Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder Autoimmune Disorder Septic Arthritis characterized by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions, which create a hypercoagulable Hypercoagulable Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States state. These antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions are most commonly discovered during a workup for a thrombotic event or recurrent pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care loss, which are the 2 most common clinical manifestations of APLS. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with APLS are at risk for both arterial and venous thrombosis Venous thrombosis The formation or presence of a blood clot (thrombus) within a vein. Budd-Chiari Syndrome, and after a thrombotic event, patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are managed with long-term anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs therapy.

Last updated: May 3, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is an autoimmune phenomenon that presents with thrombotic events and/or adverse pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care outcomes related to the presence of persistent antiphospholipid antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions ( aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia), which produce a hypercoagulable Hypercoagulable Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States state. 

  • aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: autoantibodies Autoantibodies Antibodies that react with self-antigens (autoantigens) of the organism that produced them. Blotting Techniques directed against phospholipid-binding proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis
  • Primary APLS: APLS occurring due to isolated aPLs
  • Secondary APLS: APLS occurring in the setting of underlying systemic autoimmune disease

Epidemiology

In the United States:

  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: approximately 5 cases per 100,000 persons per year
  • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: approximately 50 cases per 100,000 persons
  • Typical age affected: young to middle-aged adults
  • Gender Gender Gender Dysphoria bias Bias Epidemiological studies are designed to evaluate a hypothesized relationship between an exposure and an outcome; however, the existence and/or magnitude of these relationships may be erroneously affected by the design and execution of the study itself or by conscious or unconscious errors perpetrated by the investigators or the subjects. These systematic errors are called biases. Types of Biases: females > males
  • Associated with aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia are:
    • 6%–9% of pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care losses (50,000 annually)
    • 14% of strokes (110,000 annually)
    • 11% of myocardial infarctions (100,000 annually)
    • 10% of deep vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus (30,000 annually)

Classification

Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with APLS are classified based on their clinical manifestations.

Table: Classification of APLS
Classification Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with:
Thrombotic APLS Arterial or venous thrombosis Venous thrombosis The formation or presence of a blood clot (thrombus) within a vein. Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Obstetric APLS Obstetric complications:
  • Recurrent pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care loss
  • Preterm birth Preterm birth Preterm labor refers to regular uterine contractions leading to cervical change prior to 37 weeks of gestation; preterm birth refers to birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation. Preterm birth may be spontaneous due to preterm labor, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), or cervical insufficiency. Preterm Labor and Birth associated with placental insufficiency Placental Insufficiency Failure of the placenta to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. Neonatal Polycythemia
Catastrophic APLS Life-threatening thromboembolic events resulting in multiple end-organ damage (usually microvascular disease with acute onset)

Etiology and Pathophysiology

The prothrombotic state of APLS is related to the presence of aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Etiology

  • Primary (50%):
    • Genetic predisposition to develop antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions
    • Due to mutations in HLA-D7, DR4, DQw7, and/or C4 
  • Secondary (50%):
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ( SLE SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) (most common, 35%)
    • Rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis Acute or chronic inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis (RA)
    • Sjögren syndrome Sjögren Syndrome Rheumatoid Arthritis ( SS SS Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is an autoimmune condition characterized by diffuse collagen deposition and fibrosis. The clinical presentation varies from limited skin involvement to diffuse involvement of internal organs. Scleroderma)
    • Immune thrombocytopenic purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), formerly known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is a condition that develops secondary to immune-mediated destruction of platelets, resulting in thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100,000/mm³). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura can be either primary or secondary due to drugs or underlying disease. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura ( ITP ITP Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), formerly known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is a condition that develops secondary to immune-mediated destruction of platelets, resulting in thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100,000/mm³). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura can be either primary or secondary due to drugs or underlying disease. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura)
    • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs
    • Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging from a mild to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology ( HCV HCV Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus and a member of the genus Hepacivirus and the family Flaviviridae. The infection can be transmitted through infectious blood or body fluids and may be transmitted during childbirth or through IV drug use or sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C Virus)

Pathophysiology

  • Antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions against phospholipid-binding proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis
    • Anticardiolipin
    • Anti-β2-glycoprotein I 
    • Lupus anticoagulant
  • Antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions result in:
    • Activation of inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, and platelets Platelets Platelets are small cell fragments involved in hemostasis. Thrombopoiesis takes place primarily in the bone marrow through a series of cell differentiation and is influenced by several cytokines. Platelets are formed after fragmentation of the megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Platelets: Histology, promoting thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
    • Inactivation of anticoagulant factors ( proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis C and S), promoting thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
    • Increased complement activity toward the trophoblasts, resulting in recurrent pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care loss
  • Transient aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia are common, especially following an acute illness.
    • Diagnosis of APLS requires persistence of the antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions.

Clinical Presentation

Antiphospholipid syndrome tends to present in young to middle-aged women with either thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care complications. Other autoimmune conditions may be present.

Thromboembolic presentations

  • Deep vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus ( DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis):
    • DVTs of the lower extremities (most common DVTs):
      • Unilateral swelling Swelling Inflammation and/or pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways in the extremity
      • Pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways with dorsiflexion of the foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy
    • DVTs of the upper extremities
    • Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs as a result of intraluminal obstruction of the main pulmonary artery or its branches. The causative factors include thrombi, air, amniotic fluid, and fat. In PE, gas exchange is impaired due to the decreased return of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Pulmonary Embolism (PE):
      • Dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea
      • Acute respiratory distress
      • Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, which can lead to chronic progressive right heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension is grouped into 5 categories based on etiology, which include primary PAH, and PH due to cardiac disease, lung or hypoxic disease, chronic thromboembolic disease, and multifactorial or unclear etiologies. Pulmonary Hypertension
    • Cerebral sinus thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
    • Hepatic and portal vein Portal vein A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. Liver: Anatomy thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
    • Renal vein Renal vein Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava. Glomerular Filtration thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
    • Adrenal vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
  • Superficial vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
  • Arterial thrombosis Arterial Thrombosis Hypercoagulable States:
    • Stroke (most common arterial thrombosis Arterial Thrombosis Hypercoagulable States) and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs):
      • Focal neurologic findings
      • Cognitive deficits
    • MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction:
      • Chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is one of the most common and challenging complaints that may present in an inpatient and outpatient setting. The differential diagnosis of chest pain is large and includes cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric etiologies. Chest Pain
      • Dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea on exertion
    • Retinal thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus
    • Nephropathy due to vaso-occlusion in the small renal vessels:
      • Renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome
      • Proteinuria Proteinuria The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of kidney diseases. Nephrotic Syndrome in Children
      • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
  • Recurrent thromboembolic events

Obstetric presentations

  • Recurrent miscarriages
  • Preterm delivery of an anatomically normal infant < 34 weeks gestation due to either:
    • Severe preeclampsia Preeclampsia A complication of pregnancy, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal hypertension and proteinuria with or without pathological edema. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease. Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders or eclampsia Eclampsia Onset of hyperreflexia; seizures; or coma in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (pre-eclampsia). Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders
    • Features consistent with placental insufficiency Placental Insufficiency Failure of the placenta to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. Neonatal Polycythemia:
      • Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios refers to amniotic fluid volume less than expected for the current gestational age. Oligohydramnios is diagnosed by ultrasound and defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of ‰¤ 5 cm or a single deep pocket (SDP) of < 2 cm in the 2nd or 3rd trimester. Oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid Amniotic fluid A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the fetus inside the sac of amnion. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (amniocentesis). Placenta, Umbilical Cord, and Amniotic Cavity)
      • Low birth weight
      • Non-reassuring or abnormal fetal surveillance Surveillance Developmental Milestones and Normal Growth testing (e.g., non-stress tests, biophysical profile Biophysical Profile Obstetric Imaging, Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) studies)

Other findings

Some additional findings may include:

  • Hematologic findings:
    • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia
    • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types ( AIHA AIHA Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare type of hemolytic anemia characterized by antibody production against self rbcs, leading to destruction of these cells in the spleen and other reticuloendothelial tissues. The disease is generally categorized as warm or cold, depending on the thermal reactivity of the autoantibodies. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia)
    • Thrombotic microangiopathic anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types
  • Cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) findings: if present, almost always involve the valves
  • Dermatologic findings:
    • Livedo reticularis Livedo reticularis A condition characterized by a reticular or fishnet pattern on the skin of lower extremities and other parts of the body. This red and blue pattern is due to deoxygenated blood in unstable dermal blood vessels. The condition is intensified by cold exposure and relieved by rewarming. Chronic Kidney Disease: a red-blue netlike, reticulated pattern occurring due to compromised blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure in medium-sized vessels
    • Ulceration Ulceration Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers and/or gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction of the digits
    • Splinter hemorrhages Splinter hemorrhages Endocarditis
  • Rheumatologic findings: consistent with an associated rheumatologic disorder
    • Rashes Rashes Rashes are a group of diseases that cause abnormal coloration and texture to the skin. The etiologies are numerous but can include irritation, allergens, infections, or inflammatory conditions. Rashes that present in only 1 area of the body are called localized rashes. Generalized rashes occur diffusely throughout the body. Generalized and Localized Rashes
    • Arthralgias
    • Fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia
Livedo reticularis

Livedo reticularis Livedo reticularis A condition characterized by a reticular or fishnet pattern on the skin of lower extremities and other parts of the body. This red and blue pattern is due to deoxygenated blood in unstable dermal blood vessels. The condition is intensified by cold exposure and relieved by rewarming. Chronic Kidney Disease

Image: “ Livedo reticularis Livedo reticularis A condition characterized by a reticular or fishnet pattern on the skin of lower extremities and other parts of the body. This red and blue pattern is due to deoxygenated blood in unstable dermal blood vessels. The condition is intensified by cold exposure and relieved by rewarming. Chronic Kidney Disease in a patient with DADA2” by Roberta Caorsi et al AL Amyloidosis. License: CC BY 4.0

Diagnosis

Diagnostic criteria

To meet the diagnostic criteria for APLS, a patient must meet both clinical and laboratory criteria.

Table: Diagnostic criteria for APLS
Criteria Events which satisfy the criteria
Clinical criteria Need to have a history of at least one of the following:
  • Vascular thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus:
    • ≥ 1 deep vein, arterial, or small vessel thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus in any organ or tissue
    • Superficial venous thrombosis Venous thrombosis The formation or presence of a blood clot (thrombus) within a vein. Budd-Chiari Syndrome does not satisfy this criteria.
  • Pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care morbidity Morbidity The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population. Measures of Health Status:
    • ≥ 3 consecutive, spontaneous pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care losses at < 10 weeks gestational age Gestational age The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of fertilization. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last menstruation which is about 2 weeks before ovulation and fertilization. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care (WGA)
    • ≥ 1 pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care loss of a morphologically normal fetus at ≥ 10 WGA
    • ≥ 1 premature Premature Childbirth before 37 weeks of pregnancy (259 days from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period, or 245 days after fertilization). Necrotizing Enterocolitis delivery at < 34 WGA due to severe preeclampsia Preeclampsia A complication of pregnancy, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal hypertension and proteinuria with or without pathological edema. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease. Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders/ eclampsia Eclampsia Onset of hyperreflexia; seizures; or coma in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (pre-eclampsia). Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders, or placental insufficiency Placental Insufficiency Failure of the placenta to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. Neonatal Polycythemia
Laboratory criteria Need at least one positive antibody finding, on at least 2 separate occasions, at least 12 weeks apart:
  • Lupus anticoagulant (positive = present)
  • Anti-cardiolipin antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions (positive = ↑ IgG IgG The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of igg, for example, igg1, igg2a, and igg2b. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and/or IgM IgM A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (immunoglobulin mu-chains). Igm can fix complement. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions titers)
  • β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions (positive = ↑ IgG IgG The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of igg, for example, igg1, igg2a, and igg2b. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and/or IgM IgM A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (immunoglobulin mu-chains). Igm can fix complement. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions titers)

Laboratory assessment

  • Serologies and titer levels for aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    • Anticardiolipin antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions:
      • Note: Anticardiolipin antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions can result in a false positive False positive An FP test result indicates that a person has the disease when they do not. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests test for syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum pallidum (T. p. pallidum), which is usually spread through sexual contact. Syphilis has 4 clinical stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Syphilis because they react with the cardiolipin reagent in the rapid plasma reagin test Rapid plasma reagin test Treponema.
    • Anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions
    • Lupus anticoagulant:
      • Note: Despite being called an “anticoagulant,” this factor is actually prothrombotic.
      • Its name comes from the fact that it functions as an anticoagulant in some lab tests.
  • CBC and coagulation studies Coagulation studies Coagulation studies are a group of hematologic laboratory studies that reflect the function of blood vessels, platelets, and coagulation factors, which all interact with one another to achieve hemostasis. Coagulation studies are usually ordered to evaluate patients with bleeding or hypercoagulation disorders. Coagulation Studies may show:
    • Anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types (hemolytic, microangiopathic)
    • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia ( platelets Platelets Platelets are small cell fragments involved in hemostasis. Thrombopoiesis takes place primarily in the bone marrow through a series of cell differentiation and is influenced by several cytokines. Platelets are formed after fragmentation of the megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Platelets: Histology are consumed in procoagulant states)
    • Prolonged aPTT (due to Lupus anticoagulant)
  • Complement studies: may show complement levels (e.g., C3 or C4), can be observed in both primary and secondary APLS

Other assessments

Other testing may be clinically indicated based on presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor. For example:

  • Imaging:
    • Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) studies for a suspected DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis
    • CT for a suspected stroke
  • ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) for suspected MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction
  • Thrombophilia Thrombophilia A disorder of hemostasis in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of thrombosis. Hypercoagulable States workup (e.g., if only presenting symptom is an unprovoked DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis)
  • Rheumatologic workup (e.g., if patient has findings consistent with SLE SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

Management

Management of acute thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus in APLS

The mainstay of therapy for both primary and secondary (i.e., associated with SLE SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) APLS is anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs.

  • Thrombotic and obstetric APLS:
    • Initiate anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs with heparin overlapped with warfarin Warfarin An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide. Anticoagulants
    • Low-molecular-weight heparins Low-molecular-weight heparins Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kd. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants ( LMWHs LMWHs Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kd. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants) are typically the drug of choice.
    • Heparins are continued until the INR is in the therapeutic range for 2 consecutive days. 
    • Heparins can then be discontinued, while warfarin Warfarin An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide. Anticoagulants is continued indefinitely for ongoing prophylaxis Prophylaxis Cephalosporins.
  • Catastrophic APLS: 
    • Anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs
    • IV glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs. Glucocorticoids
    • Plasmapheresis Plasmapheresis Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
    • IV immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions ( IVIG IVIG Dermatomyositis)
  • Arterial thrombosis Arterial Thrombosis Hypercoagulable States (e.g., MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction, stroke): managed the same as patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship without APLS

Prevention of thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus

  • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases cessation
  • Avoiding estrogen-containing contraceptives
  • Managing hyperlipidemia/ hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
  • For patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who have never had a thrombotic event (i.e., primary prevention): 
    • Consider low-dose aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) (evidence is limited; consider entire clinical picture).
    • Optimize modifiable risk factors.
  • For patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with a history of thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus:
    • In patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who do not desire pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care: warfarin Warfarin An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide. Anticoagulants therapy
    • In patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who do desire pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care: LMWH and aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) ( warfarin Warfarin An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide. Anticoagulants is teratogenic)
  • For patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with aPL APL An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal promyelocytes predominate. It is frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acute Myeloid Leukemia but who do not meet diagnostic criteria for APLS, antithrombotic medication is not recommended.

Other management points

  • Immunomodulatory agents:
    • May be considered in some patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with:
      • Recurrent thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus despite adequate anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs
      • Hematologic manifestations (e.g., thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia or thrombotic microangiopathies)
    • Limited evidence to guide use, though theoretically helpful because APLS is an autoimmune disease
    • Agents to consider: hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. Immunosuppressants, rituximab Rituximab A murine-derived monoclonal antibody and antineoplastic agent that binds specifically to the cd20 antigen and is used in the treatment of leukemia; lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. Immunosuppressants
  • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia:
    • Many patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with APLS have mild thrombocytopenia Mild Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia.
    • Cause of the thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia should still be investigated.
    • Anticoagulation Anticoagulation Pulmonary Hypertension Drugs should be continued while the platelet count is > 50,000/µL. 
  • Screening Screening Preoperative Care ECGs: 

Clinical Relevance

Differential diagnosis for recurrent thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus

Hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States: hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States or thrombophilias Thrombophilias Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States are defined by an increased risk of clot formation or thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus. The cause may be inherited or acquired; both lead to the production of clots that may cause occlusion of vessels in major organs, which can be fatal. Factor V Leiden Factor V Leiden Hypercoagulable States is the most common inherited cause. Management usually involves the use of anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants.

Table: Causes of a hypercoagulable Hypercoagulable Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States state
Type Disease Description
Primary or inherited Factor V Leiden Factor V Leiden Hypercoagulable States
  • Autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance with incomplete penetrance Penetrance The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. Familial Juvenile Polyposis
  • Most common inherited thrombophilia Thrombophilia A disorder of hemostasis in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of thrombosis. Hypercoagulable States in caucasians Caucasians Esophageal Cancer
  • Caused by a point mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations substituting guanine Guanine Nucleic Acids for adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids
  • Results in resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing to factor V Factor V Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Hemostasis degradation by protein C
Prothrombin Prothrombin A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Hemostasis 20210A or factor II mutations
  • Autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
  • 2nd most common inherited thrombophilia Thrombophilia A disorder of hemostasis in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of thrombosis. Hypercoagulable States
  • Point mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations leads to ↑ prothrombin Prothrombin A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Hemostasis function.
Antithrombin deficiency Antithrombin deficiency An absence or reduced level of antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis. Budd-Chiari Syndrome
  • Autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance (or can be acquired)
  • Antithrombin Antithrombin Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of thrombin, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from indirect thrombin inhibitors, such as heparin, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins. Anticoagulants normally inhibits thrombin Thrombin An enzyme formed from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. Hemostasis and factor Xa.
  • Antithrombin deficiency Antithrombin deficiency An absence or reduced level of antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis. Budd-Chiari Syndrome leads to:
    • Thrombin Thrombin An enzyme formed from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. Hemostasis and factor Xa
    • Resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing to LMWH
Protein C or S deficiency
  • Proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis C and S are vitamin K-dependent anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants.
  • Deficiencies result in overactivity of factors V and VIII.
Secondary or acquired Venous stasis
Endothelial injury
Acquired hypercoagulability Hypercoagulability Hypercoagulable States
  • Oral contraceptive Oral contraceptive Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both. Benign Liver Tumors pills
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Nephrotic syndrome Nephrotic syndrome Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema. In contrast, the nephritic syndromes present with hematuria, variable loss of renal function, and hypertension, although there is sometimes overlap of > 1 glomerular disease in the same individual. Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare but serious acquired hemolytic anemia with periodic exacerbations. This anemia is caused by nonmalignant clonal expansion of ≥ 1 hematopoietic stem cells that have acquired a somatic mutation of the phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit A (PIG-A) gene. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
  • Inflammatory bowel disease

Common presentations of recurrent thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus

  • Deep vein thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus ( DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis): thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus of the deep venous systems found in the lower limb. The condition is a clinical manifestation of hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States and requires management acutely to prevent the development of pulmonary emboli. Diagnosis is typically made using Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) ultrasonography. The condition is treated with anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants.
  • Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs as a result of intraluminal obstruction of the main pulmonary artery or its branches. The causative factors include thrombi, air, amniotic fluid, and fat. In PE, gas exchange is impaired due to the decreased return of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): a medical emergency in which an embolus will block the pulmonary trunk Pulmonary Trunk Truncus Arteriosus/artery, resulting in acute shortness of breath Shortness of breath Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea and impaired ventilation Ventilation The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing/perfusion. About 30% of these patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship have a concurrent DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis. Diagnosis can be made on a CT pulmonary angiography Angiography Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium. Cardiac Surgery ( CTPA CTPA Pulmonary Function Tests) scan and/or a V/Q. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are treated with anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants.

References

  1. Urkan, D, Ortel, T. (2020). Clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome. Viewed Retrieved Apr 18, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
  2. Urkan, D, Ortel, T. (2020). Diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Retrieved Apr 18, 2021, fromhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome 
  3. Urkan, D, Ortel, T. (2020). Treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome. Retrieved Apr 18, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
  4. Bustamante, J. (2020). Antiphospholipid syndrome. In Singhal, M. (Ed.) StatPearls. Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://www.statpearls.com/articlelibrary/viewarticle/17705/ 
  5. Movva, S. (2020). Antiphospholipid syndrome. In Diamond, H. (Ed.) Medscape. Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/333221-overview

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Create your free account or log in to continue reading!

Sign up now and get free access to Lecturio with concept pages, medical videos, and questions for your medical education.

Details