Alcohol intoxication An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ethanol or alcoholic beverages. Alcohol Use Disorder: acute intoxication generally occurs from binge drinking or intake of ≥ 5 alcoholic Alcoholic Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ethanol. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (Mallory-Weiss Tear) drinks on a single occasion. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship can present with hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension and tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children (partly from vasodilation Vasodilation The physiological widening of blood vessels by relaxing the underlying vascular smooth muscle. Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs and volume loss) accompanied by slurred speech Slurred Speech Cerebellar Disorders, nystagmus Nystagmus Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. Albinism, unsteady gait Gait Manner or style of walking. Neurological Examination, memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment impairment, stupor, or coma Coma Coma is defined as a deep state of unarousable unresponsiveness, characterized by a score of 3 points on the GCS. A comatose state can be caused by a multitude of conditions, making the precise epidemiology and prognosis of coma difficult to determine. Coma. Diagnosis is by serum alcohol level determination. Treatment is primarily supportive.

References

  1. Arnold, T, & Ryan, M. (2021) Acute amphetamine and synthetic cathinone (“bath salt”) intoxication. UpToDate. Retrieved June 11, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-amphetamine-and-synthetic-cathinone-bath-salt-intoxication
  2. Bird, S. (2020). Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning. UpToDate. Retrieved March 12, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/organophosphate-and-carbamate-poisoning
  3. Cunta, J. (2020). Poisoning. Emedicine. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from https://www.emedicinehealth.com/poisoning/article_em.htm
  4. Goldman, R, & Wylie, B. (2020). Occupational and environmental risks to reproduction in females: Specific exposures and impact. UpToDate. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/occupational-and-environmental-risks-to-reproduction-in-females-specific-exposures-and-impact
  5. Greller, H, & Gupta, A. (2021) Benzodiazepine poisoning and withdrawal. UpToDate. Retrieved June 12, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/benzodiazepine-poisoning-and-withdrawal
  6. Katz, L. (2020). Organophosphate toxicity treatment & management. Emedicine. Retrieved March 22, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/167726-treatment
  7. Levine, M. (2020). General approach to drug poisoning in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 21, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/general-approach-to-drug-poisoning-in-adults
  8. Lung, D. (2020). Caustic ingestions treatment & management. Emedicine. Retrieved March 23, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/813772-treatment
  9. Mycyk, MB. (2018). Poisoning and drug overdose. Jameson, J, Fauci, AS, Kasper, DL, Hauser, SL, Longo, DL, & Loscalzo, J. (Eds.),  Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e. McGraw-Hill. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2129&sectionid=181951173
  10. Stolbach, A, & Hoffman, R. (2021). Acute opioid intoxication in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved June 11, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-opioid-intoxication-in-adults
  11. Su, M, & Goldman, M. (2021) Anticholinergic poisoning. UpToDate. Retrieved June 11, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/anticholinergic-poisoning
  12. Wong, M. (2019). Organochlorine pesticide toxicity. Emedicine. Retrieved March 12, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/815051-overview

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Study on the Go

Lecturio Medical complements your studies with evidence-based learning strategies, video lectures, quiz questions, and more – all combined in one easy-to-use resource.

Learn even more with Lecturio:

Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.

User Reviews

¡Hola!

Esta página está disponible en Español.

Details