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Acute Limb Ischemia

Acute limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage (ALI) is a major vascular emergency because of the rapid decrease in limb perfusion that causes a potential threat to limb viability. The majority of cases are caused by arterial thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus due to plaque Plaque Primary Skin Lesions progression or embolism, but ALI can also be caused by blockage of the venous drainage. The typical signs and symptoms of ALI are often referred to as the 6 Ps PS Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, pallor, poikilothermia, paralysis, paresthesia, and pulselessness Pulselessness Cardiac Arrest. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical findings and Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) studies, but additional imaging may be required. Management is focused on revascularization Revascularization Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease). IV heparin is also administered. Nonviable limbs require amputation Amputation An amputation is the separation of a portion of the limb or the entire limb from the body, along with the bone. Amputations are generally indicated for conditions that compromise the viability of the limb or promote the spread of a local process that could manifest systemically. Amputation.

Last updated: Nov 21, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Acute limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage (ALI) is a vascular emergency caused by a rapid decrease in limb perfusion.

Epidemiology

  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 1.5 cases per 10,000 people per year
  • Frequency: men = women
  • More common in the elderly
  • The lower limb is affected in 80% of cases.

Etiology

  • Arterial occlusion (most common):
    • Thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus:
      • Thrombosed atherosclerotic artery
      • Thrombosed bypass graft Graft A piece of living tissue that is surgically transplanted Organ Transplantation 
      • Thrombosed popliteal artery Popliteal Artery The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Popliteal Fossa: Anatomy aneurysm Aneurysm An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area of a blood vessel that causes an abnormal widening of its diameter > 1.5 times the size of the native vessel. Aneurysms occur more often in arteries than in veins and are at risk of dissection and rupture, which can be life-threatening. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms
      • Popliteal adventitial cyst 
      • Hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states Hypercoagulable states (also referred to as thrombophilias) are a group of hematologic diseases defined by an increased risk of clot formation (i.e., thrombosis) due to either an increase in procoagulants, a decrease in anticoagulants, or a decrease in fibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable States (e.g., antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count is < 150,000 per microliter. The normal range for platelets is usually 150,000-450,000/µL of whole blood. Thrombocytopenia can be a result of decreased production, increased destruction, or splenic sequestration of platelets. Patients are often asymptomatic until platelet counts are < 50,000/µL. Thrombocytopenia
    • Embolism:
      • Thromboembolism Thromboembolism Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (thrombus) in the blood stream. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (due to arrhythmias and/or sequelae of MI MI MI is ischemia and death of an area of myocardial tissue due to insufficient blood flow and oxygenation, usually from thrombus formation on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in the epicardial arteries. Clinical presentation is most commonly with chest pain, but women and patients with diabetes may have atypical symptoms. Myocardial Infarction)
      • Atheroembolism Atheroembolism An embolus is an intravascular solid, liquid, or gaseous material that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin. Emboli of all types warrant immediate medical attention. The majority of emboli dislodge from a thrombus, forming a thromboembolus. Other less common nonthrombotic types of emboli are cholesterol, fat, air, amniotic fluid, and tumor emboli. Nonthrombotic Embolism ( cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism emboli)
      • Paradoxical emboli
      • Septic emboli
    • Arterial dissection Arterial dissection Arterial dissection is a violation of the structural integrity of the arterial wall that results in blood accumulating between the layers. Dissection of the Carotid and Vertebral Arteries
    • Trauma:
      • Iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment. Anterior Cord Syndrome injury
      • Injuries of the lower extremities (e.g., posterior knee dislocations)
  • Venous occlusion: phlegmasia cerulea dolens (near-total occlusion of the deep venous system resulting in venous gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction)
  • Other:
    • Ergotism
    • Vasopressor Vasopressor Acute Cholangitis medications
    • HIV HIV Anti-HIV Drugs arteriopathy
    • Vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    • Compartment syndrome Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency usually occurring secondary to trauma. The condition is marked by increased pressure within a compartment that compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space. Compartment Syndrome
    • Low-flow states:
      • Congestive heart failure Congestive heart failure Congestive heart failure refers to the inability of the heart to supply the body with normal cardiac output to meet metabolic needs. Echocardiography can confirm the diagnosis and give information about the ejection fraction. Congestive Heart Failure
      • Hypovolemia Hypovolemia Sepsis in Children
      • Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension

Pathophysiology

  • Common locations of vessel occlusion:
  • Risk factors:
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
    • Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity
    • Arterial hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
    • High cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance of vascular disease
  • Pathogenesis of ALI:
    • The initiating event of reduced perfusion leads to a switch to anaerobic metabolism.
    • Lactate production and acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis 
    • Depletion of ATP stores
    • Dysfunction of Na+/K+-ATPase pump Pump ACES and RUSH: Resuscitation Ultrasound Protocols and sodium Sodium A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. Hyponatremia/ calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes pump Pump ACES and RUSH: Resuscitation Ultrasound Protocols
    • Leakage of calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes into myocytes Myocytes Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called myoblasts. Muscle Tissue: Histology
    • Dysfunction of actin Actin Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or f-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or g-actin. In conjunction with myosins, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle. Skeletal Muscle Contraction, myosin Myosin A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind actins and hydrolyze mgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and mgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain. Skeletal Muscle Contraction, proteases Proteases Proteins and Peptides 
    • Development of muscle necrosis Muscle Necrosis Rhabdomyolysis

Clinical Presentation

  • Occlusive arterial embolism presents with sudden onset of severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways.
  • Venous thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus is more indolent.
  • The 6 Ps PS Invasive Mechanical Ventilation of acute peripheral vessel occlusion :
    • Pain:
      • Sudden onset and constant
      • Worsens with passive movement
    • Pallor:
      • Seen in early stages
      • Later progresses to cyanosis Cyanosis A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule. Pulmonary Examination
    • Poikilothermia (cold to the touch)
    • Paralysis
    • Paresthesia
    • Pulselessness

Diagnosis

Acute limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage is diagnosed on the basis of medical history, clinical presentation, physical examination, and vascular imaging.

History

Physical exam

Assess for the 6 Ps PS Invasive Mechanical Ventilation:

  • Pain
  • Pallor
  • Poikilothermia
  • Paralysis
  • Paresthesia
  • Pulselessness:
    • Palpation Palpation Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistency of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs. Dermatologic Examination of the popliteal, femoral, dorsal artery of the foot Foot The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Foot: Anatomy, and posterior tibial arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology
    • Ankle brachial index Ankle brachial index Comparison of the blood pressure between the brachial artery and the posterior tibial artery. It is a predictor of peripheral arterial disease. Peripheral Artery Disease bilaterally

Diagnostic testing

  • Categories of ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage are based on clinical signs and Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) results:
    • Viable limb:
      • Absence of pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways at rest, sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology loss, and/or muscle weakness
      • Arterial and venous flows are present.
    • Threatened limb:
      • Minimal sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology loss
      • Mild-to-moderate muscle weakness
      • Absent arterial Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) tones
      • Requires urgent intervention
    • Irreversible ischemic damage:
      • Sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology loss, paralysis, and/or permanent nerve damage
      • Absent arterial and venous Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) tones
      • Revascularization Revascularization Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease) may result in rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of toxic intracellular contents, especially myoglobin, into the circulation. Rhabdomyolysis and AKI AKI Acute kidney injury refers to sudden and often reversible loss of renal function, which develops over days or weeks. Azotemia refers to elevated levels of nitrogen-containing substances in the blood that accompany AKI, which include BUN and creatinine. Acute Kidney Injury.
  • Vascular imaging:
    • Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) ultrasonography shows the absence of blood flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure distal to the site of occlusion.
    • Confirmatory imaging:
      • Digital-subtraction angiography Angiography Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium. Cardiac Surgery, CTA CTA A non-invasive method that uses a ct scanner for capturing images of blood vessels and tissues. A contrast material is injected, which helps produce detailed images that aid in diagnosing vascular diseases. Pulmonary Function Tests, or MRA MRA Imaging of the Heart and Great Vessels
      • Perform in viable and marginally threatened limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage
      • Use CTA CTA A non-invasive method that uses a ct scanner for capturing images of blood vessels and tissues. A contrast material is injected, which helps produce detailed images that aid in diagnosing vascular diseases. Pulmonary Function Tests cautiously because of iodinated contrast material.
  • Supporting studies:
    • ECG ECG An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart plotted against time. Adhesive electrodes are affixed to the skin surface allowing measurement of cardiac impulses from many angles. The ECG provides 3-dimensional information about the conduction system of the heart, the myocardium, and other cardiac structures. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • Echocardiography Echocardiography Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic. Tricuspid Valve Atresia (TVA)
    • CBC
    • Blood chemistry
    • Coagulation studies Coagulation studies Coagulation studies are a group of hematologic laboratory studies that reflect the function of blood vessels, platelets, and coagulation factors, which all interact with one another to achieve hemostasis. Coagulation studies are usually ordered to evaluate patients with bleeding or hypercoagulation disorders. Coagulation Studies
    • Creatine kinase Creatine kinase A transferase that catalyzes formation of phosphocreatine from ATP + creatine. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic isoenzymes have been identified in human tissues: the mm type from skeletal muscle, the mb type from myocardial tissue and the bb type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins. Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Intraoperative angiogram

Intraoperative angiogram:
A: Superficial femoral and popliteal artery Popliteal Artery The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Popliteal Fossa: Anatomy occlusion
B: Femoropopliteal predilatation
C: Postprocedural result after plaque Plaque Primary Skin Lesions excision with TurboHawk

Image: “Intraoperative angiogram” by Translational Medicine @ UniSa. License: CC BY 2.5

Management

The treatment approach depends on the severity or category of ischemic injury:

  • Treatment starts with IV heparin infusion.
  • Irreversible ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage: amputation Amputation An amputation is the separation of a portion of the limb or the entire limb from the body, along with the bone. Amputations are generally indicated for conditions that compromise the viability of the limb or promote the spread of a local process that could manifest systemically. Amputation
  • Threatened limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage:
  • Viable limb:

Complications:

  • Reperfusion injury Reperfusion injury Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (reperfusion), including swelling; hemorrhage; necrosis; and damage from free radicals. The most common instance is myocardial reperfusion injury. Ischemic Cell Damage:
    • Production of highly reactive oxygen species Reactive oxygen species Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include singlet oxygen; superoxides; peroxides; hydroxyl radical; and hypochlorous acid. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of phagocytes, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to nucleic acids; proteins; and lipids. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease resulting in tissue injury
    • Acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis and hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum potassium (K+) concentration >5.2 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the serum K+ concentration between 3.5 and 5.2 mEq/L, despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hyperkalemia can be due to a variety of causes, which include transcellular shifts, tissue breakdown, inadequate renal excretion, and drugs. Hyperkalemia occur due to leakage from damaged cells.
    • Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of toxic intracellular contents, especially myoglobin, into the circulation. Rhabdomyolysis
    • Cardiac arrhythmia
    • Acute tubular necrosis Acute tubular necrosis Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of epithelial cells of the kidney tubules. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ischemia following severe trauma. Acute Kidney Injury 
  • Compartment syndrome Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency usually occurring secondary to trauma. The condition is marked by increased pressure within a compartment that compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space. Compartment Syndrome:
    • Increased capillary permeability leads to edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema and elevation of compartment pressure that results in circulatory collapse.
    • Requires fasciotomy Fasciotomy Surgical incision on the fascia. It is used to decompress compartment pressure (e.g. in compartment syndromes; circumferential burns and extremity injuries) or to release contractures (e.g. in dupuytren’s contracture). Compartment Syndrome
  • Chronic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways syndrome:
    • Prolonged ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage leads to permanent nerve damage, resulting in chronic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways.
    • Also known as ischemic neuropathy Neuropathy Leprosy

Differential Diagnosis

  • Critical chronic limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage: condition defined as > 2 weeks of chronic ischemic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways in an extremity at rest plus ankle pressure < 50 mmHg or toe pressure < 30 mmHg. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may present with claudication, resting pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, hyperesthesia, dependent rubor Rubor Inflammation, and pallor during limb elevation. Untreated chronic limb ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage may progress to gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction. Diagnosis is made on the basis of history, physical examination, and findings of vascular imaging. Management is with revascularization Revascularization Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease)
  • Phlegmasia: rare complication of acute deep vein thrombosis Deep vein thrombosis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis ( DVT DVT Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually occurs in the deep veins of the lower extremities. The affected veins include the femoral, popliteal, iliofemoral, and pelvic veins. Proximal DVT is more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism (PE) and is generally considered more serious. Deep Vein Thrombosis) characterized by increased venous pressure resulting in decreased tissue perfusion. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with extremity edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema, cyanosis Cyanosis A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule. Pulmonary Examination, and severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways. The condition may progress to gangrene Gangrene Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. Small Bowel Obstruction. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical examination and Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) findings that show extensive thrombus in the deep venous system. Management is variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables and includes conservative treatment, an endovascular approach, or surgery.
  • Compartment syndrome Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency usually occurring secondary to trauma. The condition is marked by increased pressure within a compartment that compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space. Compartment Syndrome: emergency condition caused by increased intracompartmental pressure ( ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)) > 30 mmHg within a closed fascial space causing reduced tissue perfusion. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with paresthesia, pallor, pulselessness Pulselessness Cardiac Arrest, and severe pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways that worsens with passive stretching. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical findings. Measurement of ICP ICP Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) is defined as < 15 mm Hg, whereas pathologically increased ICP is any pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg. Increased ICP may result from several etiologies, including trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, mass lesions, cerebral edema, increased CSF production, and decreased CSF absorption. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) is not necessary. Radiographs should be obtained if a fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures is suspected. Management involves immediate surgical fasciotomy Fasciotomy Surgical incision on the fascia. It is used to decompress compartment pressure (e.g. in compartment syndromes; circumferential burns and extremity injuries) or to release contractures (e.g. in dupuytren’s contracture). Compartment Syndrome

References

  1. Obara, H., Matsubara, K., Kitagawa, Y. (2018). Acute limb ischemia. Annals of Vascular Diseases 11:443–448. https://doi.org/10.3400/avd.ra.18-00074
  2. Sarwar, S., Narra, S., Munir, A. (2009). Phlegmasia cerulea dolens. Texas Heart Institute Journal 36:76–77. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19436795/
  3. Cevik, Y., Kavalci, C. (2010). Hair tourniquet syndrome. Annals of Saudi Medicine 30(5):416–417. https://doi.org/10.4103/0256-4947.67088
  4. Callum, K., Bradbury, A. (2000). ABC of arterial and venous disease: Acute limb ischaemia. BMJ 320:764–767. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7237.764
  5. Norgren, L., et al. (2007). Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). Journal of Vascular Surgery 45(Suppl S):S5–S67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2006.12.037

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