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Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa ( HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars) is a chronic inflammatory skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions condition due to the occlusion and rupture of hair follicles. Most commonly, it occurs due to occlusion of the follicular component of pilosebaceous units (PSUs). The condition is characterized by the formation of abscesses, fistulas, draining sinuses, and scarring Scarring Inflammation, which most often occurs in intertriginous regions. The diagnosis of HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars is primarily clinical. Management includes lifestyle counseling regarding weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery and smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases cessation, as well as medical treatment with antibiotics and retinoids Retinoids Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies. Untreated HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars can result in fibrosis Fibrosis Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury. Bronchiolitis Obliterans, with severe scarring Scarring Inflammation and contractures Contractures Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint. Wound Healing as potential complications.

Last updated: 6 May, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Hidradenitis suppurativa ( HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars), also referred to as acne inversa, is a chronic inflammatory skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions condition due to occlusion and rupture of hair follicles.

Epidemiology

  • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars is approximately 1%–4% globally.
  • 3 times more common in women than men
  • Usual age of onset is 12–40 years.
  • Rarely seen in children before puberty Puberty Puberty is a complex series of physical, psychosocial, and cognitive transitions usually experienced by adolescents (11-19 years of age). Puberty is marked by a growth in stature and the development of secondary sexual characteristics, achievement of fertility, and changes in most body systems. Puberty
  • More common in the African American population

Etiology

Hidradenitis suppurativa develops due to blockage of hair follicles and the ducts of sweat glands Sweat glands Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the dermis. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct. Soft Tissue Abscess in the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions. Risk factors include:

  • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity
  • Genetic susceptibility: Approximately 40% of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship have a positive family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance.
  • Mechanical stress (friction caused by wearing tight clothes)
  • Hormonal changes: ↑ severity during the perimenstrual period in women
  • Medications:
    • Medroxyprogesterone acetate Medroxyprogesterone acetate A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms. Hormonal Contraceptives
    • Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (norgestrel). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis. Hormonal Contraceptives intrauterine device
    • Lithium Lithium An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6. 938; 6. 997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating bipolar disorder. Ebstein’s Anomaly

Pathophysiology

Normal physiology

The skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions is mainly composed of 3 layers:

  • Epidermis Epidermis The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of epithelium: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis). Skin: Structure and Functions (outer layer): serves as a barrier and protects from infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Dermis Dermis A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the epidermis. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are sweat glands; hair follicles; and sebaceous glands. Skin: Structure and Functions (middle layer): contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and sebaceous and sweat glands Sweat glands Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the dermis. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct. Soft Tissue Abscess
  • Hypodermis Hypodermis Skin: Structure and Functions (inner layer): contains fat and connective tissue Connective tissue Connective tissues originate from embryonic mesenchyme and are present throughout the body except inside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of connective tissues is to provide structural support to organs. Connective tissues consist of cells and an extracellular matrix. Connective Tissue: Histology

Pathophysiology of HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars

The exact pathogenesis of HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars remains unclear; the initial event in the development of HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars is follicular occlusion.

  • Ductal keratinocytes Keratinocytes Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell. Skin: Structure and Functions proliferate and are incited by:
    • Excessive hormonal stimulation 
    • Nicotine Nicotine Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. Stimulants/smoke
  • Results in follicular hyperkeratosis Hyperkeratosis Ichthyosis Vulgaris → mechanical plugging
  • Accumulated keratin Keratin A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of epidermis; hair; nails; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of type I keratin and a type II keratin, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. Alpha-keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to gene duplication. Seborrheic Keratosis debris → immune reaction → perifolliculitis
  • Pilosebaceous structures rupture → 
    • Release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology of keratin Keratin A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of epidermis; hair; nails; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of type I keratin and a type II keratin, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. Alpha-keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to gene duplication. Seborrheic Keratosis fragments, hair, bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology, and sebum Sebum The oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands. It is composed of keratin, fat, and cellular debris. Infectious Folliculitis into the dermis Dermis A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the epidermis. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are sweat glands; hair follicles; and sebaceous glands. Skin: Structure and Functions
    • Inflammatory cells accumulate.
  • Repeated acute reactions result in chronic granulomatous inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation and suppuration secondary to bacterial proliferation.
  • Sinus tracts may form and become inflamed.

Clinical Presentation

The primary sites of involvement for HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars are the intertriginous skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions areas of the axillary, groin Groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh. Male Genitourinary Examination, perianal, perineal, and inframammary regions, though HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars can occur in any skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions area that contains FPSUs.

  • Symptoms:
    • Initially presents with recurrent, tender, erythematous, skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions nodules
    • Recurrent or persistent disease can result in:
      • Pustules or abscesses
      • Draining skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions sinuses
  • Complications:
    • Scarring Scarring Inflammation of the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions
    • Contractures Contractures Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint. Wound Healing
    • Lymphedema Lymphedema Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes. Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis)
    • Fistulas in the anogenital region
    • Rarely, squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is caused by malignant proliferation of atypical keratinocytes. This condition is the 2nd most common skin malignancy and usually affects sun-exposed areas of fair-skinned patients. The cancer presents as a firm, erythematous, keratotic plaque or papule. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
Stage ii hidradenitis suppurativa in the axilla

Hidradenitis suppurativa in the axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy characterized by acutely inflamed nodules:
The condition is often misdiagnosed as recurrent furuncles.

Image: “Hidradenitis suppurativa (stage II) in axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy” by Ziyad Alharbi, Jens Kauczok and Norbert Pallua. License: CC BY 2.5

Diagnosis

The diagnosis is based on a clinical exam. A history of the pattern of disease with recurrent deep skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions abscesses and poor response to antibiotics is specific for HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars.

  • Clinical staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis:
    • Stage I: 
    • Stage II: 
      • Recurrent abscesses
      • Single or multiple widely separated lesions with sinus tracts and scarring Scarring Inflammation
    • Stage III: 
      • Diffuse involvement
      • Multiple sinus tracts and abscesses 
  • Laboratory studies: 
    • Culture of superficial HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars lesions is only helpful if a secondary bacterial infection is suspected.
    • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma: only if diagnosis is unclear, squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is caused by malignant proliferation of atypical keratinocytes. This condition is the 2nd most common skin malignancy and usually affects sun-exposed areas of fair-skinned patients. The cancer presents as a firm, erythematous, keratotic plaque or papule. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is suspected, or to exclude other diseases.
  • Imaging: not necessary, but MRI can be helpful to diagnose HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars of anogenital region specifically
Squamous cell carcinoma

Biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma of a mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast shows squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is caused by malignant proliferation of atypical keratinocytes. This condition is the 2nd most common skin malignancy and usually affects sun-exposed areas of fair-skinned patients. The cancer presents as a firm, erythematous, keratotic plaque or papule. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) after chronic hidradenitis suppurativa.

Image: “Second biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma of the mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast showing well-differentiated SCC. Hematoxylin and eosin ×100.” by Cheng Huang et al AL Amyloidosis. License: CC BY 4.0

Management

The key to management is early diagnosis and treatment.

Conservative measures

  • Education and support
  • Lifestyle modification: 
  • Warm compresses Warm Compresses Chalazion for painful skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions lesions (dry better than wet)
  • Minimize skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions trauma
  • Wound care

Medical management

  • Antibiotic options:
    • Clindamycin Clindamycin An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of lincomycin. Lincosamides (both oral and topical)
    • Tetracyclines Tetracyclines Tetracyclines are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics indicated for a wide variety of bacterial infections. These medications bind the 30S ribosomal subunit to inhibit protein synthesis of bacteria. Tetracyclines cover gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, as well as atypical bacteria such as chlamydia, mycoplasma, spirochetes, and even protozoa. Tetracyclines (doxycycline)
    • Rifampin Rifampin A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits dna-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. Epiglottitis
  • Retinoids Retinoids Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies: Acitretin may be helpful.
  • Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants are a class of drugs widely used in the management of autoimmune conditions and organ transplant rejection. The general effect is dampening of the immune response. Immunosuppressants/ tumor Tumor Inflammation necrosis Necrosis The death of cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury or failure of the blood supply. Ischemic Cell Damage factor alpha (TNFα) blockers:
    • Adalimumab Adalimumab A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to tnf-alpha and blocks its interaction with endogenous tnf receptors to modulate inflammation. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; psoriatic arthritis; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)
    • Infliximab Infliximab A chimeric monoclonal antibody to tnf-alpha that is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriatic arthritis and Crohn’s disease. Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) 
  • Adjunctive therapies which may be helpful for some women:
    • Metformin Metformin A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. Non-insulinotropic Diabetes Drugs
    • Spironolactone Spironolactone A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. Potassium-sparing Diuretics
    • Oral contraceptives
  • Analgesics for pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways management

Surgical management for resistant disease

Differential Diagnosis

  • Carbuncles: a deeper skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions infection involving hair follicles. Lesions present as painful, pus-filled, inflamed nodules on the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions. Carbuncles are commonly present in the back of the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, shoulders, hips, and thighs due to higher friction and sweat production. Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci. These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus aureus is the main bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology causing infection. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may have a fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever. An infected carbuncle Carbuncle Infectious Folliculitis may resolve on its own with warm compresses Warm Compresses Chalazion or may require antibiotics.
  • Lymphadenitis Lymphadenitis Inflammation of the lymph nodes. Peritonsillar Abscess: an infection of lymph Lymph The interstitial fluid that is in the lymphatic system. Secondary Lymphatic Organs nodes presenting as tender, enlarged nodes that may be acute or chronic. Causes include bacterial and viral infection. The diagnosis requires a detailed history and examination. The most common cause of bilateral cervical adenitis is viral upper respiratory tract infection; tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis is a consideration as well. For chronic cases, lab testing with CBC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Soft Tissue Abscess ( ESR ESR Soft Tissue Abscess), culture, and serologic testing is recommended. Management is based on the underlying cause.
  • Acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris, also known as acne, is a common disorder of the pilosebaceous units in adolescents and young adults. The condition occurs due to follicular hyperkeratinization, excess sebum production, follicular colonization by Cutibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Acne Vulgaris: a common skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions disorder characterized by the formation of papules, pustules, nodules, and/or cysts Cysts Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an epithelium. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues. Fibrocystic Change due to the inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of pilosebaceous units. Acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris, also known as acne, is a common disorder of the pilosebaceous units in adolescents and young adults. The condition occurs due to follicular hyperkeratinization, excess sebum production, follicular colonization by Cutibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Acne Vulgaris can be mild or moderate-to-severe in presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor. The disorder may result in depression and anxiety Anxiety Feelings or emotions of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with anxiety disorders. Generalized Anxiety Disorder in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship. The treatment includes counseling of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship along with antibiotics, retinoids Retinoids Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies (oral and topical), oral contraceptives, benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for burns and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of acne and poison ivy dermatitis. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry. Molluscum Contagiosum, salicylic acid, and dapsone Dapsone A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against Mycobacterium leprae. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the sulfonamides which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with pyrimethamine in the treatment of malaria. Antimycobacterial Drugs.
  • Pilonidal disease: a suppurative condition of the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions and subcutaneous tissue Subcutaneous tissue Loose connective tissue lying under the dermis, which binds skin loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of adipocytes, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state. Soft Tissue Abscess resulting in intermittent bloody pus-filled discharge. Pilonidal disease can present as an abscess Abscess Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. Chronic Granulomatous Disease or draining sinus tracts. Diagnosis is mainly clinical. Excision is the standard definitive treatment of choice, and the recurrence rate is high. Risk factors include trauma, obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity, deep natal cleft, and positive family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance. Antibiotics can be used in the presence of cellulitis Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common infection caused by bacteria that affects the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the skin. It is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The skin infection presents as an erythematous and edematous area with warmth and tenderness. Cellulitis, and surgery may be needed later for recurrent complicated lesions.

References

  1. Ingram, JR. (2021). Hidradenitis suppurativa: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved June 15, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hidradenitis-suppurativa-pathogenesis-clinical-features-and-diagnosis
  2. Chen, WT, & Chi, CC. (2019). Association of hidradenitis suppurativa with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA dermatology. 155(9), 1022–1027. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.0891
  3. Johnson, EK. (2020). Pilonidal disease. UpToDate. Retrieved June 15, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pilonidal-disease

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